Transcriptome profiling of SOD1 mutant ALS model motor neurons.
ABSTRACT: Recent genetic studies of ALS patients have identified several forms of ALS that are associated with mutations in RNA binding proteins. In animals or cultured cells, such defects broadly affect RNA metabolism. This raises the question of whether all forms of ALS have general effects on RNA metabolism. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of ALS that is transgenic for a human disease-causing mutation in the enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). We analyzed RNA from laser-captured spinal cord motor neuron cell bodies of the mutant SOD1 strain, comparing the RNA profile with that from a corresponding wild-type SOD1 transgenic strain. We prepared the samples from animals that were presymptomatic, but which manifested abnormalities at the cellular level that are seen in ALS, including aggregation of the mutant protein in motor neuron cell bodies and defective morphology of neuromuscular junctions, the connections between neuron and muscle. We observed only minor changes in the level and splicing of RNA in the SOD1 mutant animals as compared with wild-type, suggesting that mutant SOD1 produces the toxic effects of ALS by a mechanism that does not involve global RNA disturbance. RNA-Seq of laser microdissection of motor neuron bodies from two biological replicates each of SOD1 YFP (wildtype 592) and SOD1 G85R YFP (737) transgenic mice.
Project description:Microarray analysis has been applied to the study of ALS in order to investigate gene expression in whole spinal cord homogenates of SOD1 G93A mice and human ALS cases, although the massive presence of glial cells and inflammatory factors has made it difficult to define which gene expression changes were motor neuron specific. Recently, laser capture microdissection (LCM), combined with microarray analysis, has allowed the identification of motor neuron specific changes in gene expression in human ALS cases. The aim of the present study is to combine LCM and microarray analysis to study how motor neurons in the spinal cord of transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and transgenic SOD1 WT respond to stimuli determined by the presence of the human mutant protein throughout the evolution of the stages in motor neuron injury Experiment Overall Design: Motor neurons have been isolated from the spinal cord of G93A mice and non transgenic littermates at different time points and the transcription expression profile of the isolated motor neurons has been analysed
Project description:Although many distinct mutations in a variety of genes are known to cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), it remains poorly understood how they selectively impact motor neuron biology and whether they converge on common pathways to cause neural degeneration. Here, we have combined reprogramming and stem cell differentiation approaches with genome engineering and RNA sequencing to define the transcriptional changes that are induced in human motor neurons by mutant SOD1. Mutant SOD1 protein induced a transcriptional signature indicative of increased oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial function, altered sub-cellular transport as well as activation of the ER stress and unfolded protein response pathways. Functional studies demonstrated that perturbations in these pathways were indeed the source of altered transcript levels. 5 samples, 2 patient-derived SOD1A4V and 3 isogenic control samples where the mutation has been corrected. All samples are motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and isolated after lentiviral infection with an Hb9:RFP construct and FACS purification. Each sample is a separate biological replicate.
Project description:Gene expression profiling has been performed previously on motor cortex and spinal cord homogenates and of sporadic ALS cases and controls, to identify genes and pathways differentially expressed in ALS. More recent studies have combined the use of laser capture microdissection (LCM) with gene expression profiling to isolate the motor neurons from the surrounding cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, in order to determine those genes differentially expressed in the vulnerable cell population – i.e. motor neuron. The aim of the present study is to combine LCM and microarray analysis to determine those genes and pathways differentially expressed in MNs from human SOD1-related MND and to establish potential pathways for therapeutic intervention. Keywords: Human motor neurons The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profiles from a small subset of cases which all carry mutations in the SOD1 gene. Expression profiles from isolated motor neurons in SOD1-related ALS cases were compared to those from control motor neurons, in order to establish the pathways implicated in SOD1-related motor neuronal cell death. The 'control' samples were originally submitted to GEO as GSE19332.
