ABSTRACT: Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an important herpesvirus pathogen of waterfowl associated with an acute, highly contagious lethal disease. Using a deep sequencing approach on RNA from infected chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures, we determined the global changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles during DEV infection. In addition to the changes in the expression of a number of host miRNAs as a result of DEV infection, we identified several novel DEV-encoded miRNAs. Unlike most Mardivirus-encoded miRNAs, the majority of the DEV miRNAs were encoded within the unique long region of the viral genome. The precursors of DEV miR-D18 and miR-D19 overlapped with each other suggesting similarities to miRNA-offset RNAs, although only the DEV-miR-D18-3p was functional in reporter assays. Identification of these novel miRNAs will add to the growing list of virus-encoded miRNAs enabling the exploration of their roles in pathogenesis. Each microRNA is spotted on the array 6 times. We compared expression of duck enteritis virus (DEV)-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) with CEF control.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV) belongs to the family Herpesviridae and is an important epornitic agent that causes economic losses in the waterfowl industry. The Chinese virulent (CHv) and attenuate vaccines (VAC) are two different pathogenic DEV strains. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in viral infection. Nonetheless, there is little information on virulent duck enteritis virus (DEV)-encoded miRNAs.Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified 39 mature viral miRNAs from CHv-infected duck embryo fibroblasts cells. Compared with the reported 33 VAC-encoded miRNAs, only 13 miRNA sequences and 22 "seed sequences" of miRNA were identical, and 8 novel viral miRNAs were detected and confirmed by stem-loop RT-qPCR in this study. Using RNAhybrid and PITA software, 38 CHv-encoded miRNAs were predicted to target 41 viral genes and formed a complex regulatory network. Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA) confirmed that viral dev-miR-D8-3p can directly target the 3'-UTR of CHv US1 gene (p < 0.05). Gene Ontology analysis on host target genes of viral miRNAs were mainly involved in biological regulation, cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, 598 novel duck-encoded miRNAs were detected in this study. Thirty-eight host miRNAs showed significant differential expression after CHv infection: 13 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 25 miRNAs were down-regulated, which may affect viral replication in the host cell.These data suggested that CHv encoded a different set of microRNAs and formed a unique regulatory network compared with VAC. This is the first report of DEF miRNAs expression profile and an analysis of these miRNAs regulatory mechanisms during DEV infection. These data provide a basis for further exploring miRNA regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of DEV infection and contribute to the understanding of the CHv-host interaction at the miRNA level.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. RESULTS: DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. CONCLUSIONS: DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and most similar to the genus Mardivirus. The UL15 and/or UL15.5 accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm during early times post-infection and then are translocated to the nucleus at late times.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis, which causes an acute, contagious and lethal disease of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. In recent years, two laboratories have reported on the successful construction of DEV infectious clones in viral vectors to express exogenous genes. The clones obtained were either created with deletion of viral genes and based on highly virulent strains or were constructed using a traditional overlapping fosmid DNA system. Here, we report the construction of a full-length infectious clone of DEV vaccine strain that was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). METHODS: A mini-F vector as a BAC that allows the maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli was introduced into the intergenic region between UL15B and UL18 of a DEV vaccine strain by homologous recombination in chicken embryoblasts (CEFs). Then, the full-length DEV clone pDEV-vac was obtained by electroporating circular viral replication intermediates containing the mini-F sequence into E. coli DH10B and identified by enzyme digestion and sequencing. The infectivity of the pDEV-vac was validated by DEV reconstitution from CEFs transfected with pDEV-vac. The reconstructed virus without mini-F vector sequence