Expression data from early B cell progenitors including CLP,ProB and PreB of Pax5 knockout and wild type C57Bl6 mice
ABSTRACT: we have investigated molecular and functional properties in early B-lineage cells from Pax-5 deficient animals crossed to a B-lineage restricted reporter mouse. Gene expression analysis of ex vivo isolated progenitor cells revealed that Pax-5 deficiency has a minor impact on Bcell specification.By comparison of gene expression patterns in ex vivo isolated Pax-5 and Ebf-1 deficient progenitors, it was possible to identify a set of B-cell restricted genes dependent of Ebf-1 but not Pax-5, supporting the idea that B-cell specification and commitment is controlled by distinct regulatory networks. wt λ5 reporter+ and Pax5ko λ5reporter+ fetal liver from d15 embryos isolated and transplanted into sublethaly irradiated mice. After 4 weeks B220+λ5+ cells were sorted out from the bone marrow of the mice and subjected to microarray analyses
Project description:we have investigated molecular and functional properties in early B-lineage cells from Pax-5 deficient animals crossed to a B-lineage restricted reporter mouse. Gene expression analysis of ex vivo isolated progenitor cells revealed that Pax-5 deficiency has a minor impact on Bcell specification.By comparison of gene expression patterns in ex vivo isolated Pax-5 and Ebf-1 deficient progenitors, it was possible to identify a set of B-cell restricted genes dependent of Ebf-1 but not Pax-5, supporting the idea that B-cell specification and commitment is controlled by distinct regulatory networks. wt ?5 reporter+ and Pax5ko ?5reporter+ fetal liver from d15 embryos isolated and transplanted into sublethaly irradiated mice. After 4 weeks B220+?5+ cells were sorted out from the bone marrow of the mice and subjected to microarray analyses
Project description:To better understand the process of B-lymphocyte lineage restriction, we have investigated molecular and functional properties in early B-lineage cells from Pax-5-deficient animals crossed to a B-lineage-restricted reporter mouse, allowing us to identify B-lineage-specified progenitors independently of conventional surface markers. Pax-5 deficiency resulted in a dramatic increase in the frequency of specified progenitor B-cells marked by expression of a ?5 (Igll1) promoter-controlled reporter gene. Gene expression analysis of ex vivo isolated progenitor cells revealed that Pax-5 deficiency has a minor impact on B-cell specification. However, single-cell in vitro differentiation analysis of ex vivo isolated cells revealed that specified B-lineage progenitors still displayed a high degree of plasticity for development into NK or T lineage cells. In contrast, we were unable to detect any major changes in myeloid lineage potential in specified Pax-5-deficient cells. By comparison of gene expression patterns in ex vivo isolated Pax-5- and Ebf-1-deficient progenitors, it was possible to identify a set of B-cell-restricted genes dependent on Ebf-1 but not Pax-5, supporting the idea that B-cell specification and commitment is controlled by distinct regulatory networks.
Project description:IL-7 plays a critical role in B cell fate decision by regulating early B cell factor (EBF) expression. However, it was not clear when IL-7 stimulation is necessary in hemato-/lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Here we show that pre-proB cells derived from IL-7-/- mice have lost B cell potential, despite up-regulation of EBF expression following IL-7 stimulation. Pre-proB cells from wild-type mice can give rise to proB cells in the absence of IL-7. In this case, EBF up-regulation during the transition from the pre-proB to proB stages occurs normally. In contrast, EBF expression by IL-7-/- pre-proB cells after IL-7 stimulation is approximately 20 times lower than wild-type pre-proB cells. In addition, only multipotent progenitors with higher levels of ectopic EBF can give rise to proB cells in the absence of IL-7. Therefore, the primary function of IL-7 before the pre-proB stage in B cell development is to maintain the EBF expression level above a certain threshold, which is necessary for pre-proB cells to further transit to the proB stage.
