Up-regulation of prolactin receptor in the proximal tubular cells in cardio-renal syndrome model mice
ABSTRACT: The precise physiological mechanisms of cardio-renal syndrome are yet to be elucidated. In order to investigate the molecular basis of cardio-renal syndrome, we established a mouse model for cardio-renal syndrome by the combination of abdominal aortic banding and uninephrectomy. Renal function of the cardio-renal syndrome mice was synergistically decreased compared with that of mice that underwent uninephrectomy alone. To investigate the molecules involved in the deterioration renal function in the AbNx mice, we conducted comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA array by comparing the molecules expressed in the remained kidney of AbNx mice with those of Nx mice. We conducted abdominal aorta banding or sham operation at 0 week, then We conducted uninephrectomy or sham operation at 2 week. We removed these kidney 6week after the uninephrectomy. These RNA samples were purified from the homogenized kidneys.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension is a frequent consequence of left heart disease and congestive heart failure (CHF) and causes extensive lung vascular remodelling which leads to right ventricular failure. Functional genomics underlying this structural remodelling are unknown but present potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression underlying vascular remodeling in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and identified distinct classes of up-regulated genes during this process. Control rat lung samples were compared to samples of aortic banding rat lungs which exhibit pulmonary hypertension
Project description:The objective of this study was to identify alterations in gene expression during reverse myocardial remodeling in a mouse model of reversible pressure overload. Mice were subjected to 4 weeks of aortic banding (AB) or sham procedure (sAB), banding and subsequent debanding (DB3), or sham procedure and subsequent debanding (sDB3), with saccrifice 3 days after debanding. Microarray screening was performed in 3 mice from each group. Sham was used as control, and we used an ANOVA model for each gene programmed in R-script to identify the effect of debanding.
Project description:We have previously found that overexpression of CHF1/Hey2 in the myocardium prevents the development of phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. To determine the role of CHF1/Hey2 in pressure overload hypertrophy, we performed ascending aortic banding on wild type and transgenic mice overexpressing CHF1/Hey2 in the myocardium. We found that both wild type and transgenic mice developed increased ventricular weight to body weight ratios one week after aortic banding. Wild type mice also developed decreased fractional shortening after one week when compared to preoperative echocardiograms and sham operated controls. Transgenic mice, in comparison, demonstrated preserved fractional shortening. Histological examination of explanted heart tissue demonstrated extensive fibrosis in wild type hearts, but minimal fibrosis in transgenic hearts. TUNEL staining demonstrated increased apoptosis in the wild type hearts but not in the transgenic hearts. Exposure of cultured neonatal myocytes from wild type and transgenic animals to hydrogen peroxide, a potent inducer of apoptosis, demonstrated increased apoptosis in the wild type cells. Gene Set Analysis of microarray data from wild type and transgenic hearts one week after banding revealed suppression and activation of multiple pathways involving apoptosis, cell signaling and biosynthesis. These findings demonstrate that CHF1/Hey2 promotes physiological over pathological hypertrophy in pressure overload through suppression of apoptosis and global regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways. Experiment Overall Design: Ascending aortic banding on four wild type and four transgenic mice were compared
Project description:Left heart disease (LHD) frequently causes lung vascular remodelling and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Yet, pharmacological treatment for PH in LHD is lacking and its pathophysiological basis remains obscure. We aimed to identify candidate mechanisms of PH in LHD and to test their relevance and therapeutic potential. In rats, LHD was induced by supracoronary aortic banding. Whole genome microarray analyses were performed, candidate genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blots and functional relevance was tested in vivo by genetic and pharmacological strategies. In lungs of LHD rats, mast cell activation was the most prominently upregulated gene ontology cluster. Mast cell gene upregulation was confirmed at RNA and protein levels and remodelled vessels showed perivascular mast cell accumulations. In LHD rats treated with the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen, or in mast cell deficient Ws/Ws rats, PH and vascular remodelling were largely attenuated. Both strategies also reduced PH and vascular remodelling in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension, suggesting that the role of mast cells extends to noncardiogenic PH. In PH of different aetiologies, mast cells accumulate around pulmonary blood vessels and contribute to vascular remodelling and PH. Mast cells and mast cell-derived mediators may present promising targets for the treatment of PH. Whole rat genome microarray analyses were performed in lung homogenates of three rats with established PH following supracoronary aortic banding and in three sham-operated controls. Out of a total of 28,000 analysed genes, differential expression defined as 2-fold change with p<0.05 was evident for 120 genes. Of these, 76 were upregulated and 44 downregulated in aortic banding compared with control lungs gene. Enrichment analysis revealed regulation of mast cell specific genes - 13 out of 20 genes were significantly upregulated in aortic banding compared with control lungs. To test for a putative functional role of mast cells in lung vascular remodelling and PH