Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPAR gamma)-mediated adipogenic/lipid metabolic pathway, including PPARgamma itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. TEM and Oil Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in the uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor induced reproductive abnormalities. We separated UE from the UM from vehicle (oil)- or DES-treated postnatal day 5 (P5) mice, and prepared biological triplicates of RNA from pooled specimens (n≥3). Those samples were analyzed on two MouseWG-6 BeadChips, which detects 45,200 transcripts including more than 26,000 annotated genes in the NCBI RefSeq database. Difference of at least twofold in signal intensity of each given probe set with a P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Project description:Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment. Tumor incidence was dose-dependent reaching >90% by 18 mo. following 1000 µg/kg/day of DES. These tumors followed the initiation/promotion model of hormonal carcinogenesis with developmental exposure as the initiator, and exposure to ovarian hormones at puberty as the promoter. To identify molecular pathways involved in DES-initiation events, uterine gene expression profiles were examined in prepubertal mice exposed to DES (1, 10 or 1000 µg/kg/day) on days 1-5 and compared to age-matched controls. Of more than 20,000 transcripts, approximately 3% were differentially expressed in at least one DES treatment group compared to controls; several transcripts demonstrated dose-responsiveness. Assessment of gene ontology annotation revealed alterations in genes associated with cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion. When expression profiles were compared to published studies of uteri from 5 day old DES-treated mice, or adult mice treated with 17β estradiol, similarities were seen suggesting persistent differential expression of estrogen responsive genes following developmental DES exposure. Moreover, several significantly altered genes have been identified in human uterine adenocarcinomas. Four altered genes [Lactotransferrin (Ltf), Transforming growth factor beta inducible (Tgfβ1), Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4)], selected for real time RT-PCR analysis, correlated well with the directionality of the microarray data. These data suggest altered gene expression profiles observed two weeks after treatment ceased, were imprinted at the time of developmental exposure and maybe related to the initiation events resulting in carcinogenesis. Experiment Overall Design: There were 3 DES doses (1, 10 and 1000 ug/kg/day) administered to neonates on days 1-5. RNA was pooled for 10 mice, with each dose having its own matching control (corn oil). Dye-flipped hybridizations were performed for each paired comparison.
Project description:Abstract. Very little is known regarding how hormonal exposures impact the epigenetic landscape of developing tissues in the context of a whole organism, in contrast to the impact on cultured cells. Here we took a global approach to understanding how neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), alters the uterine epigenome. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27ac and H3K4me1) were performed on DES-treated and control uteri. The most striking finding was differential association of H3K27ac and H3K4me1 at typical and super-enhancer regions of 79% of altered genes. These peaks overlapped with previously reported estrogen receptor a (ERα) ChIP-seq peaks. Conditional uterine deletion of ERα (Esr1cKO) conferred protection of 88% of altered genes. H3K27ac ChIP-seq on Esr1cKO samples showed that 72% of protected genes had a differential H3K27ac enhancer. These data suggest that DES regulates gene expression in the neonatal mouse uterus by H3K27ac association at ERα binding sites near estrogen-regulated genes. Overall design: Mice were treated neonatally with DES (1 mg/kg) on days 1-5 and uteri collected on PND5, 4 hrs after the last treatment. Each sample is from a single uterus. There are 4 control samples and 4 DES treated samples
Project description:Abstract. Very little is known regarding how hormonal exposures impact the epigenetic landscape of developing tissues in the context of a whole organism, in contrast to the impact on cultured cells. Here we took a global approach to understanding how neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), alters the uterine epigenome. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq (H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27ac and H3K4me1) were performed on DES-treated and control uteri. The most striking finding was differential association of H3K27ac and H3K4me1 at typical and super-enhancer regions of 79% of altered genes. These peaks overlapped with previously reported estrogen receptor a (ERα) ChIP-seq peaks. Conditional uterine deletion of ERα (Esr1cKO) conferred protection of 88% of altered genes. H3K27ac ChIP-seq on Esr1cKO samples showed that 72% of protected genes had a differential H3K27ac enhancer. These data suggest that DES regulates gene expression in the neonatal mouse uterus by H3K27ac association at ERα binding sites near estrogen-regulated genes. Overall design: Mice were treated neonatally with DES (1 mg/kg) on days 1-5 and uteri collected on PND5, 4 hrs after the last treatment. Uteri were pooled (4-6 per sample). For H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 ChIP seq there is one sample deposited here. For H3K27ac and H3K4me1 ChIP seq there are two biological replicates for each condition.
