Base Resolution Analysis of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in the Mammalian Genome
ABSTRACT: The study of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosines (5hmC), the sixth base of the mammalian genome, as an epigenetic mark has been hampered by a lack of method to map it at single-base resolution. Previous affinity purification-based methods could not precisely locate 5hmC nor accurately determine its relative abundance at each modified site. We here present a genome-wide approach for mapping 5hmC at base resolution. Application of this new method to the embryonic stem cells not only confirms widespread distribution of 5hmC in mammalian genome, but also reveals a strong sequence bias and strand asymmetry at sites of 5hmC. Additionally, the relative abundance of 5hmC varies significantly depending on the types of functional sequences, suggesting different mechanisms for 5hmC deposition and maintenance. Furthermore, we observe high levels of 5hmC and reciprocally low levels of 5mC at transcription factor binding sites, revealing a dynamic DNA methylation process at cis-regulatory elements. Base resolution sequencing of 5 hydroxymethylcytosine in human and mouse embryonic stem cells
Project description:Cytosine methylation of DNA is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism from plants to animals with crucial roles in gene regulation. However, the variation between methylomes of normal tissues is largely unexplored. To better understand the epigenetic variation of a normal individual, we profiled DNA methylation using whole genome bisulfite sequencing in 17 tissues isolated from an individual mouse. We observed a unique distribution of CpG methylation for each tissue, which cluster based on cell lineage. Global analysis identified only one-eighth of the genome as tissue-specifically methylated. Remarkably, the vast majority of these regions exhibit hallmarks of cis-regulatory activity. Our results also reveal a novel class of dormant enhancers in adult tissues which retain an epigenetic memory of regulatory elements active during development. Together, these results expand the repertoire of regulatory information encoded within the methylome, and suggest mapping it as an alternative method to identify cell-type specific regulatory elements. whole genome bisulfite sequencing of mouse adult tissue
Project description:During mammalian development DNA methylation patterns need to be reset in primordial germ cells (PGC) and preimplantation embryos. However, many retro-transposons and imprinted genes are resistant to such global epigenetic reprogramming via hitherto undefined mechanisms. Here, we report that some of these sequences are immune to widespread erasure of DNA methylation in the mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking de novo DNA methyltransferases. Persistence of DNA methylation at these loci in mESCs depends on the histone H3K9 methyltransferase Setdb1, as deletion of Setdb1 results in reduction of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation levels concomitant with an increase in 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC). In addition, depletion of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a leads to genome-wide reduction of DNA methylation but to a lesser extent at the above sequences. Taken together, these data reveal that Setdb1 ensures the fidelity of DNA methylation at specific loci in mESCs, which may reflect mechanisms functioning in vivo during key developmental stages. Examination of genome-wide DNA methylation status in 2 cell types.
Project description:During mammalian development DNA methylation patterns need to be reset in primordial germ cells (PGC) and preimplantation embryos. However, many retro-transposons and imprinted genes are resistant to such global epigenetic reprogramming via hitherto undefined mechanisms. Here, we report that some of these sequences are immune to widespread erasure of DNA methylation in the mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking de novo DNA methyltransferases. Persistence of DNA methylation at these loci in mESCs depends on the histone H3K9 methyltransferase Setdb1, as deletion of Setdb1 results in reduction of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation levels concomitant with an increase in 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC). In addition, depletion of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a leads to genome-wide reduction of DNA methylation but to a lesser extent at the above sequences. Taken together, these data reveal that Setdb1 ensures the fidelity of DNA methylation at specific loci in mESCs, which may reflect mechanisms functioning in vivo during key developmental stages. Examination of genome-wide DNA methylation status in 3 cell types.
