Gene expression data from ahES cells, ES cells, MEF cells and round sperm
ABSTRACT: Haploid stem cells offer an easy-to-manipulate genetic system and therefore have great values for studies of recessive phenotypes. Here, we show that mouse androgenetic haploid ES (ahES) cell lines can be established by transferring sperm into enucleated oocyte. The ahES cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over 30 passages, express pluripotent markers, possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ-layers in vitro and in vivo, and contribute to germline of chimeras when injected into blastocysts. Although epigenetically distinct from sperm cells, the ahES cells can produce viable and fertile progenies after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes. The oocyte injection procedure can also produce viable transgenic mice from genetically engineered ahES cells. We used microarrays to compare the global programme of gene expression among ahES cells, normal diploid ES cells, MEF cells and round sperm cells and found that gene expression pattern of ahES cells was highly similar with ES cells but was distinct from MEF cells and round sperms. Androgenetic haploid ES cells were FACS sorted to harvest the G0/G1 phase haploid cells. Total RNA were extracted from three ahES cell lines (AH129-5, AH129-N1, AH129-NC1, all 129Sv genetic background), two ES cell lines ( CS1-1, R1, 129Sv background), MEF cells and round sperm and hybridized with Affymetrix GeneChip 430 2.0 array. Data were collected and analyzed to compare their gene expression pattern.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE35785: mRNA expression data from AG-haESC, E14 and MEF GSE35786: CGH analysis of AG-haESCs (androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Generation of haploid gametes in vitro can potentially address gamete failure-based infertility.This study reports complete in vitro meiosis from murine ESC-derived PGCLCs resulting in the formation of male spermatid-like cells (SLCs) capable of producing viable fertile offspring via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Our findings provide the basis for generation of haploid spermatids in vitro in human, the generation of transgenic animals, and the use of this system to investigate mechanisms of meiosis. We used microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of in vivo and in vitro derived PGC cells and round spermatids. We collected E12.5 male fatal PGCs, PGCLC in vitro, round spermatids and spermatids like cells produced in vitro, each sample has 3 replications.
Project description:Haploid cells are amenable for genetic analysis because they contain only one set of chromosomes.Here,we report the derivation of haESCs from androgenetic blastocysts. These cells, which we designated AG-haESCs, express classical ESC markers, are pluripotent, and contribute to various tissues including the germline upon injection into diploid blastocysts. We used microarrays to compare the gene expression levels among androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cell lines(AG-haESC) E14 and male mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and identified that most paternally imprinted genes were down-regulated and the maternally imprinted genes were up-regulated. To avoid the influence of diploidized cells on the expression profile, we collected samples from FACS of cells at G1/G0 stage by staining Hochest 33342. We used E14,which was a male embryonic stem cell lines, and MEFs isloated from male individuals as control. Gene expression profiles of all the cell lines were analysed on an Affymetrix GeneChip 430 2.0 array.
Project description:Haploid mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great promise for functional genetic studies and assisted reproduction. Recently, rodent androgenetic haploid ESCs (AG-haESCs) were generated from androgenetic blastocysts and functioned like sperm to produce viable offspring via the intracytoplasmic AG-haESCs injection into oocytes. However, the efficiency of this reproduction was very low. Most pups were growth-retarded and died shortly after birth, which is not practical for producing knockout animals. Further investigation suggested a possible link between the low birthrate and aberrant expression of imprinted genes. Here, we report the high-frequency generation of healthy, fertile mice from H19-Igf2 imprinting-locus modified AG-haESCs, which maintained normal paternal imprinting and pluripotency. Moreover, it is feasible to perform further genetic manipulations in these AG-haESCs. Our study provides a reliable and efficient tool to rapidly produce gene-modified mouse models and will benefit reproductive medicine in the future.
