Regulon of transcriptional regulator PA2449 in Pseduomonas aeruginosa PAO1
ABSTRACT: The putative trancriptional regulator PA2449 was found to be essential for both glycine/serine metabolism and the production of phenazines in P. aeruignosa PAO1. We examined the regulon controlled by PA2449 via microarray analysis between wild-type P. aeruignosa PAO1 and the PA2449-null mutant P. aeruginosa PW5126. Both strains were obtained from the PA-two allele library (Univ. of Washington, Ref. Jacobs et al. 2003. PNAS 100, 14339). Strains were grown under conditions known to induce phenazine biosynthesis (peptone broth), and their resulting transcriptomes were compared. Total RNA was isolated and prepped for Affymetrix GeneChips.
Project description:Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 30-84 is an effective biological control agent against take-all disease of wheat. Phenazines, bacterial secondary metabolites produced by 30-84, are essential for 30-84 to inhibit fungal pathogens, form biofilms, and effectively colonize the rhizosphere. However, how the bacteria themselves respond to phenazines remains unknown. In this study, we conducted an RNA-seq analysis by comparing the wild type strain with a phenazine deficient mutant. RNA-seq analysis identified over 200 genes differentially regulated by phenazines. Consistent with previous findings in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, phenazines positively contribute to the expression of their own biosynthetic genes. Moreover, phenazine regulatory genes including the phzI/phzR quorum sensing system and the rpeB response regulatory were also expressed at high levels in the presence of phenazines. Besides phenazine biosynthesis and regulatory genes, genes involved in secondary metabolism, exopoysaccharide production and iron uptake as well as amino acid transport were identified as the major components under phenazine control, including many novel genes. We have also demonstrated that mutation of the primary siderophore gene pvdA resulted in up-regulation of phenazine genes when grown in iron-limiting media. These findings implicate phenazines as signaling molecules to regulate gene expression and hence alter metabolism in P. chlororaphis strain 30-84. A total of 4 samples were analyzed in AB medium + 2% casamino acids, Pseudomonas chlororaphis wild type strain (2 replicates); Pseudomonas chlororaphis ZN mutant (2 replicates).
Project description:Pseudomonas sp. strain M18, an effective biological control agent isolated from the melon rhizosphere, has a genetic background similar to that of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. However, the predominant phenazine produced by strain M18 is phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) rather than pyocyanin (PYO); the quantitative ratio of PCA to PYO is 105 to 1 at 28 degrees C in strain M18, while the ratio is 1 to 2 at 37 degrees C in strain PAO1. We first provided evidence that the differential production of the two phenazines in strains M18 and PAO1 is related to the temperature-dependent and strain-specific expression patterns of phzM, a gene involved in the conversion of PCA to PYO. Transcriptional levels of phzM were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, and the activities of both transcriptional and translational phzM'-'lacZ fusions were determined in strains M18 and PAO1, respectively. Using lasI::Gm and ptsP::Gm inactivation M18 mutants, we further show that expression of the phzM gene is positively regulated by the quorum-sensing protein LasI and negatively regulated by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase protein PtsP. Surprisingly, the lasI and ptsP regulatory genes were also expressed in a temperature-dependent and strain-specific manner. The differential production of the phenazines PCA and PYO by strains M18 and PAO1 may be a consequence of selective pressure imposed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its relative M18 in the two different niches over a long evolutionary process.
Project description:Many pseudomonads produce redox active compounds called phenazines that function in a variety of biological processes. Phenazines are well known for their toxicity against non-phenazine-producing organisms, which allows them to serve as crucial biocontrol agents and virulence factors during infection. As for other secondary metabolites, conditions of nutritional stress or limitation stimulate the production of phenazines, but little is known of the molecular details underlying this phenomenon. Using a combination of microarray and metabolite analyses, we demonstrate that the assimilation of glycine as a carbon source and the biosynthesis of pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 are both dependent on the PA2449 gene. The inactivation of the PA2449 gene was found to influence the transcription of a core set of genes encoding a glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and serine dehydratase. PA2449 also affected the transcription of several genes that are integral in cell signaling and pyocyanin biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1. This study sheds light on the unexpected relationship between the utilization of an unfavorable carbon source and the production of pyocyanin. PA2449 is conserved among pseudomonads and might be universally involved in the assimilation of glycine among this metabolically diverse group of bacteria.