Project description:Aims: Loss of nuclear TDP-43 characterises sporadic and most familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) has multiple roles in RNA processing. We aimed to determine whether 1) RNA splicing dysregulation is present in lower motor neurons in ALS and in a motor neuron-like cell model, and 2) TARDBP mutations (mtTARDBP) are associated with aberrant RNA splicing using patient-derived fibroblasts. Methods: Affymetrix exon arrays were used to study mRNA expression and splicing in lower motor neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection of autopsy tissue from individuals with sporadic ALS and TDP-43 proteinopathy. Findings were confirmed by qRT-PCR and in NSC34 motor neuronal cells following shRNA-mediated TDP-43 depletion. Exon arrays and immunohistochemistry were used to study mRNA splicing and TDP-43 expression in fibroblasts from patients with mtTARDBP-associated, sporadic and mutant SOD1-associated ALS. Results: We found altered expression of spliceosome components in motor neurons and widespread aberrations of mRNA splicing that specifically affected genes involved in ribonucleotide binding. This was confirmed in TDP-43 depleted NSC34 cells. Fibroblasts with mtTARDBP showed loss of nuclear TDP-43 protein and demonstrated similar changes in splicing and gene expression, that were not present in fibroblasts from patients with sporadic or SOD1-related ALS. Conclusion: Loss of nuclear TDP-43 is associated with RNA processing abnormalities in ALS motor neurons, patient-derived cells with mtTARDBP, and following artificial TDP-43 depletion, suggesting that splicing dysregulation directly contributes to disease pathogenesis. Key functional pathways affected include those central to RNA metabolism. RNA was extracted from lower motor neurons obtained by laser capture microdissection from autopsy material from neurologically healthy controls (n=6) and cases of sporadic ALS (n=3) and ALS due to C9ORF72 mutations (n=3).
Project description:Microarray analysis has been applied to the study of ALS in order to investigate gene expression in whole spinal cord homogenates of SOD1 G93A mice and human ALS cases, although the massive presence of glial cells and inflammatory factors has made it difficult to define which gene expression changes were motor neuron specific. Recently, laser capture microdissection (LCM), combined with microarray analysis, has allowed the identification of motor neuron specific changes in gene expression in mouse and human ALS cases. The aim of the present study is to combine LCM and microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles of motor neurons from two SOD1G93A mouse strains (129Sv and C57) with different progression of the disease in order to discover the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the distinct phenotypes and to uncover factors underlying fast and slow disease progression Motor neurons have been isolated from the spinal cord of 129SvG93A mice, C57G93A mice and non transgenic littermates at different time points and the transcription expression profile of the isolated motor neurons has been analysed
Project description:Differentiated motor neurons from hiPSC derived from peripheral nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients and evaluated the gene expression profile by means microarray-linked to specific analysis tools. Two-condition experiment, ALS patients motor neurons vs. controls. Biological replicates: 3 ALS replicates, 3 control replicates.
Project description:Microarray analysis has been applied to the study of ALS in order to investigate gene expression in whole spinal cord homogenates of SOD1 G93A mice and human ALS cases, although the massive presence of glial cells and inflammatory factors has made it difficult to define which gene expression changes were motor neuron specific. Recently, laser capture microdissection (LCM), combined with microarray analysis, has allowed the identification of motor neuron specific changes in gene expression in human ALS cases. The aim of the present study is to combine LCM and microarray analysis to study how motor neurons in the spinal cord of transgenic SOD1 G93A mice and transgenic SOD1 WT respond to stimuli determined by the presence of the human mutant protein throughout the evolution of the stages in motor neuron injury Keywords: Murine motor neurons Overall design: Motor neurons have been isolated from the spinal cord of G93A mice and non transgenic littermates at different time points and the transcription expression profile of the isolated motor neurons has been analysed
