Comparison of matched primary and metastasis 4T1.2 syngeneic mammary tumor model of spontaneous bone metastasis
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer metastasis to bone is a critical determinant of long-term survival after treatment of primary tumors. We used a mouse model of spontaneous bone metastasis to determine new molecular mechanisms. Differential transcriptome comparisons of primary and metastatic tumor cells revealed that a substantial set of genes suppressed in bone metastases were highly enriched for promoter elements for the type I interferon (IFN) regulatory factor, Irf7, itself suppressed in mouse and human metastases. The critical function of the Irf7 pathway was demonstrated by restoration of exogenous Irf7 or systemic interferon administration, which significantly reduced bone metastases and prolonged metastasis-free survival. Using mice deficient in the type I receptor (Ifnar1-/-) or mature B, T and NK cell responses (NOD Scid IL-2rγ-/- mice), we demonstrated that Irf7-driven suppression of metastasis was reliant on IFN signaling to host immune cells. Metastasis suppression correlated with decreased accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increased CD4++, CD8 T cells and NK cells in the peripheral blood and was reversed by depletion of CD8+ cells and NK cells. Clinical importance of our findings was demonstrated as increased primary tumor Irf7 expression predicted prolonged bone and lung metastasis-free survival. Thus we report for the first time, a novel innate immune pathway, intrinsic to breast cancer cells, whose suppression in turn restricts systemic immunosurveillance to enable metastasis. This pathway may constitute a novel therapeutic target for restricting breast cancer metastases. Microarrays were used to profile transcriptional alterations inherent in tumor cells growing in bone when compared to matched primary tumor cells in the 4T1.2 murine mammary tumor model. Primary and metastasized tumor were isolated from the same mouse with 4 independent biological replicates.
Project description:Breast cancer metastasis to bone is a critical determinant of long-term survival after treatment of primary tumors. We used a mouse model of spontaneous bone metastasis to determine new molecular mechanisms. Differential transcriptome comparisons of primary and metastatic tumor cells revealed that a substantial set of genes suppressed in bone metastases were highly enriched for promoter elements for the type I interferon (IFN) regulatory factor, Irf7, itself suppressed in mouse and human metastases. The critical function of the Irf7 pathway was demonstrated by restoration of exogenous Irf7 or systemic interferon administration, which significantly reduced bone metastases and prolonged metastasis free survival. Using mice deficient in the type I receptor (Ifnar1-/-) or mature B, T and NK cell responses (NOD Scid IL-2rγ-/- mice) we demonstrated that Irf7-driven suppression of metastasis was reliant on IFN signaling to host immune cells. Metastasis suppression correlated with decreased accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and increased CD4++, CD8 T cells and NK cells in the peripheral blood and was reversed by depletion of CD8+ cells and NK cells. Clinical importance of our findings was demonstrated as increased primary tumor Irf7 expression predicted prolonged bone and lung metastasis-free survival. Thus we report for the first time, a novel innate immune pathway, intrinsic to breast cancer cells, whose suppression in turn restricts systemic immunosurveillance to enable metastasis. This pathway may constitute a novel therapeutic target for restricting breast cancer metastases. Comparison of basal gene expression in breast cancer 4T1.2 cell line stably transfected using the pMSCV retroviral expression vector system with IRF7 or the base vector. Three independent experiments were performed comparing the IRF7 expressing cells to the base vector cells
Project description:Metastasis to bone is a major cause of morbidity in breast cancer patients, emphasizing the importance of identifying molecular drivers of bone metastasis for new therapeutic targets. The endogenous cysteine cathepsin inhibitor stefin A is a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis to bone that is coexpressed with cathepsin B in bone metastases. In this study, we used the immunocompetent 4T1.2 model of breast cancer which exhibits spontaneous bone metastasis to evaluate the function and therapeutic targeting potential of cathepsin B in this setting of advanced disease. Cathepsin B abundancy in the model mimicked human disease, both at the level of primary tumors and matched spinal metastases. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of cathepsin B in tumor cells reduced collagen I degradation in vitro and bone metastasis in vivo. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of the highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 reduced metastasis in tumor-bearing animals, a reduction that was not reproduced by the broad spectrum cysteine cathepsin inhibitor JPM-OEt. Notably, metastasis suppression by CA-074 was maintained in a late treatment setting, pointing to a role in metastatic outgrowth. Together, our findings established a prometastatic role for cathepsin B in distant metastasis and illustrated the therapeutic benefits of its selective inhibition in vivo.
