Hepatic gene expression in wild type and SHPKO mice fed chow or western diet
ABSTRACT: SHP (small heterodimer partner; NR0B2) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which regulates numerous developmental and metabolic cellular functions. To study physiological function of SHP, we generated congenic SHP-/- mice on C57Bl/6 background. When the congenic SHP-/- mice were challenged with a western diet (harlan, TD.88137) for 22 weeks, they were resistant to diet induced obesity and hepatic steatosis compared to WT controls. However, their hepatic insulin sensitivity was compromised when assessed with phospho-Akt levels after insulin injection. Therefore, we investigated hepatic gene expression using illumina beadchip array to explore mechanisms underneath the unique liver physiology in SHP-/- mice. Livers were collected from C57Bl/6 wild type and C57Bl/6 SHP-/- mice fed chow or western diet. The 1 microgram of total RNA obtained from individual mouse (n=4 per group) and subjected to illumina beadchip gene expression profiling.
Project description:Mixed background SHP(-/-) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure caused by enhanced PGC-1? expression in brown adipocytes. However, congenic SHP(-/-) mice on the C57BL/6 background showed normal expression of PGC-1? and other genes involved in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Thus, we reinvestigated the impact of small heterodimer partner (SHP) deletion on diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance using congenic SHP(-/-) mice. Compared with their C57BL/6 wild-type counterparts, SHP(-/-) mice subjected to a 6 month challenge with a Western diet (WestD) were leaner but more glucose intolerant, showed hepatic insulin resistance despite decreased triglyceride accumulation and increased ?-oxidation, exhibited alterations in peripheral tissue uptake of dietary lipids, maintained a higher respiratory quotient, which did not decrease even after WestD feeding, and displayed islet dysfunction. Hepatic mRNA expression analysis revealed that many genes expressed higher in SHP(-/-) mice fed WestD were direct peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) targets. Indeed, transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that SHP strongly repressed PPAR?-mediated transactivation. SHP is a pivotal metabolic sensor controlling lipid homeostasis in response to an energy-laden diet through regulating PPAR?-mediated transactivation. The resultant hepatic fatty acid oxidation enhancement and dietary fat redistribution protect the mice from diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis but accelerate development of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:SHP (small heterodimer partner; NR0B2) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, which regulates numerous developmental and metabolic cellular functions. To study physiological function of SHP, we generated congenic SHP-/- mice on C57Bl/6 background. When the congenic SHP-/- mice were challenged with a western diet (high fat, hgih sucrose, high cholesterol) for 20 weeks, they were resistant to diet induced obesity but severely glucose intolerant compared to wild type control mice. However, their overall peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was normal when assessed by insulin tolerance test. Next, we examined the glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets from these animals. Islets from SHP-/- mice showed strongly impaired GSIS especially fed the western diet, which is believed to be a major factor causing the whole body glucose intolerance in SHP-/- mice. Therefore, we explored gene expression in islets using illumina beadchip array to understand mechanisms underneath the impaired GSIS. Overall design: Islets were isolated from C57Bl/6 wild type and C57Bl/6 SHP-/- mice fed chow or western diet. The same amount of total RNA obtained from these islets was pooled from 5-9 mice each group and subjected to illumina beadchip gene expression profiling in triplicates.
Project description:Bile acids are not only physiological detergents facilitating nutrient absorption, but also signaling molecules regulating metabolic homeostasis. We reported recently that transgenic expression of CYP7A1 in mice stimulated bile acid synthesis and prevented Western diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this experiment is to determine the impact of induction of hepatic bile acid synthesis on liver metabolism by determining hepatic gene expression profile in CYP7A1 transgenic mice. CYP7A1 transgenic mice and wild type control mice were fed either standard chow diet or high fat high cholesterol Western diet for 4 month. Hepatic gene expressions were measured by microarray analysis. Our results indicate that hepatic bile acid synthesis is closely linked to cholesterogenesis and lipogenesis, and maintaining bile acid homeostasis is improtant in hepatic metabolic homeostasis. Male aged matched (~ 12-14 weeks) CYP7A1 transgenic mice and their wild type control littermates were fed a standard chow diet or a high fat (42%) high cholesterol (0.2%) diet (Harlan Teklad #88137) for 4 month Four groups (4 mice/group) are included in the experiments: Group 1: WT _ Chow Group 2: CYP7A1-tg + chow Group 3: WT + Western diet Group 4: CYP7A1-tg _ Western diet Total liver mRNA was isolated with a RNeasy kit (Qiagen) and used for microarray analysis.