was also rescued by co-transfecting the Cre recombinase expression plasmid pCAGGS-NLS/Cre and pDEV-vac into CEF cultures. Finally, the in vitro growth properties and immunoprotection capacity in ducks of the reconstructed viruses were also determined and compared with the parental virus. RESULTS: The full genome of the DEV vaccine strain was successfully cloned into the BAC, and this BAC clone was infectious. The in vitro growth properties of these reconstructions were very similar to parental DEV, and ducks immunized with these viruses acquired protection against virulent DEV challenge. CONCLUSIONS: DEV vaccine virus was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome maintaining full-length genome without any deletions or destruction of the viral coding sequence, and the viruses rescued from the DEV-BAC clone exhibited wild-type phenotypes both in vitro and in vivo. The generated infectious clone will greatly facilitate studies on the individual genes of DEV and applications in gene deletion or live vector vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection cell. However, whehter or not the miR-30a-5p is involved in DEV infection has not been known. METHODS:Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of miRNAs(miR-30a-5p) and Beclin-1 mRNA. The miR-30a-5p - Beclin-1 target interactions were determined by Dual luciferase reporter assay (DLRA). Western blotting was utilized to analyze Beclin-1-mediated duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells autophagy activity. DEV titers were estimated by the median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). RESULTS:The miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated and the Beclin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in DEV-infected DEF cells. DLRA confirmed that miR-30a-5p directly targeted the 3'- UTR of the Beclin-1 gene. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p significantly reduced the expression level of Beclin-1protein (p?<?0.05), leading to the decrease of Beclin-1-mediated autophagy activity, which ultimately suppressed DEV replication (P?<?0.05). Whereas transfection of miR-30a-5p inhibitor increased Beclin-1-mediated autophagy and triggered DEV replication during the whole process of DEV infection (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that miR-30a-5p can inhibit DEV replication through reducing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1. These findings suggest a new insight into virus-host interaction during DEV infection and provide a potential new antiviral therapeutic strategy against DEV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The results of our previous study showed that impaired cellular energy metabolism contributes to duck enteritis virus-induced autophagy via the 5`-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. However, it remains unknown whether any other underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation are involved in autophagy induction. METHODS:The activity of CaMKKβ and AMPK in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory activity of CaMKKβ on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. In addtion to, the cytosolic calcium level in DEF cells infected with DEV were evaluated.The Effect of inhibitory cytosolic calcium level on DEV-induced autophagy was investigated. RESULTS:In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV) infection activated CaMKKβ and its substrate molecule AMPK at 36, 48, and 60 h post-infection (hpi). STO-609, a CaMKKβ inhibitor, or CaMKKβ siRNA significantly inhibited the activation of DEV to AMPK, LC3I to LC3II transformation, and GFP-LC3 puncta distribution. In addition, inhibition of CaMKKβ activity also significantly reduced progeny DEV titer and gB protein expression. Besides, cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) was higher in DEV-infected cells than mock controls at 36, 48, and 60 hpi, respectively. Treatment of DEV-infected cells with 1,2-Bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N', N-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ ion concentrations, as well as CaMKKβ and AMPK activities, and subsequent autophagy, in addition to viral protein synthesis and viral titer. CONCLUSIONS:These results showed that elevated [Ca2+]cyto-mediated activation of CaMKKβ managed the activation of AMPK, which then positively regulated autophagy, thereby providing further insight into DEV-host interactions.
Project description:Here, we present the complete genome sequence of an attenuated duck enteritis virus (DEV) obtained by serial chicken embryo passage. Compared with a virulent DEV, there is a serial deletion in unique long open reading frame 11 (LORF11) and unique long region 2 (UL2). This study will aid in further exploration of the molecular pathogenesis of DEV.