Project description:While genetic mutation is a hallmark of cancer, many cancers also acquire epigenetic alterations during tumorigenesis including aberrant DNA hypermethylation of tumor suppressors as well as changes in chromatin modifications as caused by genetic mutations of the chromatin-modifying machinery. However, the extent of epigenetic alterations in cancer cells has not been fully characterized. Here, we describe the first complete methylome maps at single nucleotide resolution of a low-passage breast cancer cell line and primary human mammary epithelial cells. We find widespread DNA hypomethylation in the cancer cell, primarily at partially methylated domains (PMDs) in normal breast cells. Unexpectedly, genes within these regions are largely silenced in cancer cells. The loss of DNA methylation in these regions is accompanied by formation of repressive chromatin, with a significant fraction displaying allelic DNA methylation where one allele is DNA methylated while the other allele is occupied by histone modifications H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Our results show a mutually exclusive and complementary relationship between DNA methylation and H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. These results suggest that global DNA hypomethylation in breast cancer is tightly linked to the formation of repressive chromatin domains and gene silencing, thus identifying a potential epigenetic pathway for gene regulation in cancer cells and suggesting a possible new approach toward the development of cancer therapeutics. ChIP-methylC-Seq on H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H3K36me3 in breast cancer HCC1954. 36 cycles of sequencing on Illumina platform.
Project description:Active DNA demethylation in mammals involves TET-mediated iterative oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC)/5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and subsequent excision repair of highly oxidized cytosine bases 5-formylcytosine (5fC)/5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). However, quantitative and high-resolution analysis of active DNA demethylation activity remains challenging. Here we describe M.SssI methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing (MAB-seq), a method that directly maps 5fC/5caC at single-base resolution. Genome-wide MAB-seq allows systematic identification of 5fC/5caC in Tdg-depleted embryonic stem cells, thereby generating a base-resolution map of active DNA demethylome. A comparison of 5fC/5caC and 5hmC distribution maps indicates that catalytic processivity of TET enzymes correlates with local chromatin accessibility. MAB-seq also reveals strong strand asymmetry of active demethylation within palindromic CpGs. Integrating MAB-seq with other base-resolution mapping methods enables quantitative measurement of cytosine modification states at key transitioning steps of active demethylation pathway, and reveals a regulatory role of 5fC/5caC excision repair in active DNA demethylation cascade. Analysis of 5fC/5caC excision repair-dependent active DNA demethylome by MAB-seq in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Project description:5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC) is particularly abundant in mammalian brain with little-known functions. Here we present the first genome-wide and single-base-resolution maps of 5hmC and 5mC in human brain by combined application of TAB-Seq and MethylC-Seq. We report that the majority of modified cytosines are hydroxymethylated in adult human brain, a significant proportion of which are highly-hydroxymethylated with enrichment in active genic regions and distal-regulatory elements. 5hmC is more enriched in poised than active enhancers, and CpG island shores and enhancers show comparable 5hmC profiles. Notably, 5hmC spikes were identified at the 5’ splicing sites, suggesting a link between 5hmC and splicing. Additionally, we identified a transcription-correlated 5hmC bias towards to sense strand and a 5mC bias towards antisense strand of gene bodies, and a bias towards C-rich sequences surrounding the 5hmC sites. Our data imply multiple roles for 5hmC in alternative splicing and gene regulation in addition to be an intermediate of DNA demethylation in human brain. Examination of hydroxymethylomes of 1 adult and 1 fetal brain tissue of frontal lobe, as well as 1 methylome of the same adult.
Project description:In mammals, cytosine methylation (5mC) is widely distributed throughout the genome but is notably depleted from active promoters and enhancers. While the role of DNA methylation in promoter silencing has been well documented, the function of this epigenetic mark at enhancers remains unclear. Recent experiments have demonstrated that enhancers are enriched for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidization product of the Tet family of 5mC dioxygenases and an intermediate of DNA demethylation. These results support the involvement of Tet proteins in the regulation of dynamic DNA methylation at enhancers. By mapping DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at base resolution, we find that deletion of Tet2 causes extensive loss of 5hmC at enhancers, accompanied by enhancer hypermethylation, reduction of enhancer activity, and delayed gene induction in the early steps of differentiation. Our results reveal that DNA demethylation modulates enhancer activity, and its disruption influences the timing of transcriptome reprogramming during cellular differentiation. We performed traditional bisulfite sequencing, TAB-Seq, RNA-Seq, and ChIP-Seq for 6 histone modifications in two biological replicates of wild-type, Tet1-/-, and Tet2-/- mouse ES cells. We also performed RNA-Seq analysis during a timecourse of differentiation to neural progenitor cells.