Project description:Metastasis constitutes the primary cause of cancer-related deaths, with the lung being a commonly affected organ. We found that activation of lung-resident group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) orchestrated suppression of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate antitumor immunity, leading to increased lung metastases and mortality. Using multiple models of lung metastasis, we show that interleukin (IL)-33-dependent ILC2 activation in the lung is involved centrally in promoting tumor burden. ILC2-driven innate type 2 inflammation is accompanied by profound local suppression of interferon-? production and cytotoxic function of lung NK cells. ILC2-dependent suppression of NK cells is elaborated via an innate regulatory mechanism, which is reliant on IL-5-induced lung eosinophilia, ultimately limiting the metabolic fitness of NK cells. Therapeutic targeting of IL-33 or IL-5 reversed NK cell suppression and alleviated cancer burden. Thus, we reveal an important function of IL-33 and ILC2s in promoting tumor metastasis via their capacity to suppress innate type 1 immunity.
Project description:Metastasis to the bone is a deleterious aspect of breast cancer and is a preferred site that results in bone loss. Hormones such as prolactin (PRL) have not yet been studied for their role in modulating the secondary tumor bone microenvironment.We used quantitative immunohistochemistry with 134 samples of human primary breast cancer and 17 matched primary breast cancers and bone metastases. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to evaluate the associations between high prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression and time to bone metastasis, adjusting for estrogen receptor status, lymph node status, and chemotherapy status. We assessed osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast size, and measured pit formation in dentine slices. Statistical tests were two-sided.High PRLR expression in the primary breast tumor was associated with a shorter time to metastasis that includes bone (PRLRAQUA Max-per 100 unit hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval = 1.00 to 1.07, P = .03). We observed the PRLR in rare samples of bone metastases and matched primary breast cancer. PRL treatment of breast cancer cells induced osteoclast differentiation and bone lysis via secreted factors and was abrogated by a PRLR antagonist (delta1-9-G129R-hPRL). We demonstrated that sonic hedgehog is a PRL-regulated cytokine in breast cancer cells and part of the mechanism that induces osteoclast differentiation.Our evidence indicates that PRL-PRLR can escalate the impact of breast cancer on bone metastasis and that the presence of the PRLR in the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer bone metastasis has the potential to modulate the microenvironment to induce lytic osteoclast formation.
Project description:American women have a nearly 25% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, with 20% to 40% of these patients developing life-threatening metastases. More than 70% of patients presenting with metastases have skeletal involvement, which signals progression to an incurable stage. Tumor-stroma cell interactions are only superficially understood, specifically regarding the ability of stromal cells to affect metastasis. In vivo models show that exogenously supplied human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSC) migrate to breast cancer tumors, but no reports have shown endogenous hBMSC migration from the bone to primary tumors. Here, we present a model of in vivo hBMSC migration from a physiologic human bone environment to human breast tumors. Furthermore, hBMSCs alter tumor growth and bone metastasis frequency. These may home to certain breast tumors based on tumor-derived TGF-?1. Moreover, at the primary tumor level, interleukin 17B (IL-17B)/IL-17BR signaling may mediate interactions between hBMSCs and breast cancer cells.
Project description:The occurrence of metastases is a critical determinant of the prognosis for breast cancer patients. Effective treatment of breast cancer metastases is hampered by a poor understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of these secondary tumor deposits. To study the processes of metastasis, valid in vivo tumor metastasis models are required. Here, we show that increased expression of the EGF receptor in the MTLn3 rat mammary tumor cell-line is essential for efficient lung metastasis formation in the Rag mouse model. EGFR expression resulted in delayed orthotopic tumor growth but at the same time strongly enhanced intravasation and lung metastasis. Previously, we demonstrated the critical role of NK cells in a lung metastasis model using MTLn3 cells in syngenic F344 rats. However, this model is incompatible with human EGFR. Using the highly metastatic EGFR-overexpressing MTLn3 cell-line, we report that only Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice, which lack NK cells, allow efficient lung metastasis from primary tumors in the mammary gland. In contrast, in nude and SCID mice, the remaining innate immune cells reduce MTLn3 lung metastasis formation. Furthermore, we confirm this finding with the orthotopic transplantation of the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cell-line. Thus, we have established an improved in vivo model using a Rag2(-/-) gammac(-/-) mouse strain together with MTLn3 cells that have increased levels of the EGF receptor, which enables us to study EGFR-dependent tumor cell autonomous mechanisms underlying lung metastasis formation. This improved model can be used for drug target validation and development of new therapeutic strategies against breast cancer metastasis formation.