Project description:Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) results in abnormal reproductive tract morphology, female infertility and uterine cancer in mice. This exposure also causes altered gene expression in the female reproductive tract that persists into adulthood. To further explore on a genome-wide basis how neonatal estrogen exposure results in permanent epigenetic changes, we performed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses of DES-treated and control mice. CD-1 mice were treated on postnatal days (PND) 1-5 with DES (2 µg/pup/day) or corn oil as a control; uterine tissues were collected on PND5. RNA-seq analysis resulted in 4,498 differentially expressed genes (>1.5 fold difference; RPKM >1; FDR <0.05). ChIP-seq was performed on uterine samples using H3K4me3, H3K27me3, H3K27acetyl and H3K4me1 as the precipitating antibodies. The most significant findings at the TSS were increased H3K4me3 at up-regulated genes (22%), increased H3K27ac at up-regulated genes (55%) and differential H3K27ac at down-regulated genes (33%). The most striking finding was differential association of H3K27ac at presumed enhancer regions; 3,012 out of 4498 altered genes (67%) had a differential H3K27ac peak associated with them and 2,962 out of 4,498 (66%) had differential H3K4me1. These differences were generally coordinated with gene expression with increased gene expression having more H3K27ac associated although a small subset of genes showed the opposite. To further investigate the mechanism of differential H3K27ac binding in enhancer regions near estrogen regulated genes, we overlapped these enhancers to Esr1 ChIP seq data; a large percentage of them overlap with Esr1 peaks (39%). We also performed motif analysis where ERE was enriched in the differential H3K27ac peaks. We further investigated Esr1’s role in differential H3K27ac enhancer binding by using a conditional uterine deletion of Esr1 by crossing Esr1 floxed mice with PgR-cre and then treating with vehicle or DES and collecting uteri on day 5. We performed a microarray and pattern analysis and determined there were 4,073 out of 4,617 altered genes (88%) protected by conditional uterine deletion of Esr1. We also performed H3K27ac ChIP seq on these samples and found a large number of these protected genes have a differential H3K27ac enhancer. Several Fox genes were up-regulated following DES treatment and Fox binding motifs were found to be enriched in both H3K27ac and H3K4me1 differential enhancer peaks. To further study the impact of Foxa2 or Foxo1, we conditionally deleted each of these using PgR-cre. There were far fewer genes impacted by deletion of either Foxa2 or Foxo1 suggesting these Fox genes are not responsible for DES induced gene expression and these two lines were not followed further. Taken together, these data suggest estrogen regulates gene expression in the neonatal mouse uterus by H3K27ac association at Esr1 binding sites near estrogen regulated genes. Changes in the epigenome during the time of treatment may contribute to the permanent alterations in gene expression observed in aged DES treated mice. Overall design: Each group has 4 biological replicates - day 5 control Esr1 WT, day5 control Esr1 cKO, day 5 DES Esr1 WT, day 5 DES Esr1 cKO, day 5 Foxa2 WT, day 5 Foxa2 cKO, day 5 Foxo1 WT, day 5 Foxo1 cKO
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series:; GSE4028: Effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the anterior pituitary gland of the ACI, Copenhagen and Brown Norway Rat. GSE4080: Effect of DES-treated Ept congenic rat lines on gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland. GSE4081: Expression QTL (eQTL) mapping in the anterior pituitary gland using DES-treated COPxACI F2 rats. Experiment Overall Design: Refer to individual Series
Project description:Forced expression of transcription factors for lineage reprogramming brings hope to cell-based therapy. However, its application is hampered by risks of potential genetic aberrations and tumorigenicity. Using defined small molecules in presence of gastric stromal cells as feeders, we reprogramed human gastric epithelia into induced multipotent endodermal progenitors (hiMEPs) with efficiency of up-to-6%. The hiMEPs expressed genes relative to endodermal lineages but not associating with pluripotency, and could be expanded clonogenically remaining as undifferentiated colonies. Upon induction, hiMEPs were able to give rise to multiple functional endodermal cell types, apart from ectodermal or mesodermal lineages. TGFβ inhibition and particular Wnt signaling activation were crucial in reprogramming process. Collective advantages of availability from donors without age restriction, capabilities in expansion and differentiation, and no concern of tumorigenesis, let hiMEPs have the considerable application potentials on cell therapies of diseases such as liver failure and diabetes, as well as personalized drug-screenings. Human gastric epithelial cells (hGECs) and gastric subepithelial myofibroblasts (GSEMFs) are isolated from human stomach, and human duodenum epithelial cells (hDECs) are isolated from human duodenum. Human Induced multipotent endodermal stem cells (hiMESCs) were reprogrammed from hGECs/hDECs by small molecules with the support of GSEMFs. Definitive endoderm cells (DEs) are derived from human embryonic stem cells by differentiation. Totally, 13 samples including two samples of hDECs, one sample of hGECs, two clones of D-hiMESCs, one clone of G-hiMESCs, four samples of DEs and three samples of GSCs were analyzed using microarray.
