Expression of small RNA in Aphis gossypii and its potential role in the resistance interaction with melon
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to identify the sRNAs in Aphis gossypii (cotton-melon aphid) during Vat-mediated resistance in teraction with melon Methods: Whole insects were collected from susceptible (Vat-) and resistant (Vat+) plants after 48 hours of feeding. Total RNA was extracted from the aphids and enriched for LMW RNA and small RNA libraries were constructed using standard protocols and deep sequenced using Illumina GAII analyzer.
Project description:Resistance breakdown has been observed following the deployment of plant cultivars resistant to pests. Assessing the durability of a resistance requires long-term experiments at least at a regional scale. We collected such data for melon resistance conferred by the Vat gene cluster to melon aphids. We examined landscape-level populations of Aphis gossypii collected in 2004-2015, from melon-producing regions with and without the deployment of Vat resistance and with different climates. We conducted demo-genetic analyses of the aphid populations on Vat and non-Vat plants during the cropping seasons. The Vat resistance decreased the density of aphid populations in all areas and changed the genetic structure and composition of these populations. Two bottlenecks were identified in the dynamics of adapted clones, due to the low levels of production of dispersal morphs and winter extinction. Our results suggest that (i) Vat resistance will not be durable in the Lesser Antilles, where no bottleneck affected the dynamics of adapted clones, (ii) Vat resistance will be durable in south-west France, where both bottlenecks affected the dynamics of adapted clones and (iii) Vat resistance will be less durable in south-east France, where only one of the two bottlenecks was observed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The regulatory role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in various biological processes is an active area of investigation; however, there has been limited information available on the role of sRNAs in plant-insect interactions. This study was designed to identify sRNAs in cotton-melon aphid (Aphis gossypii) during the Vat-mediated resistance interaction with melon (Cucumis melo). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role of miRNAs was investigated in response to aphid herbivory, during both resistant and susceptible interactions. sRNA libraries made from A. gossypii tissues feeding on Vat? and Vat? plants revealed an unexpected abundance of 27 nt long sRNA sequences in the aphids feeding on Vat? plants. Eighty-one conserved microRNAs (miRNAs), twelve aphid-specific miRNAs, and nine novel candidate miRNAs were also identified. Plant miRNAs found in the aphid libraries were most likely ingested during phloem feeding. The presence of novel miRNAs was verified by qPCR experiments in both resistant Vat? and susceptible Vat? interactions. The comparative analyses revealed that novel miRNAs were differentially regulated during the resistant and susceptible interactions. Gene targets predicted for the miRNAs identified in this study by in silico analyses revealed their involvement in morphogenesis and anatomical structure determination, signal transduction pathways, cell differentiation and catabolic processes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, conserved and novel miRNAs were reported in A. gossypii. Deep sequencing data showed differences in the abundance of miRNAs and piRNA-like sequences in A. gossypii. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that A. gossypii miRNAs were differentially regulated during resistant and susceptible interactions. Aphids can also ingest plant miRNAs during phloem feeding that are stable in the insect.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) frequently develops in cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and is usually brought about by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which acts as a drug efflux pump. MiRNAome profiling using next-generation sequencing identified differentially expressed microRNAs (miRs) between parental K562 cells and MDR K562 cells (K562/ADM) induced by chronic adriamycin treatment. MiRNAome profiling in untreated K562 cells and K562 cells exposed to long-term adriamycin treatment
Project description:Aphids are serious pest on crops. By probing with their stylets, they interact with the plant, they vector viruses and when they reach the phloem they start a continuous ingestion. Many plant resistances to aphids have been identified, several have been deployed. However, some resistances breaking down have been observed. In the melon, a gene that confers resistance to aphids has been deployed in some melon-producing areas, and aphid colony development on Vat-carrying plants has been observed in certain agrosystems. The Vat gene is a NBS-LRR gene that confers resistance to the aphid species Aphis gossypii and exhibits the unusual characteristic of also conferring resistance to non-persistently transmitted viruses when they are inoculated by the aphid. Thus, we characterized patterns of resistance to aphid and virus using the aphid diversity and we investigated the mechanisms by which aphids and viruses may adapt to the Vat gene.Using a Vat-transgenic line built in a susceptible background, we described the Vat- spectrum of resistance to aphids, and resistance to viruses triggered by aphids using a set of six A. gossypii biotypes. Discrepancies between both resistance phenotypes revealed that aphid adaptation to Vat-mediated resistance does not occur only via avirulence factor alterations but also via adaptation to elicited defenses. In experiments conducted with three virus species serially inoculated by aphids from and to Vat plants, the viruses did not evolve to circumvent Vat-mediated resistance. We confirmed discrepancies between both resistance phenotypes by testing each aphid biotype with a set of thirteen melon accessions chosen to reflect the natural diversity of the melon. Inheritance studies revealed that patterns of resistance to virus triggered by aphids are controlled by different alleles at the Vat locus and at least another locus located at a short genetic distance. Therefore, resistance to viruses triggered by aphids is controlled by a gene cluster.Under the Flor model, changes in the avirulence gene determine the ability of the pathogen to overcome the resistance conferred by a plant gene. The Vat gene belongs to a resistance gene family that fits this pest/pathogen-plant interaction, and we revealed an additional mechanism of aphid adaptation that potentially exists in other interactions between plants and pests or pathogens.