Project description:Androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles are human pregnancies with no embryos and affect 1 in every 1,400 pregnancies. They have mostly androgenetic monospermic genomes with all the chromosomes originating from a haploid sperm and no maternal chromosomes. Androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles were described in 1977, but how they occur has remained an open question. We identified bi-allelic deleterious mutations in MEI1, TOP6BL/C11orf80, and REC114, with roles in meiotic double-strand breaks formation in women with recurrent androgenetic complete hydatidiform moles. We investigated the occurrence of androgenesis in Mei1-deficient female mice and discovered that 8% of their oocytes lose all their chromosomes by extruding them with the spindles into the first polar body. We demonstrate that Mei1-/- oocytes are capable of fertilization and 5% produce androgenetic zygotes. Thus, we uncover a meiotic abnormality in mammals and a mechanism for the genesis of androgenetic zygotes that is the extrusion of all maternal chromosomes and their spindles into the first polar body.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Testis-derived male germ-line stem (GS) cells, the in vitro counterpart of spermatogonial stem cells (SSC), can acquire multipotency under appropriate culture conditions to become multipotent adult germ-line stem (maGS) cells, which upon testicular transplantation, produce teratoma instead of initiating spermatogenesis. Consequently, a molecular marker that can distinguish GS cells from maGS cells would be of potential value in both clinical and experimental research settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using mouse as a model system, here we show that, similar to sperm, expression of imprinted and paternally expressed miRNAs (miR-296-3p, miR-296-5p, miR-483) were consistently higher (P<0.001), while those of imprinted and maternally expressed miRNA (miR-127, miR-127-5p) were consistently lower (P<0.001) in GS cells than in control embryonic stem (ES) cells. DNA methylation analyses of imprinting control regions (ICR), that control the expression of all imprinted miRNAs in respective gene clusters (Gnas-Nespas DMR, Igf2-H19 ICR and Dlk1-Dio3 IG-DMR), confirmed that imprinted miRNAs were androgenetic in GS cells. On the other hand, DNA methylation of imprinted miRNA genes in maGS cells resembled those of ES cells but the expression pattern of the imprinted miRNAs was intermediate between those of GS and ES cells. The expression of imprinted miRNAs in GS and maGS cells were also altered during their in vitro differentiation and varied both with the differentiation stage and the miRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GS cells have androgenetic DNA methylation and expression of imprinted miRNAs which changes to ES cell-like pattern upon their conversion to maGS cells. Differential genomic imprinting of imprinted miRNAs may thus, serve as epigenetic miRNA signature or molecular marker to distinguish GS cells from maGS cells.
Project description:The rat androgenetic embryonic stem cells (RahES cells) have only 21 chromosomes. However, they express pluripotency markers, differentiate into three germ layer cells as well as contribute to the germline as the normal diploid rat ES cells. Moreover, the RahES cells can produce fertile rats after intracytoplasmic injection into oocytes, thus are capable to transmit genetic modifications to offspring. We used microarrays to detail the global gene expression profile of RahES cells and identified distinct classes of up-regulated and down-regulated genes compared with the expression of normal diploid rat ES cells. Two different RahES cell lines, one diploid rat ES cell line and round sperm cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix Chip.
Project description:Uniparental reproduction is widespread among lower vertebrates, but not in mammals. Researchers have produced bimaternal mice with a deletion of the H19 imprinted region. However, the mechanism of a single deletion in an immature oocyte sufficient to cross uniparental barriers is unknown. We found bimaternal-derived mice to be defective in multiple aspects. More importantly, bipaternal reproduction has not been achieved in mammals. Thus, the barrier of uniparental reproduction in mammals has not been elucidated. We identified a DNA hypomethylation status in haploid embryonic stem cells similar to that in primordial germ cells, with which bimaternal and bipaternal mice can be obtained by injection of haploid ES cells with genetic modifications. The phenotypic analyses of derived mice support the genetic conflict theory of genomic imprinting. Taken together, our results highlight the factors necessary for crossing uniparental reproduction barriers in mammals. Overall design: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) for a global DNA methylation analysis of wild type (WT) or the differentially methylated region knocking out (DMR-KO) haploid ESCs androgenetic haploid ESCs (ahESC), parthenogenetic haploid ESCs (phESCs), diploid ESCs, embryos and brain tissue. Compared to wild type (WT) embryo, which was produced by normal zygote deriving from normal sperm and oocyte, the bimaternal (BM) embryo was produced through injecting a phESC into an MII oocyte and the bipaternal (BP) embryo was produced through injecting injecting an ahESC and a sperm into an enucleated oocyte.
Project description:Human embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained in an undifferentiated state if the culture medium is first conditioned on a layer of mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells. Here we show that human ES cell proliferation is coordinated by MEF-secreted heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) in conditioned medium (CM). These HSPG and other heparinoids can stabilize basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) in unconditioned medium at levels comparable to those observed in CM. They also directly mediate binding of FGF2 to the human ES cell surface, and their removal from CM impairs proliferation. Finally, we have developed a purification scheme for MEF-secreted HSPG in CM. Using column chromatography, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, we have identified multiple HSPG species in CM. The results demonstrate that HSPG are key signaling cofactors in CM-based human ES cell culture.