Transcriptomics of rapid cold-hardening and cold shock recovery in Sarcophaga bullata
ABSTRACT: The ability to rapidly respond to changes in temperature is critical for insects and other ectotherms living in variable environments. In a physiological process termed rapid cold-hardening (RCH), exposure to non-lethal low temperature allows many insects to significantly increase their cold tolerance in a matter of minutes to hours. Additionally, there are rapid changes in gene expression and cell physiology during recovery from cold injury, and we hypothesize that RCH may modulate some of these processes during recovery. In this study, we used a cDNA microarray to examine the molecular mechanisms of RCH and cold shock (CS) recovery in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata. With our custom 2-color array, we measured expression of ~15,000 ESTs during RCH and during recovery from cold shock. Surprisingly, no transcripts were upregulated during RCH, and likewise, RCH had a minimal effect on the transcript signature during recovery from cold shock. However, during recovery from cold shock, we observed differential expression of ~1,400 ESTs, including a number of heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal components, and genes from several cell signaling pathways. Several gene pathways correlated well with metabolomics data, indicating that coordinated changes in gene expression and metabolism contribute to recovery from cold shock. Four treatment groups (C, RCH, CS+2R, RCH+CS+2R), four biological replicates of four pooled individuals for each treatment. Each phenotype was hybridized with the control, and the CS+2R and RCH+CS+2R groups were also hybridized together.
Project description:Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environmental conditions. After undergoing cold acclimation, plants become more tolerant to cold stress. In order to understand the mechanism of cold acclimation, we performed a systematic, comprehensive study of cold response and acclimation in Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a staple crop and major food source in the tropical regions of the world. We profiled mRNA genes and small-RNA species, using next generation sequencing, and performed an integrative analysis of the transcriptome and microRNAome of Cassava across the normal condition, a moderate cold stress at 14°C, a harsh stress at 4°C after cold acclimation at 14°C, and a cold shock from 24°C to 4°C. Two results from the analysis were striking. First, the moderate stress and cold shock, despite a difference of 10°C between the two, triggered comparable degrees of perturbation to the transcriptome; in contrary, further harsh stress after cold acclimation resulted in a much smaller degree of transcriptome variation. Second and more importantly, about two thirds of the up- or down-regulated genes after moderate stress reversed their expression to down- or up-regulation, respectively, under harsh stress after cold acclimation, resulting in a genome-wide rewiring of regulatory networks. MicroRNAs, which are key post-transcriptional gene regulators, were major players in this massive rewiring of genetic circuitry. Further, a function enrichment analysis of the perturbed genes revealed that cold acclimation helped the plant to develop immunity to further harsh stress by exclusively inducing genes with functions of nutrient reservoir; in contrast, many genes with functions of viral reproduction were induced by cold shock. Our study revealed, for the first time, the molecular basis of stress acclimation in plants, and shed lights on the role of microRNA gene regulation in cold response and acclimation in Euphorbia. Three organs/tissues (folded leaf, fully expanded leaf and roots) of Cassava cultivar SC124 harvested at 6h, 24h and 5d for three cold treatments of CA, CCA and CS, for gene expression profiling at the stages of initial response, secondary response, and functional adaption to cold stresses. Total RNA of each sample was isolated individually, and then pooled with an equal amount from each sample into one for profiling. As a result, four mRNA libraries and four small-RNA libraries, corresponding to the conditions of CA, CCA, CS and NC, were constructed.
Project description:In the field, insects suffer multiple cold exposures during winter. When exposed to repeated low temperatures, Drosophila melanogaster females showed an increase in survival, but a reduction in reproduction. In this study, the microarrays were used to analyze the gene expression of female D. melanogaster after multiple, single sustained (or single prolonged) and single short cold treatments, which exposed the flies at 0 °C for repeated 2 h, single 10 h and single 2 h respectively. Candidate genes that were involved in 6 h recovery from different types of cold exposures were identified. After repeated cold exposures, candidates particularly included genes involved in muscle protein and muscle activity. Stress-related genes, Turandot A, Turandot C, and Turandot M were up-regulated in response to multiple cold exposures, and improve the cold survival in female D. melanogaster. This work also suggested a strong relationship between cold exposure and the immune system. I suggest that in fruit flies, chilling injuries after cold exposure may induce immune responses and contribute to recovery from cold.
