Comparative analysis of Gallus gallus cecal epithelia following Eimeria tenella infection
ABSTRACT: Relative expression levels of mRNAs in chicken cecal epithelia experimentally infected with Eimeria tenella were measured at 4.5 days post-infection. Two weeks old chickens were uninfected (negative control) or were orally inoculated with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Cecal epithelia samples were collected from >12 birds in infected or uninfected group at 4.5 d following infections, in which samples from 4 birds were pooled together to form a total 3 biological replicates in each group. Parasite merozoites were also collected from four infected chickens at 5 d after infections. Uninfected control samples, merozoites and infection group samples were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We used Affymetrix GeneChip chicken genome arrays to detail the chicken cecal epithelia gene expression in the control and E. tenella-infected birds. Infected, uninfected chicken cecal epithelia and merozoites were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization with Affymetrix microarrays. Our goal was to analyze global transcriptome changes in chicken cecal mucous membranes in response to E. tenella infection in vivo. We used infected (T1,T2,T3; three biological replicates) and uninfected (Neg1, Neg2, Neg3; three biological replicates) samples to identify genes that were differentially expressed. Meanwhile, RNA and probes were also prepared from parasite merozoites (Mzt) from infected samples (Mzt) and used as an additional control in microarray hybridization.
SUBMITTER: Guan Zhu Guang F TianXue P CaiXue N LuoJian P CaiAijiang GuoAi J GuoWei GongHong B Yan
Project description:The recent cloning of chicken genes coding for interleukins, chemokines, and other proteins involved in immune regulation and inflammation allowed us to analyze their expression during infection with Eimeria. The expression levels of different genes in jejunal and cecal RNA extracts isolated from uninfected chickens and chickens infected with Eimeria maxima or E. tenella were measured using a precise quantitative reverse transcription-PCR technique. Seven days after E. tenella infection, expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA was increased 80-fold. Among the chemokines analyzed, the CC chemokines K203 (200-fold) and macrophage inflammatory factor 1beta (MIP-1beta) (80-fold) were strongly upregulated in the infected ceca, but the CXC chemokines IL-8 and K60 were not. However, the CXC chemokines were expressed at very high levels in uninfected cecal extracts. The levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) (300-fold), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (200-fold), and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF) (50-fold) were also highly upregulated during infection with E. tenella, whereas cyclooxygenase 2 showed a more modest (13-fold) increase. The genes upregulated during E. tenella infection were generally also upregulated during E. maxima infection but at a lower magnitude except for those encoding MIP-1beta and MGF. For these two cytokines, no significant change in expression levels was observed after E. maxima infection. CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes may participate in the IFN-gamma upregulation observed after infection, since both recruitment and upregulation of the IFN-gamma mRNA level were observed in the infected jejunal mucosa. Moreover, in the chicken macrophage cell line HD-11, CC chemokines, MGF, IL-1beta, and iNOS were inducible by IFN-gamma, suggesting that macrophages may be one of the cell populations involved in the upregulation of these cytokines observed in vivo during infection with Eimeria.
Project description:Coccidiosis, caused by various Eimeria species, is a major parasitic disease in chickens. However, our understanding on how chickens respond to coccidian infection is highly limited at both molecular and cellular levels. The present study employed the Affymetrix chicken genome array and performed transcriptome analysis on chicken cecal epithelia in response to infection for 4.5 days in vivo by the cecal-specific species E. tenella. By Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), we have identified 7,099 probe sets with q-values at <0.05, in which 4,033 and 3,066 genes were found to be up- or down-regulated in response to parasite infection. The reliability of the microarray data were validated by real-time qRT-PCR of 20 genes with varied fold changes in expression (i.e., correlation coefficient between microarray and qRT-PCR datasets: R (2) = 0.8773, p<0.0001). Gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway mapping and manual annotations of regulated genes indicated that up-regulated genes were mainly involved in immunity/defense, responses to various stimuli, apoptosis/cell death and differentiation, signal transduction and extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas down-regulated genes were mainly encoding general metabolic enzymes, membrane components, and some transporters. Chickens mustered complex cecal eipthelia molecular and immunological responses in response to E. tenella infection, which included pathways involved in cytokine production and interactions, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and intestinal IgA production. In response to the pathogenesis and damage caused by infection, chicken cecal epithelia reduced general metabolism, DNA replication and repair, protein degradation, and mitochondrial functions.