in LHD, we applied a pharmacological approach by treatment of aortic banding rats with the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen. Microarray analysis then compared rats that were treated with untreated. In brief, congestive heart failure (CHF) was induced in juvenile rats by supracoronary aortic banding and rats were analyzed 9 weeks thereafter when they had established left heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and secondary pulmonary hypertension. Three heart failure rats were untreated, and 3 received the mast cell stabilizer ketotifen (1 mg/kg-1 bodyweight/day-1) with the drinking water. Sham rats underwent the same surgical procedure but without placement of a clip on the supracoronary aorta. Microarray analyses: Lungs from banded and control rats were excised and total RNA was extracted (Stratagene Absolutely RNA Miniprep Kit; Stratagene, La Jolla, USA). Three µg total RNA from three control and three banded rats each were processed according to the One-Cycle Target Labeling protocol (GeneChip Expression Analysis, Affymetrix, Santa Clara, USA). Before and after amplifications, the total RNA/complementary RNA concentrations were checked with NanoDrop ND-1000 (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, USA) and quality was controlled (Experion electrophoresis station, BioRad; Hercules, USA). Samples were hybridized to GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix; Santa Clara, USA) containing 31,000 probe sets covering 28,000 rat genes.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in the regulation of myocardial ECM constituents, in mice that develop hypertrophy only (ABnonHF) and in mice that develop overt heart failure (ABHF) as response to pressure overload. Seven weeks old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB) or sham operation (sAB), with sacrifice 4 weeks after banding. Prior to sacrifice, cardiac function and geometry were evaluated by echocardiography. Animals with comparable gradients over the banded ascending aorta, comparable cardiac output and heart rate were divided into two groups: ABnonHF and ABHF. Our criterion for dividing AB animals into these two groups was based on lung weight and left atrial diameter (LAD), as an increase in these parameters most likely is due to pulmonary congestion. Heart failure (HF) was defined as an increase in lung weight and LAD defining ABnonHF as lung weight/tibia length ≤ 10.5 mg/mm and LAD ≤ 2.0 mm and ABHF as lung weight/tibia length ≥ 15 mg/mm and LAD ≥ 2.4 mm. Microarray screening was performed in 7 mice from each AB group and in 5 sAB mice. Sham was used as control.
Project description:Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is one of the major aortic diseases that occurs without a preceding symptom and often results in sudden death. Despite the recent advances in cardiovascular medicine, AAD remains a serious problem because its molecular pathogenesis is largely unknown. In this paper, we report our serendipitous discovery that stress-induced expression of tenascin C (TNC), a member of matricellular proteins, is the protection mechanism of aorta to prevent AAD. The aortic wall stress imposed by the aortic stiffening and the angiotensin II infusion caused the strong induction of TNC in wild type mouse aorta without gross morphological changes. While TNC knockout mice at the baseline showed no morphological, histological or biomechanical abnormalities of aorta, deletion of TNC gene rendered the aorta susceptible to AAD upon the aortic stress. The stressed TNC-null aorta showed the loss of the tensile strength due to the insufficient expression of extracellular matrix proteins and the exaggerated proinflammatory response before the onset of AAD. Therefore, TNC works as a stress-activated molecular damper both by reinforcing the tensile strength and by limiting the excessive proinflammatory response in aorta. Thus far, the molecular event that leads to the AAD development has been unclear because of the unpredictable nature of the AAD onset. This study sheds light on the previously unrecognized tissue protection mechanism that converts the potentially harmful stress response into the active reinforcement of the aorta, of which failure leads to the development of AAD. Although TNC is expressed in various tissues upon the mechanical and proinflammatory stimuli, its role has long been a mystery. Our data uncovered the adaptive role of TNC in aorta that must be resilient to the continuous hemodynamic and humoral stress for lifetime. We used periaortic application of 0.5 M CaCl2 to the infrarenal aorta or either wild type (WT) or tenascin C knockout (TNC-KO) mice to create the mouse model for stiffened aorta and infused the mice with AngII (1 µg/min/kg) for 1 week to apply the pathological stress on aorta (Ca+AngII). Mice were then killed with an overdose of pentobarbital to obtain the tissue samples. The suprarenal aortic samples, from the level of right renal artery to 10 mm above the right renal artery, and infrarenal aortic samples, from the level of left renal artery to 10 mm below the left renal artery, were collected and kept in RNAlater (Qiagen) until the extraction of total RNA using RNeasy (Qiagen). We obtained the RNA samples from 8 mice with Ca+AngII treatment and 5 mice without Ca+AngII treatment for each genotype. We pooled the RNA samples with the identical experimental condition to perform the transcriptome analysis using Mouse Genome 430 2.0 (Affymetrix). We obtained suprarenal aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) from TNC-KO mice by enzymatic dispersion and cultured them in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. We cultured TNC-KO ASMCs in the presence or absence of exogenous TNC (10 µg/mL) and stimulated the cells with 10 ng/mL TNF-alpha for 24 h before obtaining total RNA using RNeasy. We used 3 independent ASMC cultures without the exogenous TNC and 4 independent cultures with the exogenous TNC. We hybridized each of the RNA samples individually to Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array (Affymetrix).