Project description:The icosahedral virion of duck enteritis virus (DEV) is roughly spherical and approximately 150 nm in diameter. Here, we describe the genomic features of DEV CHv together with a draft genome sequence and its annotation, highlighting the homogeneity and heterogeneity of this genome in comparison with its reference genomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) has become the benchmark for detection and quantification of target gene expression level and been utilized increasingly in detection of viral load and therapy monitoring. The dynamic transcription variation of duck enteritis virus UL55 gene during the life cycle of duck enteritis virus in infected cells has not been reported yet. RESULTS: The newly identified duck enteritis virus UL55 gene was amplified and cloned into pMD18-T vector after digestion to generate a recombinant plasmid pMD18-T/UL55 for the establishment of qRT-PCR as standard DNA. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis and melting curve analysis demonstrated the primers we designed for qRT-PCR were specific and available. We used β-actin as a reference gene for normalization and established two standard curves based on pMD18-T/UL55 and pMD18-T/β-actin successfully. Based on that, the transcriptional analysis of DEV UL55 gene was performed, and the result suggested the expression of UL55 mRNA was at a low level from 0 to 8 h post-infection(p.i.), then accumulated quickly since 12 h p.i. and peaked at 36 h p.i., it can be detected till 60 h p.i.. Nucleic acid inhibition test was carried out for analyzing a temporal regulation condition of DEV UL55 gene, result revealed that it was sensitive to ganciclovir. Synthesis procedures of DEV UL55 gene can be inhibited by ganciclovir. CONCLUSIONS: The method we established in this paper can provide quantitative values reflecting the amounts of measured mRNA in samples. It's available for detection and quantification, also can be used in DEV diagnosis. The DEV UL55 gene was produced most abundantly during the late phase of replication in DEV-infected cells and the transcription of it depended on the synthesized DNA. DEV UL55 gene is a γ2 gene which occurs last and have a strict requirement for viral DNA synthesis.
Project description:The duplicate US1 genes of duck enteritis virus (DEV) encode a protein with a conserved Herpes_IE68 domain, which was found to be closely related to the herpes virus immediate early regulatory protein family and is highly conserved among counterparts encoded by Herpes_IE68 genes. Previous studies found the homologous proteins HSV-1 ICP22 and VZV ORF63/ORF70 to be critical for virus transcription and replication. However, little is known about the DEV ICP22 protein. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of this protein based on pharmacological experiments, real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. We also investigate the role of the protein in DEV replication via mutation of US1. As a result, we found that the DEV ICP22 protein is a non-essential immediate early protein predominantly located in the nucleus of infected DEF cells and that DEV replication is impaired by US1 deletion. We also found that ICP22 contains a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) at 305-312AA, and ICP22 cannot enter the nucleus by itself after mutating residue 309.
Project description:Lethal Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV) infection can cause high morbidity and mortality of many species of waterfowl within the order Anseriformes. However, little is known about the function of viral genes including the conserved UL55 gene among alpha herpes virus due to the obstacles in maintenance and manipulation of DEV genome in host cells.In this paper, we constructed an infectious bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the lethal clinical isolate duck enteritis virus Chinese virulent strain (DEV CHv) by inserting a transfer vector containing BAC mini-F sequence and selection marker EGFP into UL23 gene using homologous recombination. UL55 deletion and its revertant mutant were generated by two-step RED recombination in E. coli on basis of rescued recombinant virus. The function of UL55 gene in DEV replication and its effect on distribution of UL26.5 protein were carried out by growth characteristics and co-localization analysis.The complete genome of DEV CHv can be stably maintained in E. coli as a BAC clone and reconstituted again in DEF cells. The generated UL55 deletion mutant based on DEV CHv-BAC-G displayed similar growth curves, plaque morphology and virus titer of its parental virus in infected Duck Embryo Fibroblast (DEF) cells. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the loss of UL55 gene do not affect the distribution of UL26.5 protein in intracellular. These data also suggest infectious BAC clone of DEV CHv will facilitate the gene function studies of DEV genome.We have successfully developed an infectious BAC clone of lethal clinical isolate DEV CHv for the first time. The generated UL55 gene mutant based on that demonstrated this platform would be a very useful tool for functional study of DEV genes. We found the least known DEV UL55 is dispensable for virus replication and UL26.5 distribution, and it could be a very promise candidate locus for developing bivalent vaccine. Experiment are now in progress for testifying the possibility of UL55 gene locus as an exogenous gene insertion site for developing DEV vectored vaccine.