Project description:Anterior interpositus nucleus (AIN) is a proposed site of memory formation of eyeblink conditioning. A large part of the underlying molecular events, however, remains unknown. To elucidate molecular mechanisms, we examined transcriptional changes in the AIN of mice trained with delayed-type eyeblink conditioning Experiment Overall Design: 3-d paired training group: Mice received a surgery for implanting four Teflon-coated stainless-steel wires in their left eyelid and a headstage on their head. After 3days’ recovery, they were trained with paired paradigm of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) for 3days: A 352-ms tone CS (1kHz, 83~85dB) was delivered first and a 100ms periorbital shock US (100kHz square pluses) were delivered with 252ms after the onset of CS, and they co-terminated. After the last trial was given, anterior interpositus was immediately sampled in 10 to 30 min from the sacrifice. Experiment Overall Design: Sham negative control group: Mice received a surgery for implanting four Teflon-coated stainless-steel wires in their left eyelid and a headstage on their head. After recovery, anterior interpositus nucleus-centered deep cerebellar nuclei were immediately sampled in 10 to 30 min from the sacrifice. Experiment Overall Design: ~10-15 anterior interpositus-centered deep cerebellar nuclei ipsilateral to the eye implanted with four wires were pooled into the same sham control or training group and subjected to microarray analysis.
Project description:Anterior interpositus nucleus (AIN) is a proposed site of memory formation of eyeblink conditioning. A large part of the underlying molecular events, however, remains unknown. To elucidate molecular mechanisms, we examined transcriptional changes in the AIN of mice trained with delayed-type eyeblink conditioning Experiment Overall Design: 7-d paired training group: Mice received a surgery for implanting four Teflon-coated stainless-steel wires in their left eyelid and a headstage on their head. After 3days’ recovery, they were trained with paired paradigm of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) for 7 days: A 352-ms tone CS (1kHz, 83~85dB) was delivered first and a 100ms periorbital shock US (100kHz square pluses) were delivered with 252ms after the onset of CS, and they co-terminated. In case of 7-d unpaired training group, A CS and a US were delivered in an explicitly unpaired, pseudorandomized manner for 7 days. After the last trial was given, anterior interpositus was immediately sampled in 10 to 30 min from the sacrifice.
Project description:Cold exposure leads to alteration in the structure of the male sex chromosome of the mutant strain In(1)BM2(reinverted). Genome wide expression profiling was used to identify candidate genes involved in the expression of this phenotype. Adult male flies were exposed to cold shock at 12±1°C for 4 hours and the differentially expressed genes in the strain was compared to similarly exposed wild type Oregon R males. The microarray data was further validated using real time PCR. Two-condition experiment, RT vs. CS flies. Biological replicates: 2 control replicates, 2 replicates exposed to cold shock.
Project description:Small noncoding RNA (sncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) are key gene regulators in eukaryotes, playing critical roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), which are secondary siRNAs triggered by miRNAs, and siRNAs from natural antisense transcripts (nat-siRNAs) are two well-studied classes of endo-siRNAs. In order to understand sncRNAs’ roles in plant cold response and stress acclimation, we studied miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major source of food for the world populations in tropical regions. Combining Next-Generation sequencing and computational and experimental analyses, we profiled and characterized sncRNA species and mRNA genes from the plants that experienced severe and moderate cold stresses, that underwent further severe cold stress after cold acclimation at moderate stress, and that grew under the normal condition. We also included Castor bean (Ricinus communis) to understand conservation of sncRNAs. In addition to known miRNAs, we identified dozens of novel miRNAs as well as ta-siRNA-yielding and nat-siRNA-yielding loci in Cassava and Castor bean, respectively. Among the expressed sncRNAs, many sncRNAs were differentially expressed under cold stresses. Our study provided the results on gene regulation by sncRNAs in cold acclimation of Euphorbiaceous plants and the role of sncRNA-mediated pathways affected by cold stress and stress acclimation in Cassava. Examination of small RNA populations in Cassava cultivar SC124 under the normal condition (NC), gradual cold acclimation (CA), cold shock (CS) and stress acclimation Cold stress after cold acclimation (CCA).
Project description:Cold hardening treatment, a brief exposure to low temperatures (e.g. 0°C for 2 h), can protect certain insects against subsequent exposure to temperatures sufficiently low to cause damage or lethality. Microarray analysis to examine the changes in transcript abundance associated with cold hardening has been undertaken in Drosophila melanogaster in order to gain insight into this phenomenon. Transcripts associated with 36 genes were identified, a subset of which appeared to be also differentially expressed after heat shock treatment. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to independently determine transcript abundance of a subset of these sequences. Taken together, these assays suggest that stress proteins, including Hsp23, Hsp26, Hsp83 and Frost as well as membrane-associated proteins may contribute to the cold hardening response. Co-reared flies were separated into a control group and a treatment group at random. RNA was isolated from the cold-shocked flies and the respective controls and was used for direct comparisons on cDNA microarrays. Treatments were not varied as they had been optimized in previous studies. A pilot experiment was performed using the Drosophila 7k2 array (GPL311) and subsequently three pairs of independent biological samples were evaluated with the Drosophila 12k1 array (GPL1467).