Project description:Gene duplication often provides selective advantages for the survival of microorganisms in adapting to varying environmental conditions. P. aeruginosa PAO1 possesses two seven-gene operons [phz1 (phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1) and phz2 (phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2)] that are involved in the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and its derivatives. Although the two operons are highly homologous and their functions are well known, it is unclear how the two phz operons coordinate their expressions to maintain the phenazine biosynthesis. By constructing single and double deletion mutants of the two phz operons, we found that the phz1-deletion mutant produced the same or less amount of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin in GA medium than the phz2-knockout mutant while the phz1-phz2 double knockout mutant did not produce any phenazines. By generating phzA1 and phzA2 translational and transcriptional fusions with a truncated lacZ reporter, we found that the expression of the phz1 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and did not alter at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz2 operon. Surprisingly, the expression the phz2 operon increased significantly at the post-transcriptional level and only moderately at the transcriptional level in the absence of the phz1 operon. Our findings suggested that a complex cross-regulation existed between the phz1 and phz2 operons. By mediating the upregulation of one phz operon expression while the other was deleted, this crosstalk would maintain the homeostatic balance of phenazine biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa PAO1.
Project description:Phenazines are small redox-active molecules produced by a variety of bacteria. Beyond merely serving as antibiotics, recent studies suggest that phenazines play important physiological roles, including one in iron acquisition. Here we characterize the ability of four electrochemically reduced natural phenazines--pyocyanin (PYO), phenazine-1-carboxylate (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide, and 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-OHPHZ)--to reductively dissolve ferrihydrite and hematite in the pH range 5-8. Generally, the reaction rate is higher for a phenazine with a lower reduction potential, with the reaction between PYO and ferrihydrite at pH 5 being an exception; the rate decreases as the pH increases; the rate is higher for poorly crystalline ferrihydrite than for highly crystalline hematite. Ferric (hydr)oxide reduction by reduced phenazines can potentially be inhibited by oxygen, where O2 competes with Fe(III) as the final oxidant The reactivity of reduced phenazines with 02 decreases in the order: PYO > 1-OHPHZ > PCA. Strikingly, reduced PYO,which isthe least reactive phenazine with ferrihydrite and hematite at pH 7, is the most reactive phenazine with O2. These results imply that different phenazines may perform different functions in environments with gradients of iron and O2.
Project description:Diverse bacteria, including several Pseudomonas species, produce a class of redox-active metabolites called phenazines that impact different cell types in nature and disease. Phenazines can affect microbial communities in both positive and negative ways, where their presence is correlated with decreased species richness and diversity. However, little is known about how the concentration of phenazines is modulated in situ and what this may mean for the fitness of members of the community. Through culturing of phenazine-degrading mycobacteria, genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and molecular analysis, we identified several conserved genes that are important for the degradation of three Pseudomonas-derived phenazines: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), and pyocyanin (PYO). PCA can be used as the sole carbon source for growth by these organisms. Deletion of several genes in Mycobacterium fortuitum abolishes the degradation phenotype, and expression of two genes in a heterologous host confers the ability to degrade PCN and PYO. In cocultures with phenazine producers, phenazine degraders alter the abundance of different phenazine types. Not only does degradation support mycobacterial catabolism, but also it provides protection to bacteria that would otherwise be inhibited by the toxicity of PYO. Collectively, these results serve as a reminder that microbial metabolites can be actively modified and degraded and that these turnover processes must be considered when the fate and impact of such compounds in any environment are being assessed.Phenazine production by Pseudomonas spp. can shape microbial communities in a variety of environments ranging from the cystic fibrosis lung to the rhizosphere of dryland crops. For example, in the rhizosphere, phenazines can protect plants from infection by pathogenic fungi. The redox activity of phenazines underpins their antibiotic activity, as well as providing pseudomonads with important physiological benefits. Our discovery that soil mycobacteria can catabolize phenazines and thereby protect other organisms against phenazine toxicity suggests that phenazine degradation may influence turnover in situ. The identification of genes involved in the degradation of phenazines opens the door to monitoring turnover in diverse environments, an essential process to consider when one is attempting to understand or control communities influenced by phenazines.