Project description:Transcriptional responses in ovariectomized mouse uterine tissue to estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), known long-acting estrogens, and propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), an ER-alpha selective estrogen, were profiled. Profiles were used together with those from other estrogens to derive a biomarker panel. Overall design: 2 mice each: WT saline, WT E2 2h, WT E2 24h, WT DES 2h, WT DES 24h, WT PPT 2h, WT PPT 24h.
Project description:Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that has been banned for use in humans, but still is employed in livestock and aquaculture operations in some parts of the world. Detectable concentrations of DES in effluent and surface waters have been reported to range from slightly below 1 to greater than 10 ng/L. Little is known, however, concerning the toxicological potency of DES in fish. In this study, sexually-mature fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) of both sexes were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 ng DES/L water in a flow-through system. Tissue concentrations of DES and changes in a number of estrogen-responsive endpoints, including alterations to the hepatic transcriptome in females, were measured in the fish at the end of a 4-d exposure, and after a 4-d depuration/recovery period in clean water. The objectives of the study were to measure accumulation of DES in fish tissues, characterize effects of the chemical on physiological endpoints related to reproductive performance, and to evaluate DES's potency relative to concentrations reported in aquatic environments. The current series includes n=11 microarrays associated with recovery-phase samples (collected from fish exposed continuously for 4 d, and then held in control water for an additional 4 days before tissues were collected). Fish were exposed to 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng DES/L delivered in a continuous flow (45 ml/min) of sand filtered, UV treated, Lake Superior Water, without the use of carrier solvents. Flow of DES into the test system was initiated without fish present and continued for 1 d. Exposures then were started by placing three male and three female sexually-mature fathead minnows into each tank. There were eight replicate tanks for the control and 100 ng/L treatments, and six replicate tanks for the 1 and 10 ng/L groups. The fish were held at 25+1ºC under a 16:8 L:D photoperiod and were fed frozen adult brine shrimp twice daily (San Francisco Bay Brand, Newark, CA, USA). Fish used for the experiment were from an on-site culture, and all procedures involving animals conformed to guidelines approved by the local Animal Care and Use Committee. After the 4-d exposure, fish from three tanks from each treatment (n=9 per sex) were sampled for determination of various biological endpoints. At this time fish from two additional tanks from the control and 100 ng/L treatments also were sampled for determination of DES tissue residues (n=6 per sex). Delivery of DES to the test system was subsequently stopped, and fish from the remaining three tanks per treatment group were sampled 4 d later (n= 9 per sex). The fathead minnows were euthanized with buffered MS-222 (Argent, Redmond, VA, USA) and weighed. Fish were scored for occurrence and relative expression of nuptial tubercles, which in males can be reduced by ER agonists. Blood was collected from the caudal vein/artery with a microhematocrit tube, and plasma was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80ºC. Gonads were removed from males and a subsample (8.5±3.0 mg; mean±SD) was immediately immersed in tissue culture media for determination of ex vivo steroid production. Livers were removed from both sexes and flash-frozen for gene expression analyses using microarray (females) or real-time QPCR (males). Hepatic transcripts from three females per treatment group, in each phase of the experiment (except n=2 from recovery phase 10 ng/L) were analyzed using a custom 15,000 feature microarray (GEO Platform Accession GPL9248). Data sets for the exposure phase (n=12 microarrays) and recovery phase (n=11) were normalized independently using Fastlo (Ballman et al., 2004) implemented in R (http://www.r-project.org/), but analyzed using parallel approaches.
Project description:DES is a synthetic estrogen that is associated with adverse effects on reproductive organs. Our group has employed estrogen receptor (ER) α knockout (αERKO) mice to gain insight into the contribution of ER a in DES-induced toxicity following neonatal exposure. Overall design: Mice were neonatally exposed to DES. The SVs or uterus were collected at week 10. Genome-wide transcriptome was performed by RNA-Seq.
Project description:Diethylstilbestrol (DES) inhibits the differentiation of female reproductive tracts during fetal and neonatal days . We examined global gene expressions in the oviduct, uterus and vagina in newborn mice with or without DES. These results suggest understanding the mechanism of the differentiation of female reproductive tracts. Keywords: ordered