Project description:The motor neuron (MN)–hexamer complex consisting of LIM homeobox 3, Islet-1, and nuclear LIM interactor is a key determinant of motor neuron specification and differentiation. To gain insights into the transcriptional network in motor neuron development, we performed a genome-wide ChIP-sequencing analysis and found that the MN–hexamer directly regulates a wide array of motor neuron genes by binding to the HxRE (hexamer response element) shared among the target genes. Interestingly, STAT3-binding motif is highly enriched in the MN–hexamer–bound peaks in addition to the HxRE. We also found that a transcriptionally active form of STAT3 is expressed in embryonic motor neurons and that STAT3 associates with the MN–hexamer, enhancing the transcriptional activity of the MN–hexamer in an upstream signal-dependent manner. Correspondingly, STAT3 was needed for motor neuron differentiation in the developing spinal cord. Together, our studies uncover crucial gene regulatory mechanisms that couple MN–hexamer and STAT-activating extracellular signals to promote motor neuron differentiation in vertebrate spinal cord. To explain our experimental scheme briefly, we are interested in finding target sites for the dimer of transcription factors Isl1 and Lhx3. To mimic the biological activity of Isl1/Lhx3 dimer, we made Isl1-Lhx3 fusion and found that Isl1-Lhx3 has a potent biological activity in multiple systems (i.e. generation of ectopic motor neurons). Then we made ES cell line that induces Flag-tagged Isl1-Lhx3 expression upon Dox treatment. These *mouse* ES cells differentiate to motor neurons (iMN-ESCs) when treated with Dox following EB formation. To identify genomic binding sites of Isl1-Lhx3 (Flag-tagged), we performed ChIP with Flag antibody (pull down of Flag-Isl1-Lhx3) in ES cells treated with Dox. ChIP with Flag antibody in ES cells treated with vehicle (no Dox) was done as a negative control in parallel, and sequenced along with +Dox sample. We have done these experiments twice (two sets).
Project description:Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) represents about 10% of ALS cases. In about 20% of familial ALS patients, a mutation in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) can be found. The ubiquitous SOD1 protein converts superoxide radical anions to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Patients with familial ALS caused by mutations in SOD1 can show comorbidity with frontotemporal dementia and develop cognitive impairment, including apathy, inattention, verbal deficits, and hypersexuality. At the cellular level, pathological signs of ALS may include tau immunoreactive astrocytic and neuronal inclusions, suggesting that cognitive dysfunction in ALS may also reflect abnormal protein metabolism of the microtubule associated protein (MAP), tau. To identify cell-specific expression changes, we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate anterior horn motor neurons and surrounding cells. To determine common pathways for the development of ALS due to dysfunction of SOD1 or TAU, we performed whole transcriptome analysis in SOD1 and TAU mouse models. Because ALS is a neurodegenerative disease that specifically affects motor neurons, these cells were the main investigative target. Global transcriptomes of glial cells surrounding the motor neurons were also assessed, because these cells have been implicated as triggers of neurodegeneration. Mouse experiments were performed at the presymptomatic stage, prior to the onset of cell loss, in order to reduce false positive signals due to tissue reactive changes. Lumbar anterior horn anterior horn motor neurons and surrounding cells (glia) were isolated from presymptomatic TAU-P301L and SOD1-G93A transgenic mice using laser capture microdissection (LCM; PixCell® IIe LCM System, Arcturus, Molecular Devices, CA). On average, 500 motor neuron bodies or surrounding glial cells from 20 tissue sections per animal were collected. RNA isolation from LCM collected cells was performed using the Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit. Only RNA with RNA Integrity Numbers (RIN) above 7.5 were taken for further analysis (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). A two-round T7-based amplification and labeling protocol (Agilent Low RNA Input Linear Amplification Kit PLUS) was used to generate high quality labeled cRNA. Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarray comparisons of motor neurons and surrounding glia were performed between transgenic (SOD1G93A and TAUP301L) and corresponding nontransgenic (control) littermate animals, producing four independent comparison groups: SOD1G93A motor neurons versus control motor neurons (SOD1mn), SOD1G93A motor neuron surrounding glia versus control glia (SOD1gl), TAUP301L motor neurons versus control motor neurons (TAUmn) and TAUP301L glia versus control glia (TAUgl). Each comparison used four pairs of transgenic (SOD1G93A or TAUP301L) vs. corresponding control littermate animals, producing four biological replicates. Raw microarray data were acquired using the Agilent DNA Microarray scanner and processed with the accompanying Agilent Feature Extraction 10.5 Image Analysis software using default settings. Normalized signal intensities were used to identify gene expression changes in SOD1G93A and TAUP301L motor neurons and surrounding glial cells, generating four partially overlapping sets of data. For the identification of differential expression, the genes were required to pass two conservative criteria: a ratio beyond the 99.5% confidence interval observed in homotypic comparisons, which corresponded to an approximately 1.5-fold expression change, and a paired t-test (P<0.01) computed using 100 permutations of the data for each gene. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the adjusted Bonferroni test. The analysis was performed in the TM4: Microarray Software Suite. These techniques identified 251 transcripts representing 186 known genes for which expression was altered in at least one of the four comparisons. Four-condition experiment, SOD1G93A motor neurons versus control motor neurons (SODmn), SOD1G93A motor neuron surrounding glia versus control glia (SODgl), TAUP301L motor neurons versus control motor neurons (TAUmn) and TAUP301L glia versus control glia (TAUgl). Each comparison used four pairs of transgenic (SOD1G93A or TAUP301L) vs. corresponding control littermate animals, producing four biological replicates. Biological replicates: 4 SOD1G93A motor neurons (SODmn), 4 non SOD littermate motor neurons (nonSODmn), 4 SOD1G93A motor neuron surrounding glia (SODgl), 4 non SOD littermate motor neuron surrounding glia (nonSODgl), 4 TAUP301L motor neurons (TAUmn), 4 non TAU littermate motor neurons (nonTAUmn), 4 TAUP301L motor neuron surrounding glia (TAUgl), 4 non TAU littermate motor neuron surrounding glia (nonTAUgl). Four independent comparison groups were generated: SOD1G93A motor neurons versus control nonSOD motor neurons, SOD1G93A motor neuron surrounding glia versus control nonSOD glia, TAUP301L motor neurons versus control nonTAU motor neurons and TAUP301L glia versus control nonTAU glia. Each comparison used four pairs of transgenic (SOD1G93A or TAUP301L) vs. corresponding control littermate animals, producing four biological replicates. Each replicate was repeated twice with dye flip to correct for unequal dye incorporation rates. Therefore, eight microarray hybridizations were performed for each biological comparison, for a total of 32 microarray slides and generating four groups of differentially expressed genes in SOD1G93A motor neurons (SODmn), SOD1G93A motor neuron surrounding glial cells (SODgl), TAUP301L motor neurons (TAUmn), and TAUP301L surrounding glial cells (TAUgl).
Project description:Downregulation of expression and activity levels of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is thought to be implicated in motor neuron excitotoxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously reported that EAAT2 is cleaved by caspase-3 at the cytosolic C-terminus domain, impairing the transport activity and generating a proteolytic fragment found to be SUMO1 conjugated (CTE-SUMO1). We show here that this fragment accumulates in the nucleus of spinal cord astrocytes in vivo throughout the disease stages of the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS. In vitro expression in spinal cord astrocytes of the C-terminus peptide of EAAT2 (CTE), which was artificially fused to SUMO1 (CTE-SUMO1fus) to mimic the endogenous SUMOylation reaction, recapitulates the nuclear accumulation of the fragment seen in vivo and causes caspase-3 activation and axonal growth impairment in motor neuron-derived NSC-34 cells and primary motor neurons co-cultured with CTE-SUMO1fus-expressing spinal cord astrocytes. This indicates that CTE-SUMO1fus could trigger non-cell autonomous mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Prolonged nuclear accumulation of CTE-SUMO1fus in astrocytes leads to their degeneration, although the time frame of the cell-autonomous toxicity is longer than the one for the indirect toxic effect on motor neurons. As more evidence on the implication of SUMO substrates in neurodegenerative diseases emerges, our observations strongly suggest that the nuclear accumulation in spinal cord astrocytes of a SUMOylated proteolytic fragment of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 could take part to the pathogenesis of ALS and suggest a novel, unconventional role for EAAT2 in motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Comparison is made between the toxic fragment (SUMO) and the same fragment without lysines that can be sumo-ylated (CTE). Four replicates have been performed for each sample group.