Project description:Phenazines are a class of redox-active molecules produced by diverse bacteria and archaea. Many of the biological functions of phenazines, such as mediating signaling, iron acquisition, and redox homeostasis, derive from their redox activity. Although prior studies have focused on extracellular phenazine oxidation by oxygen and iron, here we report a search for reductants and catalysts of intracellular phenazine reduction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enzymatic assays in cell-free lysate, together with crude fractionation and chemical inhibition, indicate that P. aeruginosa contains multiple enzymes that catalyze the reduction of the endogenous phenazines pyocyanin and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in both cytosolic and membrane fractions. We used chemical inhibitors to target general enzyme classes and found that an inhibitor of flavoproteins and heme-containing proteins, diphenyleneiodonium, effectively inhibited phenazine reduction in vitro, suggesting that most phenazine reduction derives from these enzymes. Using natively purified proteins, we demonstrate that the pyruvate and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes directly catalyze phenazine reduction with pyruvate or ?-ketoglutarate as electron donors. Both complexes transfer electrons to phenazines through the common subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, a flavoprotein encoded by the gene lpdG Although we were unable to co-crystallize LpdG with an endogenous phenazine, we report its X-ray crystal structure in the apo-form (refined to 1.35 Å), bound to NAD+ (1.45 Å), and bound to NADH (1.79 Å). In contrast to the notion that phenazines support intracellular redox homeostasis by oxidizing NADH, our work suggests that phenazines may substitute for NAD+ in LpdG and other enzymes, achieving the same end by a different mechanism.
Project description:The transcriptome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 in the presence of extracelluar 2-oxoglutarate at a concentration of 20 mM. We determined the transcriptional response of P. aeruignosa PAO1 to extracellular 2-oxoglutarate. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was grown in nutrient broth (Oxoid number 2) and induced with 20 mM 2-oxoglutarate. At 30 min post induction, total RNA was isolated and prepped for Affymetrix GeneChips.
Project description:Certain strains of root-colonizing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. produce phenazines, a class of antifungal metabolites that can provide protection against various soilborne root pathogens. Despite the fact that the phenazine biosynthetic locus is highly conserved among fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., individual strains differ in the range of phenazine compounds they produce. This study focuses on the ability of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 to produce 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA) and 2-hydroxyphenazine from the common phenazine metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). P. aureofaciens 30-84 contains a novel gene located downstream from the core phenazine operon that encodes a 55-kDa aromatic monooxygenase responsible for the hydroxylation of PCA to produce 2-OH-PCA. Knowledge of the genes responsible for phenazine product specificity could ultimately reveal ways to manipulate organisms to produce multiple phenazines or novel phenazines not previously described.
Project description:The activities of critical metabolic and regulatory proteins can be altered by exposure to natural or synthetic redox-cycling compounds. Many bacteria, therefore, possess mechanisms to transport or transform these small molecules. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 synthesizes phenazines, redox-active antibiotics that are toxic to other organisms but have beneficial effects for their producer. Phenazines activate the redox-sensing transcription factor SoxR and thereby induce the transcription of a small regulon, including the operon mexGHI-opmD, which encodes an efflux pump that transports phenazines, and PA14_35160 (pumA), which encodes a putative monooxygenase. Here, we provide evidence that PumA contributes to phenazine resistance and normal biofilm development, particularly during exposure to or production of strongly oxidizing N-methylated phenazines. We show that phenazine resistance depends on the presence of residues that are conserved in the active sites of other putative and characterized monooxygenases found in the antibiotic producer Streptomyces coelicolor. We also show that during biofilm growth, PumA is required for the conversion of phenazine methosulfate to unique phenazine metabolites. Finally, we compare ?mexGHI-opmD and ?pumA strains in assays for colony biofilm morphogenesis and SoxR activation, and find that these deletions have opposing phenotypic effects. Our results suggest that, while MexGHI-OpmD-mediated efflux has the effect of making the cellular phenazine pool more reducing, PumA acts on cellular phenazines to make the pool more oxidizing. We present a model in which these two SoxR targets function simultaneously to control the biological activity of the P. aeruginosa phenazine pool.