Expression data in human hepatocytes with HCV infection
ABSTRACT: Human hepatocyte chimeric mice were prepared and treated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-α). To analyze the changes in gene expression, cDNA microarray analysis was performed with the collected human hepatocytes from the chimeric mouse livers. We consider that these results provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms used by HCV to evade innate immune responses, as well as novel therapeutic targets and a potential new indication for interferon therapy. A total of 15 human hepatocyte chimeric mice were prepared and divided into four experimental groups. Mice in group A were neither infected with HCV nor treated with IFN. Mice in group B were administered IFN-α 6 h before sacrifice but were not infected with HCV. The mice in groups C and D were both inoculated via the mouse tail vein with human serum containing HCV genotype 1b particles. At 8 weeks after inoculation, the mice in group D were administered IFN-α 6 h before sacrifice, but the mice in group C were not treated with IFN-α. The human hepatocytes in the mouse livers were collected after sacrifice and subjected to microarray analysis. After purification and reverse transcription of total RNA, cDNA was hybridized on Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays.
Project description:12 wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice were divided into 4 groups: control group, IFN-α group, LPS group, and IFN-α+ LPS group, every group contained 3 mice (n=3). IFN-α was administrated i.p. to IFN-α group and IFN-α+ LPS group once daily (QD) for 7 days at a medium dose of 105units/kg weight, PBS was administrated i.p. to control group and LPS group QD for 7 days at the same volume. LPS group and IFN-α+ LPS group were injected i.v. with 10 μg LPS for one mouse on the 8th day. Control group and IFN-α group were injected i.v. with PBS at the same volume. 6 h later, mice were sacrificed to harvest spleens for protein microarray experiment. Mouse Cytokine Antibody Array 3(62) was purchased from Ray Biotech, Norcross GA, US. Protein microarray of murine cytokines expression. Spleens from 12 mice (4 group) were treated as indicated in the summary. Equal amount total protein from each spleen was pooled prior to gene expression analysis.
Project description:Interferon (IFN)-alpha causes high rates of depression and fatigue, and is used to investigate the impact of innate immune cytokines on brain and behavior. However, little is known about transcriptional profiles of circulating immune cells during chronic IFN-alpha administration. Accordingly, genome-wide transcriptional profiling was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus either awaiting IFN-alpha therapy (n=10) or after 12 weeks of IFN-alpha treatment (n=11). Significance analysis of microarray data identified 252 up-regulated gene transcripts, the majority of which were related to IFN-alpha/antiviral or innate-immune/inflammatory signaling. Of these upregulated genes, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2 (OAS2) was the only gene that was differentially expressed in patients that developed IFN-alpha-induced depression/fatigue, and correlated with depression and fatigue scores at 12 weeks of IFN-alpha administration. Promoter-based bioinformatic and cellular origin analyses revealed IFN-alpha-induced increases in genes bearing transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) related to myeloid differentiation, IFN-alpha signaling, API and CREB/ATF family of transcription pathways, with changes derived primarily from monocytes and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Patients with high depression/fatigue scores demonstrated up-regulation of genes bearing TFBMs for myeloid differentiation, IFN-alpha and AP1 signaling, and down regulation of TFBMs for CREB/ATF-related transcription factors. Cellular origin analyses indicated a shift toward genes derived from CD8+T and NK cells in subjects with high depression/fatigue scores. These results reveal an antiviral and inflammatory transcriptional profile after 12 weeks IFN-alpha, accompanied by increased OAS2 expression, decreased CREB/ATF transcriptional control, and a shift from monocyte-derived genes to those of cytotoxic lymphocytes in IFN-alpha-induced depression/fatigue. Total RNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained at 12 weeks from HCV patients treated with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin (n=11) and untreated HCV patients awaiting IFN-alpha/ribavirin therapy (control subjects, n=10).