Project description:Transcription factors are frequently involved in the process of cellular transformation, and many malignancies are characterized by a distinct genetic event affecting a specific transcription factor. This probably reflects a tissue specific ability of transcription factors to contribute to the generation of cancer but very little is known about the precise mechanisms that governs these restricted effects.To investigate this selectivity in target gene activation we compared the overall gene expression patterns by micro-array analysis and expression of target genes for the transcription factor EBF in lymphoma and neuroblastoma cells by RT-PCR. The presence of transcription factors in the different model cell lines was further investigated by EMSA analysis.In pre-B cells mb-1 and CD19 are regulate by EBF-1 in collaboration with Pax-5 and E-proteins. We here show that neuroblastoma cells express these three, for B cell development crucial transcription factors, but nevertheless fail to express detectable levels of their known target genes. Expression of mb-1 could, however, be induced in neuroblastoma cells after disruption of the chromatin structure by treatment with 5-azacytidine and Trichostatin A.These data suggest that transcription factors are able to selectively activate target genes in different tissues and that chromatin structure plays a key role in the regulation of this activity.
Project description:We have determined that sustained expression of EBF suppresses alternate lineage genes independently of Pax5. Experiment Overall Design: Pax5-/- pro-B cells transduced with control or EBF retrovirus. Transduced cells were FACS sorted based on GFP expression and total RNA was isolated. RNA isolated from control or EBF transduced cells was analyzed using the Affymetrix Rat 230A microarrays.
Project description:We have determined that sustained expression of EBF suppresses alternate lineage genes independently of Pax5. Keywords: Transcription factor EBF restricts alternate lineage options and promotes B cell fate commitment independently of Pax5. Overall design: Pax5-/- pro-B cells transduced with control or EBF retrovirus. Transduced cells were FACS sorted based on GFP expression and total RNA was isolated. RNA isolated from control or EBF transduced cells was analyzed using the Affymetrix Rat 230A microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other gram-positive organisms.
Project description:The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins are essential components of the regulatory network controlling vertebrate myogenesis. However, determined myoblasts appear in the limb buds which do not initially express any member of this transcription factor family. In a search for potential novel regulators of myogenesis, a human PAX-7 cDNA was isolated from primary myoblasts. Analysis of the DNA-binding properties of the Pax-7 paired domain revealed that it binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner indistinguishable from that of the paralogous Pax-3 protein. Each of the two proteins also binds to palindromic homeodomain-binding sites by cooperative dimerization. Both Pax-3 and Pax-7, which are known to partially overlap in their expression during development, can also efficiently form heterodimers on these sites and stimulate reporter gene transcription in transient transfection experiments which, in the case of Pax-7, is dependent on the transactivation function encoded by the C-terminal sequences. Thus, the formation of heterodimers might have important consequences for target gene recognition and regulation during development. PAX-7 was found to be weakly expressed in normal human myoblasts, while PAX-3 could not be detected in these cells at all. However, transcripts for either PAX-3 and/or PAX-7 were expressed at elevated levels in tumorigenic rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Hence, overexpression of these PAX genes may be involved in the genesis of myogenic tumors.
Project description:Paired box (PAX) genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.
Project description:Early B cell factor (EBF) is a transcription factor essential for specification and commitment to the B cell fate. In this study, we show downregulation of a developmentally regulated cluster of hoxa genes, notably hoxa9, coincides with induction of EBF at the Pro-B cell stage of B cell differentiation. Analysis of the hematopoietic progenitor compartment in Hoxa9(-/-) mice revealed significantly reduced frequencies and expression levels of Flt3, a cytokine receptor important for lymphoid priming and the generation of B cell precursors (BCPs). We show that Hoxa9 directly regulates the flt3 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed binding of Hoxa9 to the flt3 promoter in a lymphoid progenitor cell line. Knockdown of Hoxa9 significantly reduced Flt3 transcription and expression. Conversely, forced expression of Hoxa9 increased Flt3 transcription and expression in a Pro-B cell line that expressed low levels of Flt3. Hoxa9 inversely correlated with ebf1 in ex vivo-isolated bone marrow progenitors and BCPs, suggesting that EBF might function to silence a Hoxa9 transcriptional program. Restoration of EBF function in an EBF(-/-) cell line induced B lineage gene expression but did not directly suppress hoxa9 transcription, revealing alternate mechanisms of Hoxa9 regulation in BCPs. These data provide new insight into Hoxa9 function and regulation during lymphoid and B cell development. Furthermore, they suggest that failure to upregulate Flt3 provides a molecular basis for the lymphoid/early B cell deficiencies in Hoxa9(-/-) mice.