Project description:Virus resistances that are recessively inherited are associated with loss-of-susceptibility resistance alleles. Resistance to Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) of melon accession TGR-1551 is expressed as a drastic reduction of the virus titer, and is recessively inherited. In this work, viral RNA accumulation was measured in TGR-1551 and in susceptible WMV-infected melon plants by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and gene expression of 17,443 unigenes represented in a melon microarray was monitored in a time-course experiment. Virus accumulation was higher in inoculated cotyledons of the resistant genotype up to 7 days post-inoculation; from this time on, virus accumulation was much higher in plants of the susceptible genotype. Microarray experiments were carried with samples from inoculated cotyledons at 1 and 3 dpi to monitor early changes in response to virus infection, and at 7 dpi. Samples from systemically infected leaves harvested at 15 dpi were also included in the analysis. Results showed much more profound transcriptomic alterations in resistant plants compared to susceptible ones. Analyses of gene expression profiles reveal deep and extensive transcriptomic alterations in TGR-1551 plants, many of them involving pathogen response-related genes. Overall, data suggested that resistance to WMV in TGR-1551 is associated with a defense response, contrasting with its recessive nature. Two melon genotypes have been used to analyse transcriptomic responses to infection by Watermelon mosaic virus: Tendral (susceptibel to WMV) and TGR-1551 (resistant to WMV). For each genotype, 60 melon seedlings were inoculated with WMV-M116 and another 60 were mock-inoculated. Cotyledons of 10 plants were harvested at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 dpi. At 15 dpi, the systemically infected second true leaf was also harvested. To reduce variability, each biological replicate used in this study was prepared by mixing the RNA extracts from 2 or 4 mock or WMV-inoculated cotyledons, respectively, or from 3 melon leaves. Samples (WMV infected and mock inoculated) corresponding to cotyledons at 1, 3 and 7 dpi, and leaves at 15 dpi were used for microarray hybridisations, three biological replicates for each one, leading to a total of 48 samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plant NBS-LRR -resistance genes tend to be found in clusters, which have been shown to be hot spots of genome variability. In melon, half of the 81 predicted NBS-LRR genes group in nine clusters, and a 1 Mb region on linkage group V contains the highest density of R-genes and presence/absence gene polymorphisms found in the melon genome. This region is known to contain the locus of Vat, an agronomically important gene that confers resistance to aphids. However, the presence of duplications makes the sequencing and annotation of R-gene clusters difficult, usually resulting in multi-gapped sequences with higher than average errors. RESULTS: A 1-Mb sequence that contains the largest NBS-LRR gene cluster found in melon was improved using a strategy that combines Illumina paired-end mapping and PCR-based gap closing. Unknown sequence was decreased by 70% while about 3,000 SNPs and small indels were corrected. As a result, the annotations of 18 of a total of 23 NBS-LRR genes found in this region were modified, including additional coding sequences, amino acid changes, correction of splicing boundaries, or fussion of ORFs in common transcription units. A phylogeny analysis of the R-genes and their comparison with syntenic sequences in other cucurbits point to a pattern of local gene amplifications since the diversification of cucurbits from other families, and through speciation within the family. A candidate Vat gene is proposed based on the sequence similarity between a reported Vat gene from a Korean melon cultivar and a sequence fragment previously absent in the unrefined sequence. CONCLUSIONS: A sequence refinement strategy allowed substantial improvement of a 1 Mb fragment of the melon genome and the re-annotation of the largest cluster of NBS-LRR gene homologues found in melon. Analysis of the cluster revealed that resistance genes have been produced by sequence duplication in adjacent genome locations since the divergence of cucurbits from other close families, and through the process of speciation within the family a candidate Vat gene was also identified using sequence previously unavailable, which demonstrates the advantages of genome assembly refinements when analyzing complex regions such as those containing clusters of highly similar genes.