Project description:A significant proportion of breast cancer patients develop bone metastases, but the mechanisms regulating tumor cell dissemination from the primary site to the skeleton remain largely unknown. Using a novel model of spontaneous bone metastasis derived from human ER+ MCF7 cells, molecular profiling revealed increased PREX1 expression in a cell line established from bone-disseminated MCF7 cells (MCF7b), which were more migratory, invasive, and adhesive in vitro compared with parental MCF7 cells, and this phenotype was mediated by PREX1. MCF7b cells grew poorly in the primary tumor site when reinoculated in vivo, suggesting that these cells are primed to grow in the bone, and were enriched in skeletal sites of metastasis over soft tissue sites. Skeletal dissemination from the primary tumor was reversed with PREX1 knockdown, indicating that PREX1 is a key driver of spontaneous dissemination of tumor cells from the primary site to the bone marrow. In breast cancer patients, PREX1 levels are significantly increased in ER+ tumors and associated with invasive disease and distant metastasis. Together, these findings implicate PREX1 in spontaneous bone dissemination and provide a significant advance to the molecular mechanisms by which breast cancer cells disseminate from the primary tumor site to bone.
Project description:Bone metastases occur in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer. For most patients with breast cancer, bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic. Interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment drive osteolytic bone metastasis, a process that requires the activation of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone. We report that ABL kinases promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone by regulating the crosstalk between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. ABL kinases protected tumor cells from apoptosis induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), activated the transcription factor STAT5, and promoted osteolysis through the STAT5-dependent expression of genes encoding the osteoclast-activating factors interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Furthermore, in breast cancer cells, ABL kinases increased the abundance of the Hippo pathway mediator TAZ and the expression of TAZ-dependent target genes that promote bone metastasis. Knockdown of ABL kinases or treatment with ABL-specific allosteric inhibitor impaired osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. These findings revealed a role for ABL kinases in regulating tumor-bone interactions and provide a rationale for using ABL-specific inhibitors to limit breast cancer metastasis to bone.
Project description:Bone is the most common site of breast cancer metastasis, and complications associated with bone metastases can lead to a significantly decreased patient quality of life. Thus, it is essential to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of breast cancer skeletal metastases.To search for novel molecular mediators that influence breast cancer bone metastasis, we generated gene-expression profiles from laser-capture microdissected trephine biopsies of both breast cancer bone metastases and independent primary breast tumors that metastasized to bone. Bioinformatics analysis identified genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer bone metastases compared with primary, bone-metastatic breast tumors.ABCC5, an ATP-dependent transporter, was found to be overexpressed in breast cancer osseous metastases relative to primary breast tumors. In addition, ABCC5 was significantly upregulated in human and mouse breast cancer cell lines with high bone-metastatic potential. Stable knockdown of ABCC5 substantially reduced bone metastatic burden and osteolytic bone destruction in mice. The decrease in osteolysis was further associated with diminished osteoclast numbers in vivo. Finally, conditioned media from breast cancer cells with reduced ABCC5 expression failed to induce in vitro osteoclastogenesis to the same extent as conditioned media from breast cancer cells expressing ABCC5.Our data suggest that ABCC5 functions as a mediator of breast cancer skeletal metastasis. ABCC5 expression in breast cancer cells is important for efficient osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Hence, ABCC5 may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer bone metastasis.
Project description:We previously identified claudin-2 as a functional mediator of breast cancer liver metastasis. We now confirm that claudin-2 levels are elevated in liver metastases, but not in skin metastases, compared to levels in their matched primary tumors in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, claudin-2 is specifically expressed in liver-metastatic breast cancer cells compared to populations derived from bone or lung metastases. The increased liver tropism exhibited by claudin-2-expressing breast cancer cells requires claudin-2-mediated interactions between breast cancer cells and primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the reduction of the claudin-2 expression level, either in cancer cells or in primary hepatocytes, diminishes these heterotypic cell-cell interactions. Finally, we demonstrate that the first claudin-2 extracellular loop is essential for mediating tumor cell-hepatocyte interactions and the ability of breast cancer cells to form liver metastases in vivo. Thus, during breast cancer liver metastasis, claudin-2 shifts from acting within tight-junctional complexes to functioning as an adhesion molecule between breast cancer cells and hepatocytes.