Postnatal PPARa-dependent gene expression in two-days old mouse liver
ABSTRACT: Inborn errors of lipid metabolism illustrate the importance of proper milk fat oxidation in newborn mammals. In the liver, a remarkable lipid catabolic competence is present at birth; however, it is unclear how this critical trait is acquired and regulated. In this work, we found that the genes required for milk lipid catabolism are already transcribed before birth in the term fetus (E19.5) and controlled by the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) in mouse liver. The developmental activity of PPARα strongly regulates fatty acid oxidation genes. Two days after birth (P2), during milk suckling, PPARα-null mice develop a congenital steatosis and milk protein oxidation is de-repressed to fuel an alternative energy pathway that maintains glucose homeostasis and postnatal growth. Our results demonstrate for the first time, the developmental role of PPARα in regulating the metabolic ability to use maternal milk as fuel in the early days of life. Expression profile difference between PPARalpha wild-type (3 males and 3 females) and knock-out (3 males and 3 females) mouse liver in suckling mice. Two days after birth, pups were killed and their liver promptly removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen.
Project description:Inborn errors of lipid metabolism illustrate the importance of proper milk fat oxidation in newborn mammals. In the liver, a remarkable lipid catabolic competence is present at birth; however, it is unclear how this critical trait is acquired and regulated. In this work, we found that the genes required for milk lipid catabolism are already transcribed before birth in the term fetus (E19.5) and controlled by the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) in mouse liver. The developmental activity of PPARα strongly regulates fatty acid oxidation genes. Two days after birth (P2), during milk suckling, PPARα-null mice develop a congenital steatosis and milk protein oxidation is de-repressed to fuel an alternative energy pathway that maintains glucose homeostasis and postnatal growth. Our results demonstrate for the first time, the developmental role of PPARα in regulating the metabolic ability to use maternal milk as fuel in the early days of life. Expression profile difference between PPARalpha wild-type (n=6) and knock-out (n=6) mouse liver at fetal day E19.5. Term fetuses were collected by cesarean section, their liver promptly dissected and frozen in liquid nitrogen.
Project description:The developmental pattern of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex was examined in the liver and heart of the rat throughout the suckling period. Basal activity and total activity of the complex were measured as a function of age. The hepatic enzyme activity increased dramatically and was 100% active (dephosphorylated) during the suckling period. The level of protein kinase associated with the complex was particularly low at birth, but like the complex increased throughout the suckling period. The level of heart enzyme also increased as a function of age, but only about 30-45% of the enzyme was active throughout the suckling period. Very low protein levels of liver and heart branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase were detected by immunoblot analysis in newborn rats. The mRNA levels for the liver E1 alpha, E1 beta, and E2 subunits in newborn rat were 30%, 19%, and 4% of adult levels respectively. The capacity of the neonatal rat for oxidizing leucine in vivo was low at birth and increased with age. 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate was more toxic when given to newborn and 3-day-old pups than 21-day-old pups, as expected from the relative capacities of their tissues to dispose of branched-chain 2-oxo acids by oxidation. Force-feeding suckling rats a protein-free artificial milk formula resulted in partial inactivation of the hepatic branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex, indicating that the liver of the suckling rat can adapt to conserve branched-chain amino acid residues during periods of protein deficiency.
Project description:In mammals, hepatic lipid catabolism is essential for the newborns to efficiently use milk fat as an energy source. However, it is unclear how this critical trait is acquired and regulated. We demonstrate that under the control of PPAR?, the genes required for lipid catabolism are transcribed before birth so that the neonatal liver has a prompt capacity to extract energy from milk upon suckling. The mechanism involves a fetal glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-PPAR? axis in which GR directly regulates the transcriptional activation of PPAR? by binding to its promoter. Certain PPAR? target genes such as Fgf21 remain repressed in the fetal liver and become PPAR? responsive after birth following an epigenetic switch triggered by ?-hydroxybutyrate-mediated inhibition of HDAC3. This study identifies an endocrine developmental axis in which fetal GR primes the activity of PPAR? in anticipation of the sudden shifts in postnatal nutrient source and metabolic demands.