Project description:Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin receptor signalling is antagonized and tightly controlled by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). However, the precise role of the PTP src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) in insulin resistance has not been explored. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat), to induce insulin resistance, or a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal from fat) for 10 weeks. Afterwards, HFD-fed mice were pharmacologically treated with the SHP-1 (Ptpn6) inhibitor sodium stibogluconate and the broad spectrum pan-PTP inhibitor bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV). Both inhibitors ameliorated the metabolic phenotype, as evidenced by reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, which was not due to altered PTP gene expression. In parallel, phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and of the insulin signalling key intermediate Akt was enhanced, and both PTP inhibitors and siRNA-mediated SHP-1 downregulation resulted in an increased glucose uptake in vitro. Finally, recombinant SHP-1 was capable of dephosphorylating the ligand-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor. These results indicate a central role of SHP-1 in insulin signalling during obesity, and SHP-1 inhibition as a potential therapeutic approach in metabolic diseases.
Project description:Mice deficient in small heterodimer partner (SHP) are protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis resulting from increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased lipogenesis. The decreased lipogenesis appears to be a direct consequence of very low expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-?2), a potent lipogenic transcription factor, in the SHP(-/-) liver. The current study focused on the identification of a SHP-dependent regulatory cascade that controls PPAR-?2 gene expression, thereby regulating hepatic fat accumulation. Illumina BeadChip array (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to identify genes responsible for the linkage between SHP and PPAR-?2 using hepatic RNAs isolated from SHP(-/-) and SHP-overexpressing mice. The initial efforts identify that hairy and enhancer of split 6 (Hes6), a novel transcriptional repressor, is an important mediator of the regulation of PPAR-?2 transcription by SHP. The Hes6 promoter is specifically activated by the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in response to its natural agonist ligand, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), and is repressed by SHP. Hes6 subsequently represses hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4?)-activated PPAR-?2 gene expression by direct inhibition of HNF-4? transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we provide evidences that atRA treatment or adenovirus-mediated RAR-? overexpression significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation in obese mouse models, as observed in earlier studies, and the beneficial effect is achieved by the proposed transcriptional cascade.Our study describes a novel transcriptional regulatory cascade controlling hepatic lipid metabolism that identifies retinoic acid signaling as a new therapeutic approach to nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases.
Project description:Obesity is associated with increased susceptibility to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension, a combination of traits that comprise the traditional definition of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that obesity is also associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Despite the high prevalence of obesity and its related conditions, their etiologies and pathophysiology remains unknown. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD. Previous genetic analysis of high-fat, diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J male mice using a panel of B6-Chr(A/J)/NaJ chromosome substitution strains (CSSs) demonstrated that 17 CSSs conferred resistance to high-fat, diet-induced obesity. One of these CSS strains, CSS-17, which is homosomic for A/J-derived chromosome 17, was analyzed further and found to be resistant to diet-induced steatosis. In the current study we generated seven congenic strains derived from CCS-17, fed them either a high-fat, simple-carbohydrate (HFSC) or low-fat, simple-carbohydrate (LFSC) diet for 16 weeks and then analyzed body weight and related traits. From this study we identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs). On a HFSC diet, Obrq13 protects against diet-induced obesity, steatosis, and elevated fasting insulin and glucose levels. On the LFSC diet, Obrq13 confers lower hepatic triglycerides, suggesting that this QTL regulates liver triglycerides regardless of diet. Obrq15 protects against diet-induced obesity and steatosis on the HFSC diet, and Obrq14 confers increased final body weight and results in steatosis and insulin resistance on the HFSC diet. In addition, on the LFSC diet, Obrq 16 confers decreased hepatic triglycerides and Obrq17 confers lower plasma triglycerides on the LFSC diet. These congenic strains provide mouse models to identify genes and metabolic pathways that are involved in the development of NAFLD and aspects of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Low-carbohydrate diets are used to manage obesity, seizure disorders, and malignancies of the central nervous system. These diets create a distinctive, but incompletely defined, cellular, molecular, and integrated metabolic state. Here, we determine the systemic and hepatic effects of long-term administration of a very low-carbohydrate, low-protein, and high-fat ketogenic diet, serially comparing these effects to a high-simple-carbohydrate, high-fat Western diet and a low-fat, polysaccharide-rich control chow diet in C57BL/6J mice. Longitudinal measurement of body composition, serum metabolites, and intrahepatic fat content, using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, reveals that mice fed the ketogenic diet over 12 wk remain lean, euglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic but accumulate hepatic lipid in a temporal pattern very distinct from animals fed the Western diet. Ketogenic diet-fed mice ultimately develop systemic glucose intolerance, hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, steatosis, cellular injury, and macrophage accumulation, but surprisingly insulin-induced hepatic Akt phosphorylation and whole-body insulin responsiveness are not impaired. Moreover, whereas hepatic Pparg mRNA abundance is augmented by both high-fat diets, each diet confers splice variant specificity. The distinctive nutrient milieu created by long-term administration of this low-carbohydrate, low-protein ketogenic diet in mice evokes unique signatures of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and whole-body glucose homeostasis.