Expression Data from International C.elegans Experiment 1st
ABSTRACT: The effect of microgravity on gene expression in C.elegans was comprehensively analysed by DNA microarray. This is the first DNA microarray analysis for C.elegans grown under microgravity. Hyper gravity and clinorotation experiments were performed as reference against the flight experiment. Total RNA was extracted from 100,000 worms of each experimental group
Project description:The effect of microgravity on gene expression in C.elegans was comprehensively analysed by DNA microarray (Agilent). Overall design: Mix staged C. elegans N2 was exposed microgravity for 10 days.
Project description:Microorganisms perform countless tasks on Earth and they are expected to be essential for human space exploration. Despite the interest in the responses of bacteria to space conditions, the findings on the effects of microgravity have been contradictory, while the effects of Martian gravity are nearly unknown. We performed the ESA BioRock experiment on the International Space Station to study microbe-mineral interactions in microgravity, simulated Mars gravity and simulated Earth gravity, as well as in ground gravity controls, with three bacterial species: Sphingomonas desiccabilis, Bacillus subtilis, and Cupriavidus metallidurans. To our knowledge, this was the first experiment to study simulated Martian gravity on bacteria using a space platform. Here, we tested the hypothesis that different gravity regimens can influence the final cell concentrations achieved after a multi-week period in space. Despite the different sedimentation rates predicted, we found no significant differences in final cell counts and optical densities between the three gravity regimens on the ISS. This suggests that possible gravity-related effects on bacterial growth were overcome by the end of the experiment. The results indicate that microbial-supported bioproduction and life support systems can be effectively performed in space (e.g., Mars), as on Earth.
Project description:Analysis of the transcriptional response to viral infection in C.elegans. Comparison of infected and uninfected animals for three strains: N2 (resistant), JU1580 (sensitive), RDE-1 (sensitive)
Project description:Gravity has an important role in both the development and maintenance of bone mass. This is most evident in the rapid and intense bone loss observed in both humans and animals exposed to extended periods of microgravity in spaceflight. Here, cohabitating 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice resided in spaceflight for ~4 weeks. A skeletal survey of these mice was compared to both habitat matched ground controls to determine the effects of microgravity and baseline samples in order to determine the effects of skeletal maturation on the resulting phenotype. We hypothesized that weight-bearing bones would experience an accelerated loss of bone mass compared to non-weight-bearing bones, and that spaceflight would also inhibit skeletal maturation in male mice. As expected, spaceflight had major negative effects on trabecular bone mass of the following weight-bearing bones: femur, tibia, and vertebrae. Interestingly, as opposed to the bone loss traditionally characterized for most weight-bearing skeletal compartments, the effects of spaceflight on the ribs and sternum resembled a failure to accumulate bone mass. Our study further adds to the insight that gravity has site-specific influences on the skeleton.
Project description:To realize long-term manned space missions, e.g. to Mars, some important questions about pharmacology under conditions of different gravity will have to be answered to ensure safe usage of pharmaceuticals. Experiments on the International Space Station showed that the pharmacokinetics of drugs are changed in microgravity. On Earth, it is well known that the incorporation of substances into cellular membranes depends on membrane fluidity, therefore the finding that membrane fluidity is gravity dependent possibly has effects on pharmacodynamics of hydrophobic and amphiphilic substances in microgravity. To validate a possible effect of gravity on pharmacodynamics, experiments have been carried out to investigate the incorporation of lidocaine into plain lipid membranes under microgravity conditions. In microgravity, the induced increase in membrane fluidity associated with lidocaine incorporation is smaller compared to 1<i>g</i> controls. This experiment concerning the gravity dependence of pharmacodynamics in real microgravity clearly shows that the incorporation of amphipathic drugs into membranes is changed in microgravity. This might have significant impact on the pharmacology of drugs during long-term space missions and has to be investigated in more detail to be able to assess possible risks.
Project description:In the last decades, a plethora of in vitro studies with living human cells contributed a vast amount of knowledge about cellular and molecular effects of microgravity. Previous studies focused mostly on the identification of gravity-responsive genes, whereas a multi-platform analysis at an integrative level, which specifically evaluates the extent and robustness of transcriptional response to an altered gravity environment was not performed so far. Therefore, we investigated the stability of gene expression response in non-activated human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells in different gravity environments through the combination of parabolic flights with a suborbital ballistic rocket and 2D clinostat and centrifuge experiments, using strict controls for excluding all possible other factors of influence. We revealed an overall high stability of gene expression in microgravity and identified olfactory gene expression in the chromosomal region 11p15.4 as particularly robust to altered gravity. We identified that classical reference genes ABCA5, GAPDH, HPRT1, PLA2G4A, and RPL13A were stably expressed in all tested gravity conditions and platforms, while ABCA5 and GAPDH were also known to be stably expressed in U937 cells in all gravity conditions. In summary, 10-20% of all transcripts remained totally unchanged in any gravitational environment tested (between 10-4 and 9?g), 20-40% remained unchanged in microgravity (between 10-4 and 10-2?g) and 97-99% were not significantly altered in microgravity if strict exclusion criteria were applied. Therefore, we suppose a high stability of gene expression in microgravity. Comparison with other stressors suggests that microgravity alters gene expression homeostasis not stronger than other environmental factors.
Project description:On Earth, biological systems have evolved in response to environmental stressors, interactions dictated by physical forces that include gravity. The absence of gravity is an extreme stressor and the impact of its absence on biological systems is ill-defined. Astronauts who have spent extended time under conditions of minimal gravity (microgravity) experience an array of biological alterations, including perturbations in cardiovascular function. We hypothesized that physiological perturbations in cardiac function in microgravity may be a consequence of alterations in molecular and organellar dynamics within the cellular milieu of cardiomyocytes. We used a combination of mass spectrometry-based approaches to compare the relative abundance and turnover rates of 848 and 196 proteins, respectively, in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes exposed to simulated microgravity or normal gravity. Gene functional enrichment analysis of these data suggested that the protein content and function of the mitochondria, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum were differentially modulated in microgravity. We confirmed experimentally that in microgravity protein synthesis was decreased while apoptosis, cell viability, and protein degradation were largely unaffected. These data support our conclusion that in microgravity cardiomyocytes attempt to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis at the expense of protein synthesis. The overall response to this stress may culminate in cardiac muscle atrophy.
Project description:Presenilins are part of a protease complex that is responsible for the intramembraneous cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein involved in Alzheimer's disease and of Notch receptors. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in the presenilin sel-12 result in a highly penetrant egg-laying defect. spr-5 was identified as an extragenic suppressor of the sel-12 mutant phenotype. The SPR-5 protein has similarity to the human polyamine oxidase-like protein encoded by KIAA0601 that is part of the HDAC-CoREST co-repressor complex. Suppression of sel-12 by spr-5 requires the activity of HOP-1, the second somatic presenilin in C.elegans. spr-5 mutants derepress hop-1 expression 20- to 30-fold in the early larval stages when hop-1 normally is almost undetectable. SPR-1, a C.elegans homologue of CoREST, physically interacts with SPR-5. Moreover, down-regulation of SPR-1 by mutation or RNA interference also bypasses the need for sel-12. These data strongly suggest that SPR-5 and SPR-1 are part of a CoREST-like co-repressor complex in C.elegans. This complex might be recruited to the hop-1 locus controlling its expression during development.