Project description:Coccidiosis is one of the most prevalent diseases seen in the poultry industry leading to excessive economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid glycerol esters (BE) on the ileal and cecal microbiota in birds challenged with Eimeria maxima (EM). Ross 708 male broilers were fed a diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 0.25% BE from day 1. On day 21, half of the birds were infected with 103 EM oocysts. For determing microbiota, ileal and cecal contents and epithelial scrapings were collected at 7 and 10 D postinfection (PI). Alpha diversity of bacterial communities was mostly affected (P < 0.05) by time PI and EM infection. The richness of luminal bacterial populations in the ileum and ceca was affected (P < 0.05) by addition of BE and by time PI × EM × BE interaction, respectively. In the ileal and cecal luminal and mucosal bacterial communities, permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA, unweighted UniFrac) showed significant (P < 0.05) differences because of time PI and interaction between time PI, EM, and BE. Significant (P < 0.05) differences in taxonomic composition at the family level were observed in microbiota of luminal and mucosal populations of the ileum and ceca owing to time PI, EM, BE, and their interactions. The bacterial community present in the cecal lumen was characterized by the lowest number of differential bacteria, whereas the cecal mucosal community was characterized by the highest number of differentially abundant bacteria. In conclusion, our results show that EM infection and time PI has the biggest impact on microbial diversity in the chicken gut. The presence of BE in the diet had a limited effect on gut microbiota.
Project description:Relative expression levels of mRNAs in chicken IEL experimentally infected with EA, EM, or ET were measured at 1 to 6 days post-infection (dpi) following primary and secondary infections. One week-old chickens were uninfected (negative control) or were orally inoculated with sporulated oocysts of EA, EM, or ET. One week later, the infected chickens were challenged with an identical inoculum of the homologous parasite. Intestinal samples were collected daily from 5 birds in a treatment group at from 1 to 6 dpi following primary and secondary infections. Cecum, duodenum, and jejunum were collected from the birds challenged with E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella, respectively. Uninfected control samples and one of the 3 infection group samples were labeled with different fluorescent dyes and hybridized simultaneously on the same slide using a reference design with a dye swap protocol. Thirty seven-condition experiment, Non-infected control vs. Primary or secondary EA, EM, or ET infected IEL at 1 to 6. Biological replicates: 2 replicates with dye-switching from each infection groups. Two replicates per array.
Project description:Background:The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of encapsulated essential oils and organic acids (BLJ) on growth performance and gut health using a coinfection model of NE in broiler chickens. Methods:Two hundred and eighty-eight one-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned using a 2?×?2 factorial design into two groups fed either 0 or 500?mg/kg dietary BLJ and co-challenged (or not challenged for the control) with Eimeria spp./C. perfringens. Results:Infected birds fed the BLJ-supplemented diet exhibited an improved feed conversion ratio throughout the trial (P <?0.01), a higher villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio, and reduced intestinal C. perfringens counts, liver C. perfringens carriage, gut lesion scores and serum fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) concentrations at 7?d post-infection compared with those of birds without BLJ supplementation (P <?0.05). NE-infected birds fed BLJ exhibited significantly upregulated claudin-1 and IGF-2 mRNA levels (P <?0.05), increased A20 mRNA expression and significantly downregulated TRAF-6, TNFSF15 and TOLLIP mRNA levels in the jejunum at 7?d post-infection compared with those in birds without BLJ supplementation (P <?0.05). Compared with the uninfected and untreated birds, the uninfected birds fed BLJ displayed increased relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Coprococcus but reduced Rikenellaceae levels. Compared with the unsupplemented NE-challenged birds, infected birds fed BLJ showed an increased relative abundance of Unclassified_Lachnospiraceae and a significantly decreased relative abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae. Conclusion:BLJ supplementation improved growth performance and gut health in NE-infected broiler chickens by strengthening the intestinal barrier function, positively modulating the gut microbiota community and differentially regulating intestinal immune responses. Our results also suggested that adding BLJ effectively controlled NE infections after experimental Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens coinfection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apicomplexan protozoans of the genus Eimeria cause coccidiosis, one of the most economically relevant parasitic diseases in chickens. The lack of a complete understanding of molecular mechanisms in the host-parasite interaction limits the development of effective control measures. In the present study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was applied to investigate the host mRNA profiles of the cecal mucosa collected at day 5 post-infection with Eimeria maxima (EM). RESULTS:Total RNA from cecal samples of the uninfected naïve control and the EM groups was used to make libraries, generating 354,924,372 and 356,229,250 usable reads, respectively, which were assembled into a total of 386,088 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) in Trinity software. RNA-Seq analysis of cecal samples in the two groups revealed 332 upregulated and 363 downregulated genes with significant differences (P ≤ 0.05), including several significant immune-related gene families, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alpha chain, granzyme A and immunoglobulin subtype genes among upregulated differentially expressed genes. In addition, a total of 60 clusters of differentiation (CD) molecular genes and 570 novel genes were found. The completeness of the assembled transcriptome was further assessed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, Gene ontology (GO), eggNOG and CAZy for gene annotation. The broad gene categories represented by the highly differentiated host genes suggested enrichment in immune responses, and downregulation in the metabolic pathway, MARK signaling pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and proteins processing in endoplasmic reticulum after EM infection. CONCLUSIONS:Eimeria maxima induced statistically significant differences in the cecal mucosal gene expression of infected chickens. These findings provide new insights into the host-parasite interaction and enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of avian coccidiosis.