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA synthesis and protein expression affect cell homeostasis by modulation of gene expression. The impact of HCV replication on global cell transcription has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we analysed the expression profiles of different clones of human hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells carrying a self-replicating HCV RNA which express all viral proteins (HCV replicon system).<br><br>First, we compared the expression profile of HCV replicon clone 21-5 with both the Huh-7 parental cells and the 21-5 cured (21-5c) cells. In these latter, the HCV RNA has been eliminated by IFN-? treatment. To confirm data, we also analyzed microarray results from both the 21-5 and two other HCV replicon clones, 22-6 and 21-7, compared to the Huh-7 cells. The study was carried out by using the Applied Biosystems (AB) Human Genome Survey Microarray v1.0 which provides 31,700 probes that correspond to 27,868 human genes. A total of 15 hybridization were performed, allowing to compare transcription profiles among the following groups of cell lines:<br><br>- HCV replicon clone: 21-5 (4 hybs)<br><br>- cured HCV replicon clone: 21-5c (4 hybs)<br><br>- parental cell line: Huh-7 (4 hybs)<br><br>- other HCV replicon clones: 21-7 (2 hybs); 22-6 (1 hyb)
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE38147: Gene expression profiling of primary human hepatocytes treated with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma GSE38597: Gene expression profiling of 6 acute hepatitis C patients Refer to individual Series
Project description:Recent identification of IL28B gene polymorphisms associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance suggests a role for type III interferons (IFNs) in hepatitis C infection. The function of type III IFNs in intrinsic antiviral immunity is poorly understood. Here we show that HCV infection of primary human hepatocytes results in a robust induction of type III but not type I IFNs, leading to IFN- stimulated gene (ISG) expression. In addition, HCV infection elicits a much broader range of gene expression alterations in addition to ISG induction. The induction of type III IFNs is mediated by IRF3 and NFkB- dependent pathways. Type III IFN, aside from upregulating ISGs with a different kinetic profile, induces a distinct set of genes from type I IFN, potentially explaining the functional difference between the two types of IFNs. Chimpanzees undergoing experimental HCV infection demonstrated a prompt hepatic induction of IL28, associating with ISG upregulation, but minimal type I IFN induction. Analysis of liver biopsies from HCV-infected patients supported a close correlation among hepatic expression of IL28 and ISGs, but not with type I IFNs. Our study demonstrates that HCV infection results predominantly in type III IFN induction in the liver and the level of induction correlates with hepatic ISG levels, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between IL28, ISG levels and recovery from HCV infection as well as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of non-responders. Samples were treated with IFN, IL28b and T-PolyC after 6 or 24 hours respectively
Project description:Recent identification of IL28B gene polymorphisms associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance suggests a role for type III interferons (IFNs) in hepatitis C infection. The function of type III IFNs in intrinsic antiviral immunity is poorly understood. Here we show that HCV infection of primary human hepatocytes results in a robust induction of type III but not type I IFNs, leading to IFN- stimulated gene (ISG) expression. In addition, HCV infection elicits a much broader range of gene expression alterations in addition to ISG induction. The induction of type III IFNs is mediated by IRF3 and NFkB- dependent pathways. Type III IFN, aside from upregulating ISGs with a different kinetic profile, induces a distinct set of genes from type I IFN, potentially explaining the functional difference between the two types of IFNs. Chimpanzees undergoing experimental HCV infection demonstrated a prompt hepatic induction of IL28, associating with ISG upregulation, but minimal type I IFN induction. Analysis of liver biopsies from HCV-infected patients supported a close correlation among hepatic expression of IL28 and ISGs, but not with type I IFNs. Our study demonstrates that HCV infection results predominantly in type III IFN induction in the liver and the level of induction correlates with hepatic ISG levels, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for the association between IL28, ISG levels and recovery from HCV infection as well as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of non-responders. Samples were treated with IFN or IL28b after 6 or 24 hours with three replications
Project description:The main goal of this study is to characterize the transcriptional modulations induced by antiviral compounds derived from chloroquine on Huh7 cells infected with HCV. And thus to identify among the genes modulated by infection, those who are regulated by chloroquine and potentially involved in the antiviral activity of the compound.Two HCV cell models were used: a non-infectious HCV replicon and the infectious HCV cell culture (HCVcc). In addition, this study aimed to highlight the characteristics of derivatives of antiviral chloroquine, compared with chloroquine itself. Abstract from the associated publication: Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portion of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. Indeed, infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) was shown to induce autophagy through ER stress signaling and subsequent Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) activation. Moreover, a role of autophagy in promoting HCV infection has been suggested and chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomal protease inhibitor, has been seen blocking autophagy as well as inhibiting HCV replication. In the present report, mechanisms accounting for these inhibitory effects were investigated. Gene expression profiling was performed on CQ treated JFH-1-infected Huh7 cells to identify the host cellular genes that are transcriptionally regulated by infection, and silenced by CQ-based treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that CQ reduces the expression of genes induced by the viral infection such as those encoding autophagic key factors triggering the turn-off of mTOR activity as well as factors involved in p53 and NF-KappaB activities. However, we present several lines of evidence demonstrating that the CQ repressive effect observed on the HCV-induced pathways results from a decrease of ER stress due to the upstream pH-dependent inhibitory effect of CQ on viral replication. Gene expression modulations were measured in Huh7 harboring replicon cells stimulated with a 10µM of a Chloroquine derivative compound called CQd, during 6h, 12h and 24h. Two independent experiments were performed at each time. An untreated control condition was performed in each experiment, expression was measured at the 24h time point. For the HCVcc model, gene expression analysis was analyzed in two conditions: infection and treatment of infected cells. To characterize modulations in time course of infection, Huh7 naïve cells were infected with JFH1/CS-N6-A4 viral stock and gene expression was measured at 6h, 24h and 48h postinfection. For each kinetic time point, an uninfected condition was performed and gene expression was measured. An additional control testing the interferon (IFN) induced modulations on infected cells was included and gene expression was measured after a 48h stimulation with 100 IU of IFN (alpha 2 b). To characterize the antiviral modulations resulting from treatment with Chloroquine (CQ) or a derivative compound (CQd), gene expression was measured in JFH1/CS-N6-A4 infected Huh7 cells treated with 40µM of CQ or CQd during 12h or 48h post-treatment and infection. For each kinetic time point 12h and 48h, an untreated infected control was also performed and gene expression measured.