Project description:22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is mainly characterised by cardiovascular, craniofacial, thymic and parathyroid abnormalities. Haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor, TBX1 is considered to be a major underlying cause of these defects. Mice in which Tbx1 has been mutated phenocopy 22q11DS. In order to elucidate the transcriptional pathways regulated by Tbx1, the gene expression profile of Tbx1-lacZ positive cells isolated from E9.5 Df1/Tbx1lacZ embryos (Tbx1-null) were compared to cells isolated from Tbx1+/lacZ (Tbx1-heterozygous) embryos. This analysis has led to a better understanding of the pathways important in pharyngeal and heart development. Experiment design: 3 pools of cells (biological replicates) isolated from Df1/Tbx1lacZ embryos and Tbx1+/lacZ embryos were used for hybridisation onto 6 MOE430 v2 oligonucleotide array chips (Affymetrix), making 12 microarrays in total. Each pool of cells was isolated from at least 8 embryos.
Project description:OVE26 (OVE) mice provide a useful model of advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN) with respect to albuminuria and pathologies. We showed that albuminuria, reduced GFR and interstitial fibrosis, which normally take 8-9 months to develop, are more advanced in uninephrectomized OVE mice within 10 weeks of surgery, at 4.5 months of age. The accelerated progression of renal damage, especially renal fibrosis in OVE-uni mice, was also identified at the gene expression level. The hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation pathway was by far the most significant Ingenuity canonical pathway identified by gene array in OVE-uni mice. Many inflammatory- and immune-related pathways were found among the top pathways up-regulated in OVE-uni kidneys, including acute-phase response signaling, leukocyte extravasation, IL6, IL10, IL12 signaling, TREM1 signaling, dendritic cell maturation and the complement system. These pathways were also dramatically up-regulated in 8-month-old OVE mice (GSE20636). Nephrectomized OVE mice are a much faster alternative model for studying advanced renal disease in diabetes. Overall design: Study of renal gene expression in diabetic OVE26 mice. Uninephrectomy was used as an accelerating factor. Pooled RNA samples from 4 individual mice in each treatment group (OVE-uni, OVE-sham, FVB-uni, FVB-sham) were used for probe hybridization. Treatment groups: OVE-uni: uninephrectomy treatment in diabetic mice OVE-sham: sham surgery treatment in diabetic mice FVB-uni: uninephrectomy treatment in nondiabetic mice FVB-sham: sham surgery treatment in nondiabetic mice
Project description:ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mice is a novel inbred strain of mice with a hereditary nephrotic syndrome. Deletion mutation of tensin 2 (Tns2), a focal adhesion molecule, has been suggested to be responsible for nephrotic syndrome in ICGN mice, however, existence of other associative factors has been suggested. To identify additional associative factors and to better understand onset mechanism of nephrotic syndrome in ICGN mice, comprehensive gene expression analysis using DNA microarray was conducted. Immune-related pathways were markedly altered in ICGN mice kidney as compared with ICR mice. Furthermore, gene expression level of complement component 1, s subcomponent (C1s), whose human homologue has been reported to associate with lupus nephritis, was markedly low in ICGN mice kidney. RNA from renal cortex of 4- and 8-week-old ICGN and ICR mice was extracted and processed for hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays (N=3).
Project description:An important event in the pathogenesis of heart failure is the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In cultured cardiac cardiomyocytes, the transcription factor Gata4 is required for agonist-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We hypothesized that in the intact organism Gata4 is an important regulator of postnatal heart function and of the hypertrophic response of the heart to pathological stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied mice heterozygous for deletion of the second exon of Gata4 (G4D). At baseline, G4D mice had mild systolic and diastolic dysfunction associated with reduced heart weight and decreased cardiomyocyte number. After transverse aortic constriction (TAC), G4D mice developed overt heart failure and eccentric cardiac hypertrophy, associated with significantly increased fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis by overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor prevented TAC-induced heart failure in G4D mice. Unlike WT-TAC controls, G4D-TAC cardiomyocytes hypertrophied by increasing in length more than width. Gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of genes associated with apoptosis and fibrosis, including members of the TGF? pathway. Our data demonstrate that Gata4 is essential for cardiac function in the postnatal heart. After pressure overload, Gata4 regulates the pattern of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and protects the heart from load-induced failure. Experiment Overall Design: We reasoned that if Gata4 was a crucial regulator of pathways necessary for cardiac hypertrophy, then modest reductions of Gata4 activity should result in an observable cardiac phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we used gene targeted mice that express reduced levels of Gata4. We characterized these mice at baseline and after pressure Experiment Overall Design: overload.