Project description:We utilized a candidate gene approach using custom microarray constructed for our study species Drosophila montana and D. virilis to identify genes with modulated expression patterns under low temperature conditions. The flies were exposed to four different treatments (+5°C for 6 days, 0°C for 1 hour, two periods of recovery after cold stress and a control treatment). The aim of the study was to identify potential cold-responsive genes and to investigate differences in gene expression between the species. Microarray analysis revealed altogether 31 out of 219 genes on the array to show expression changes during different stages of cold stress. Among the potential stress tolerance genes detected earlier in D. melanogaster, hsr-omega was upregulated in both species during cold acclimation, expression changes in other genes being treatment- and species specific. Our microarray study clearly showed that different stages of cold response elicit changes at least in genes involved in heat shock response, circadian rhythm and metabolism. Cold- induced gene expression was investigated comparing four different treatments to the control treatment: 1) Cold acclimation: 14 days in control conditions, then 6 days at +5°C 2) Cold hardening: 20 days in control conditions, then1 hour at 0°C 3) 15-min recovery from chill coma: the 20-day-old flies were exposed to -6°C for 16 hours, after which they were let to recover for 15 minutes 4) 1-hour recovery from chill coma: the 20-day-old flies were exposed to -6°C for 16 hours, after which they were let to recover for 1 hour. In control treatment flies were kept for 20 days at 19°C. All the flies were 20-days old at the time of sample collection, and the light:dark cycle was 22 hours of light and 2 hours of dark. Because of the limited space on the array plate, the recovery samples were collected only for D. montana. All the samples were collected 5-6 hours after the lights had been turned on in the chamber and the flies were immediately immersed in liquid nitrogen, after which they were stored at -84ºC. Three pools of ten flies were collected from each treatment group.
Project description:Cigarette smoke (CS) imposes a strong oxidative burden on exposed tissues resulting in a severely disturbed oxidant/antioxidant balance, which in the context of chronic exposure is assumed to be a key contributor to CS-related diseases. Because of its emerging central role in orchestrating the general cellular antioxidant response, the pathway leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 has received mounting attention over the past decade in investigations aimed at elucidating CS-induced patho-physiological mechanisms. To comprehensively characterize the impact of Nrf2 in acute and sub-chronic smoking scenarios, Nrf2 knock-out mice and their wildtype ICR littermates were exposed to either ambient air (sham exposure) or to one of three doses of CS for up to 5 months with two post-exposure endpoints of 1 and 13 days. The lungs of the mice were monitored for transcriptomic changes on a genome-wide level. 110 samples from 28 different groups are analyzed. For each group there are 4 replicates, besides two groups with only 3 replicates. Group parameteres are: genotype (WT, KN), treatment (sham, smoke), dosage of smoke treatment (low, medium, high), time of smoke treatment (1 day, 2 month, 5 month, 5 month + 1 day recovery, 5 month + 13 days recovery)
Project description:Transcriptome analysis may provide means to investigate the underlying genetic causes of shared and divergent phenotypes in different populations and help to identify potential targets of adaptive evolution. Applying RNA sequencing to whole male Drosophila melanogaster from the ancestral tropical African environment and a very recently colonized cold-temperate European environment at both standard laboratory conditions and following a cold shock, we seek to uncover the transcriptional basis of cold adaptation. In both the ancestral and the derived populations, the predominant characteristic of the cold shock response is the swift and massive upregulation of heat shock proteins and other chaperones. Although we find ~30% of the genome to be differentially expressed following a cold shock, only relatively few genes (n=26) are up- or down-regulated in a population-specific way. Intriguingly, 24 of these 26 genes show a greater degree of differential expression in the African population. Likewise, there is an excess of genes with particularly strong cold-induced changes in expression in Africa on a genome-wide scale. The analysis of the transcriptional cold shock response most prominently reveals an upregulation of components of a general stress response, which is conserved over many taxa and triggered by a plethora of stressors. Despite the overall response being fairly similar in both populations, there is a definite excess of genes with a strong cold-induced fold-change in Africa. This is consistent with a detrimental deregulation or an overshooting stress response. Thus, the canalization of European gene expression might be responsible for the increased cold tolerance of European flies. Overall design: mRNA profiles of whole Drosophila melanogaster adult males from a Africa (4 lines) and Europe (4 lines) during a 7h cold shock experiment. Samples include room temperature controls, 3.5h into the cold shock, 15 minutes after recovery and 90 minutes after recovery. 2 biological replicates each.