Project description:This dataset details the time-dependent response of human Huh7 hepatoma cells to type I and type III IFN. Despite activating similar signaling cascades, the type I and type III interferons (IFNs) differ in their ability to antagonize viral replication. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines induce unique antiviral states, particularly in the liver, where the clinically important hepatitis B and C viruses cause persistent infection. Here, microarray-based gene expression analysis is combined with mechanistic studies of signaling pathways to dynamically characterize the transcriptional responses induced by these cytokines in Huh7 hepatoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. Type I and III IFNs differed greatly in their level of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) induction with a clearly detectable hierarchy (IFN-β > IFN-α > IFN-λ3 > IFN-λ1 > IFN-λ2). This hierarchy resulted in widely varying numbers of differentially expressed genes when quantified using common statistical thresholds, even though individual IFNs did not appear to regulate unique sets of genes. The kinetic profiles of IFN-induced gene expression were also qualitatively similar with the important exception of IFN-α. While stimulation with either IFN-β or IFN-λs resulted in a similar long-lasting ISG induction, IFN-α signaling peaked early after stimulation then declined due to a negative feedback mechanism. The quantitative expression hierarchy and unique kinetics of IFN-α suggest different roles for individual IFNs in the immune response, and help explain previously observed differences in antiviral activity. Huh7 cells were seeded into 6-well plates at the density of 3x10^5 cells/well and cultured overnight before stimulation with either 500 U/ml of IFN-α or IFN-β, or 10 ng/ml of IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, or IFN-λ3. Total RNA was harvested and isolated at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours post-incubation using RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) following the Affymetrix GeneChip protocol of the Keck Affymetrix Resource facility at Yale University. IFN incubation at each time point was performed in duplicate. All subsequent processing, hybridization to the Illumina HumanHT-12 microarray, and quality control analyses were carried out by the Yale Center for Genome Analysis using standard protocols.
Project description:Transcriptional response of KBM7 cells to IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha was investigated in control or cells with genetrap insertions in JAK2 or TNFRS1A, respectively. The experiment shows that, as expected, cells lacking JAK2 or TNFRS1A expression display a severly blunted response to the tested cytokines. KBM7 genetrap mutant cells stimulated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma Sample WT_1 corresponds with the control sample for the IFN-gamma stimulation; Sample WT_2 corresponds with the control sample for the TNF-alpha stimulation. As the expected differences between the samples was large, only single replicates were performed for each condition
Project description:Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that function in intercellular communication. We have previously reported that exosomes play a role in the transmission of antiviral molecules during interferon-α (IFN-α)-mediated immune responses. In this study, the protein contents of THP-1-derived macrophages with or without interferon-α treatment and of the exosomes secreted from these cells were analyzed by the label-free LC-MS/MS quantitation technologies. A total number of 1845 and 1550 protein groups were identified in the THP-1 macrophages and the corresponding exosomes, respectively. Treating the cells with IFN-α resulted in the differential abundance of 110 proteins in cells and 260 proteins in exosomes (greater than 2.0-fold), among which 35 proteins were both up-regulated in the IFN-α treated cells and corresponding exosomes while 139 proteins were specifically up-regulated in exosomes but not in the donor cells. GO and KEGG analysis of the protein function categories suggested that IFN-α promoted the abundance of proteins involved in “defense response to virus” in both exosomes and cells, and proteins related to “RNA processing” only in exosomes. Functional analysis further indicated that exosomes from IFN-α-treated cells exhibited potent antiviral activity that restored the impaired antiviral response of IFN-α in hepatitis B virus-replicating hepatocytes. These results have deepened the understanding of the exosome-mediated transfer of IFN-α-induced antiviral molecules and may provide new basis for therapeutic strategies to control viral infection.