Project description:Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) is one of the most frequent and pathogenic species of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria that exclusively occupies the cecum, exerting a high economic impact on the poultry industry. To investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the cecal tissue of Jinghai yellow chickens infected with E. tenella, the molecular response process, and the immune response mechanism during coccidial infection, RNA-seq was used to analyze the cecal tissues of an E. tenella infection group (JS) and an uninfected group (JC) on the seventh day post-infection. The DEGs were screened by functional and pathway enrichment analyses. The results indicated that there were 5477 DEGs (p-value < 0.05) between the JS and the JC groups, of which 2942 were upregulated, and 2535 were downregulated. GO analysis indicated that the top 30 significantly enriched GO terms mainly involved signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammatory response, and blood vessel development. KEGG analysis revealed that the top significantly enriched signaling pathways included focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. The key DEGs in these pathways included ANGPTL4, ACSL5, VEGFC, MAPK10, and CD44. These genes play an important role in the infection of E. tenella. This study further enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanism of E. tenella infection in chickens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eimeria spp. are responsible for chicken coccidiosis which is the most important enteric protozoan disease resulting in tremendous economic losses in the poultry industry. Understanding the interaction between the avian cecal microbiota and coccidia is of interest in the development of alternative treatments that do not rely on chemotherapeutics and do not lead to drug resistance. METHODS:We utilized 16S rRNA gene sequencing to detect the dynamics of the cecal microbial community in AA broilers challenged with Eimeria tenella. Histopathological analysis of the cecum was also conducted. RESULTS:We found that microbial shifts occur during the infection. Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcaceae UCG-013, Romboutsia and Shuttleworthia decreased in abundance. However, the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus and Streptococcus increased in abundance over time in response to the infection. CONCLUSIONS:Eimeria tenella disrupts the integrity of the cecal microbiota and could promote the establishment and growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Defining bacterial populations affected by coccidial infection might help identify bacterial markers for intestinal disease as well as populations or species that could be beneficial in maintaining and restoring gut homeostasis during and after infection with E. tenella.
Project description:Despite reducing the prevalent foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in chickens decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product bile acids to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed with deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anaero) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). The birds were infected with human clinical isolate C. jejuni 81-176 or chicken isolate C. jejuni AR101. Notably, C. jejuni 81-176 was readily colonized intestinal tract at d16 and reached an almost plateau at d21. Remarkably, DCA excluded C. jejuni cecal colonization below the limit of detection at 16 and 28 days of age. Neither chicken ages of infection nor LCA or UDCA altered C. jejuni AR101 chicken colonization level, while DCA reduced 91% of the bacterium in chickens at d28. Notably, DCA diet reduced phylum Firmicutes but increased Bacteroidetes compared to infected control birds. Importantly, DCA-Anaero attenuated 93% of C. jejuni colonization at d28 compared to control infected birds. In conclusion, DCA shapes microbiota composition against C. jejuni colonization in chickens, suggesting a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and microbial metabolites.
Project description:Background:Clostridium perfringens-induced chicken necrotic enteritis (NE) is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide annually. Recently, as a result of antibiotic growth promoter prohibition, the prevalence of NE in chickens has reemerged. This study was aimed to reduce NE through titrating dietary deoxycholic acid (DCA) as an effective antimicrobial alternative. Materials and methods:Day-old broiler chicks were assigned to six groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (basal diet), 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5?g/kg (on top of basal diet) DCA. The birds were challenged with Eimeria maxima (20,000 oocysts/bird) at d 18 and C. perfringens (109?CFU/bird per day) at d 23, 24, and 25 to induce NE. The birds were sacrificed at d 26 when ileal tissue and digesta were collected for analyzing histopathology, mRNA accumulation and C. perfringens colonization by real-time PCR, targeted metabolomics of bile acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results:At the cellular level, birds infected with E. maxima and C. perfringens developed subclinical NE and showed shortening villi, crypt hyperplasia and immune cell infiltration in ileum. Dietary DCA alleviated the NE-induced ileal inflammation in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE control birds. Consistent with the increased histopathological scores, subclinical NE birds suffered body weight gain reduction compared to the uninfected birds, an effect attenuated with increased doses of dietary DCA. At the molecular level, the highest dose of DCA at 1.5?g/kg reduced C. perfringens luminal colonization compared to NE birds using PCR and FISH. Furthermore, the dietary DCA reduced subclinical NE-induced intestinal inflammatory gene expression and cell apoptosis using PCR and TUNEL assays. Upon further examining ileal bile acid pool through targeted metabolomics, subclinical NE reduced the total bile acid level in ileal digesta compared to uninfected birds. Notably, dietary DCA increased total bile acid and DCA levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE birds. Conclusion:These results indicate that DCA attenuates NE-induced intestinal inflammation and bile acid reduction and could be an effective antimicrobial alternative against the intestinal disease.