Project description:5-methylcytosine (5mC), the predominant epigenetic modification on DNA, plays critical roles in mammalian development and is dysregulated in various human pathologies. In mammals, the TET family of dioxygenases can oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in a stepwise manner. 5fC and 5caC are selectively recognized and excised by mammalian thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), and restored to normal cytosine through base excision repair (BER). Once 5mC/5hmC is converted to 5fC and/or 5caC, the modified cytosine is committed to demethylation through BER. Thus 5fC and 5caC most likely mark active demethylation in the mammalian genome. Here we introduce a genome-wide approach to obtain single-base resolution maps of 5fC and 5caC, respectively. We show that, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), 5fC and 5caC are preferentially generated at highly hypomethylated regions and more active enhancers. Moreover, 5caC-marked regions are characterized by the lowest methylation and highest enhancer activity among all modification sites associated with 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC, and are enriched adjacent to pluripotency transcription factor (TF)-binding motifs. These observations, together with the surprising lack of overlap between 5fC and 5caC sites, highlight a gradient of Tet-mediated 5mC oxidation activity at regulatory elements in tuning epigenetic dynamics11. DNA immunoprecipitation coupled chemical-modification assisted bisulfite sequencing (DIP-CAB-Seq) for Tdg fl/fl and Tdg-/- mESCs
Project description:5-methylcytosine is a major epigenetic modification sometimes called "the fifth nucleotide". However, our knowledge of how offspring inherit the DNA methylome from parents is limited. We generated nine single-base resolution DNA methylomes including zebrafish gametes and early embryos. The oocyte methylome is significantly hypo-methylated compared to sperm. Strikingly, the paternal DNA methylation pattern is maintained throughout early embryogenesis. The maternal DNA methylation pattern is maintained until the 16-cell stage. Then, the oocyte methylome is gradually discarded through cell division, and progressively reprogrammed to a pattern similar to that of the sperm methylome. The passive demethylation rate and the de novo methylation rate are similar in the maternal DNA. By the midblastula stage, the embryo?s methylome is virtually identical to the sperm methylome. Moreover, inheritance of the sperm methylome facilitates the epigenetic regulation of embryogenesis. Therefore, besides DNA sequences, sperm DNA methylome is also inherited in zebrafish early embryos. hMeDIP-seq is performed in sperm,2-cell,16-cell,1k-cell and a input control sample 4 new samples are added to GSE44075. RNA-seq is performed in sperm, egg,1k-cell, germring samples .hMeDIP-seq is performed in sperm,2-cell,16-cell,1k-cell and a input control sample 10 new samples are added to GSE44075. Bisulfite-seq is performed for nine samples : sperm, egg,16-cell,32-cell,64-cell,128-cell,1k-cell , Germring and testis. TAB-seq is performed for one sample , 32-cell.
Project description:5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), converted from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet enzymes, has recently drawn attention as the ‘sixth base’ of DNA since it is considered to be an intermediate of the demethylation pathway. Nonetheless, it remains to be addressed how 5hmC is linked to the development of human imprinting disorders. In this regard, conventional bisulfite (BS) treatment is unable to differentiate 5hmC from 5mC. It is thus hypothesized that BS conversion-derived ‘hypermethylation’ at imprinting control regions (ICRs), which may cause human imprinting disorders, would in fact be attributable to excessively increased levels of 5hmC as well as 5mC. To test this hypothesis, we applied the newly developed oxidative BS (oxBS) treatment to detect 5hmC in blood samples from Kagami-Ogata syndrome (KOS14) patients caused by perturbed expression of clustered imprinted genes on 14q32.2 resulting from the hypermethylation of ICRs at this locus, IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR. oxBS with pyrosequencing and cloning-based sequencing revealed that there were few amounts of 5hmC at the hypermethylated IG-DMR in blood samples from KOS14 patients. oxBS with genome-wide methylation array analysis demonstrated that global levels of 5hmC were very low with similar distribution patterns in blood samples from KOS14 patients and normal controls. We also confirmed the presence of a large amount of 5hmC in the brain sample from a normal control. 5hmC is not a major component in abnormally hypermethylated ICRs or at a global level, at least in blood from KOS14 patients. As the brain sample contained a large amount of 5hmC, the neural tissues of KOS14 patients are promising candidates for analysis in elucidating the role of 5hmC in the neurodevelopmental context. We generated illumina 450k DNA methylation data for BS or oxBS converted samples of three KOS14 blood samples, one control pooled blood sample and one control brain sample with two technical replicates for each sample.