Project description:DNA microarrays are two-dimensional arrangements of specific probes deposited on a substrate that have been widely used in gene expression analysis by measuring mRNA accumulation. The use of this type of microarrays involves the synthesis of cDNA, which has to be double stranded (ds) if the microarray probes are of the positive strand. We have used a custom-synthesized non-commercial NimbleGen microarray from melon to evaluate an alternative method of ds cDNA synthesis, which differs substantially in its economical cost relative to a widely recommended method. The results suggested that both methods produce cDNA representative of the melon transcriptome to a similar extent, indicating that the alternative technique provides a cheaper method of ds cDNA synthesis for microarray gene expression assays. Recently, we have analyzed the transcriptome of melon in response to WMV infection. Cotyledons of two genotypes of melon were virus inoculated and transcriptomic responses to the infection were analyzed by comparing infected and mock inoculated samples at 1, 3, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Three biological replicates were performed for each sample. Double stranded cDNA was obtained with the Double stranded cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), based on the nick translation approach (Mol. Cell. Biol (1982) 2:161-170; Gene (1983) 25:263-269). Raw and processed microarray data are freely available from GEO database under the accession number GSE30111. By using this set of microarray hybridizations as a reference, RNA corresponding to infected cotyledons replicate 3 at 1 dpi (A1) and replicate 1 at 3 dpi (A2) (GEO accession numbers GSM745566 and GSM745567) were used to perform cDNA synthesis by the alternative method (samples B1 and B2, respectively), based on the SMART approach (BioTechniques (2001) 30:892-897), and microarray data were compared.
Project description:Melon RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify candidate resistance genes and to understand the early molecular processes deployed during melon versus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans race 1.2 (FOM1.2) interaction in the resistant doubled haploid line NAD as opposed to the susceptible genotype Charentais-T at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi).
Project description:Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a commercially important fruit crop that is cultivated worldwide. The melon research community has recently benefited from the determination of a complete draft genome sequence and the development of associated genomic tools, which have allowed us to focus on small RNAs (sRNAs). These are short, non-coding RNAs 21–24 nucleotides in length with diverse physiological roles. In plants, they regulate gene expression and heterochromatin assembly, and control protection against virus infection. Much remains to be learned about the role of sRNAs in melon. We constructed 10 sRNA libraries from two stages of developing ovaries, fruits and photosynthetic cotyledons infected with viruses, and carried out high-throughput pyrosequencing. We catalogued and analyzed the melon sRNAs, resulting in the identification of 26 known miRNA families (many conserved with other species), the prediction of 84 melon-specific miRNA candidates, the identification of trans-acting siRNAs, and the identification of chloroplast, mitochondrion and transposon-derived sRNAs. In silico analysis revealed more than 400 potential targets for the conserved and novel miRNAs. This analysis provides insight into the composition and function of the melon small RNAome, and paves the way towards an understanding of sRNA-mediated processes that regulate melon fruit development and melon–virus interactions. 11 small RNA libraries from several tissues of melon are included en the raw data. 2 samples from ovary, 2 samples from fruit, 1 sample from healthy cotyledons (Cultivar Tendral), 1 samples from healthy cotyledons (genotype TGR-1551), 1 sample from cotyledons (cultivar Tendral) infected with Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), 1 sample from cotyledons (cultivar TGR-1551) infected with WMV, 1 sample from cotyledons (cultivar Tendral) infected with Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, Malfa5 isolate), 1 sample from cotyledons (cultivar Tendral) infected with MNSV (chimeric virus with Malfa5-264 isolates), 1 library from synthetic RNA oligos. Raw reads were obtained from two independent 454 runs, ~22,000 reads each one, to a total of 447,180 reads
Project description:Polyphagous cotton-melon aphid populations usually comprise cotton- and cucurbit-specialized biotypes. Host-specialized aphids are prone to food shortages. Cucumber, the favourite food of cucurbit-specialized aphids, is usually absent during autumn and winter in Nanjing, China. Therefore, suboptimal host plants act as refuges and govern the population dynamics of this aphid. The species, growth stages and leaf ages of host plants that cotton- and cucurbit-specialized aphids potentially could use were explored in this study. Cotton-specialized aphids were found to use wild chrysanthemum, potato, zucchini, pumpkin and flowering cucumber besides cotton, whilst cucurbit-specialized aphids were able to utilize potato, zucchini, pumpkin and mature cotton besides cucumber. The population dynamics and genotype frequencies of aphids on hibiscus, cotton, zucchini, cucumber and pumpkin showed that cotton-melon aphids on cucumber could transfer onto mature cotton. Aphids on zucchini shared microsatellite genotypes with aphids on cotton and cucumber. The predominant genotype of aphids on cotton was found on hibiscus, but the predominant genotype on cucumber was not found on hibiscus. Host-specialized aphids clearly have refuges during food shortages. Hibiscus is an overwintering host for cotton-specialized aphids but not for cucurbit-aphids. Removing refuges or managing aphids on refuges could potentially be an effective method to control cotton-melon aphids.