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a world-wide health concern and risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases. Citrate uptake modifies intracellular hepatic energy metabolism and is controlled by the conserved sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporter solute carrier family 13 member 5 (SLC13A5, mammalian homolog of INDY: mINDY). In Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans INDY reduction decreased whole-body lipid accumulation. Genetic deletion of Slc13a5 in mice protected from diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that inducible hepatic mINDY inhibition should prevent the development of fatty liver and hepatic insulin resistance.Adult C57BL/6J mice were fed a Western diet (60% kcal from fat, 21% kcal from carbohydrate) ad libitum. Knockdown of mINDY was induced by weekly injection of a chemically modified, liver-selective siRNA for 8 weeks. Mice were metabolically characterized and the effect of mINDY suppression on glucose tolerance as well as insulin sensitivity was assessed with an ipGTT and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Hepatic lipid accumulation was determined by biochemical measurements and histochemistry.Within the 8 week intervention, hepatic mINDY expression was suppressed by a liver-selective siRNA by over 60%. mINDY knockdown improved hepatic insulin sensitivity (i.e. insulin-induced suppression of endogenous glucose production) of C57BL/6J mice in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated mINDY inhibition prevented neutral lipid storage and triglyceride accumulation in the liver, while we found no effect on body weight.We show that inducible mINDY inhibition improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adult C57BL6/J mice. These effects did not depend on changes of body weight or body composition.
Project description:Bglu3 is a quantitative trait locus for fasting glucose on distal chromosome 1 identified in an intercross between C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. This locus was subsequently replicated in two separate mouse intercrosses. The objective of this study was to characterize Bglu3 through construction and analysis of a congenic strain and identify underlying candidate genes. Congenic mice were constructed by introgressing a genomic region harboring Bglu3 from C3H.apoE(-/-) into B6.apoE(-/-) mice. Mice were started with a Western diet at 6 wk of age and maintained on the diet for 12 wk. Gene expression in the liver was analyzed by microarrays. Congenic mice had significantly higher fasting glucose levels and developed more significant glucose intolerance compared with B6.apoE(-/-) mice on the Western diet. Microarray analysis revealed 336 genes to be differentially expressed in the liver of congenic mice. Further pathway analysis suggested a role for acute phase response signaling in regulating glucose intolerance. Apcs, encoding an acute phase response protein serum amyloid P (SAP), is located underneath the linkage peak of Bglu3. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms between B6 and C3H mice were detected within and surrounding Apcs. Apcs expression in the liver was significantly higher in congenic and C3H mice compared with B6 mice. The Western diet consumption led to a gradual rise in plasma SAP levels, which was accompanied by rising fasting glucose in both B6 and C3H apoE(-/-) mice. Expression of C3H Apcs in B6.apoE(-/-) mice aggravated glucose intolerance. Bglu3 is confirmed to be a locus affecting diabetes susceptibility, and Apcs is a probable candidate gene.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the role of specific saturated fatty acids in the development of high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have studied the effect of stearate in high fat diets (45% energy as fat) on whole body energy metabolism and tissue specific insulin sensitivity. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low stearate diet based on palm oil or one of two stearate rich diets, one diet based on lard and one diet based on palm oil supplemented with tristearin (to the stearate level of the lard based diet), for a period of 5 weeks. Ad libitum fed Oxidative metabolism was assessed by indirect calorimetry at week 5. Changes in body mass and composition was assessed by DEXA scan analysis. Tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analysis and Western blot at the end of week 5. RESULTS: Indirect calorimetry analysis revealed that high levels of dietary stearate resulted in lower caloric energy expenditure characterized by lower oxidation of fatty acids. In agreement with this metabolic phenotype, mice on the stearate rich diets gained more adipose tissue mass. Whole body and tissue specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and analysis of insulin induced PKBser473 phosphorylation. Whole body insulin sensitivity was decreased by all high fat diets. However, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by peripheral tissues was impaired by all high fat diets, hepatic insulin sensitivity was affected only by the stearate rich diets. This tissue-specific pattern of reduced insulin sensitivity was confirmed by similar impairment in insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKBser473 in both liver and skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: In C57Bl/6 mice, 5 weeks of a high fat diet rich in stearate induces a metabolic state favoring low oxidative metabolism, increased adiposity and whole body insulin resistance characterized by severe hepatic insulin resistance. These results indicate that dietary fatty acid composition per sé rather than dietary fat content determines insulin sensitivity in liver of high fat fed C57Bl/6 mice.