Project description:The MAP kinase kinase kinase TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is activated by TLRs, IL-1, TNF, and TGFβ and in turn activates IKK-NF-κB and JNK, which regulate cell survival, growth, tumorigenesis, and metabolism. TAK1 signaling also upregulates AMPK activity and autophagy. Here, we investigated TAK1-dependent regulation of autophagy, lipid metabolism, and tumorigenesis in the liver. Fasted mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tak1 exhibited severe hepatosteatosis with increased mTORC1 activity and suppression of autophagy compared with their WT counterparts. TAK1-deficient hepatocytes exhibited suppressed AMPK activity and autophagy in response to starvation or metformin treatment; however, ectopic activation of AMPK restored autophagy in these cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target genes and β-oxidation, which regulate hepatic lipid degradation, were also suppressed in hepatocytes lacking TAK1. Due to suppression of autophagy and β-oxidation, a high-fat diet challenge aggravated steatohepatitis in mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tak1. Notably, inhibition of mTORC1 restored autophagy and PPARα target gene expression in TAK1-deficient livers, indicating that TAK1 acts upstream of mTORC1. mTORC1 inhibition also suppressed spontaneous liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis in animals with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Tak1. These data indicate that TAK1 regulates hepatic lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis via the AMPK/mTORC1 axis, affecting both autophagy and PPARα activity.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor. The role of endogenous PPARα in retinal neuronal homeostasis is unknown. Retinal photoreceptors are the highest energy-consuming cells in the body, requiring abundant energy substrates. PPARα is a known regulator of lipid metabolism, and we hypothesized that it may regulate lipid use for oxidative phosphorylation in energetically demanding retinal neurons.<label>RESULTS</label>We found that endogenous PPARα is essential for the maintenance and survival of retinal neurons, with Pparα -/- mice developing retinal degeneration first detected at 8 weeks of age. Using extracellular flux analysis, we identified that PPARα mediates retinal utilization of lipids as an energy substrate, and that ablation of PPARα ultimately results in retinal bioenergetic deficiency and neurodegeneration. This may be due to PPARα regulation of lipid transporters, which facilitate the internalization of fatty acids into cell membranes and mitochondria for oxidation and ATP production.<label>CONCLUSION</label>We identify an endogenous role for PPARα in retinal neuronal survival and lipid metabolism, and furthermore underscore the importance of fatty acid oxidation in photoreceptor survival. We also suggest PPARα as a putative therapeutic target for age-related macular degeneration, which may be due in part to decreased mitochondrial efficiency and subsequent energetic deficits.
Project description:The class 3 phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for lysosomal degradation by autophagy and vesicular trafficking, assuring nutrient availability. Mitochondrial lipid catabolism is another energy source. Autophagy and mitochondrial metabolism are transcriptionally controlled by nutrient sensing nuclear receptors. However, the class 3 PI3K contribution to this regulation is unknown. We show that liver-specific inactivation of Vps15, the essential regulatory subunit of the class 3 PI3K, elicits mitochondrial depletion and failure to oxidize fatty acids. Mechanistically, transcriptional activity of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor orchestrating lipid catabolism, is blunted in Vps15-deficient livers. We find PPARα repressors Histone Deacetylase 3 (Hdac3) and Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1) accumulated in Vps15-deficient livers due to defective autophagy. Activation of PPARα or inhibition of Hdac3 restored mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation in Vps15-deficient hepatocytes. These findings reveal roles for the class 3 PI3K and autophagy in transcriptional coordination of mitochondrial metabolism.
Project description:Metabolic interactions between fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis were investigated in vivo in 16h-old newborn rats under various nutritional states. As the newborn rat has no white adipose tissue, starvation from birth induces a low rate of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Hepatic gluconeogenesis in inhibited in the starved newborn rat when compared with the suckling rat, which receives fatty acids through the milk, at the steps catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These inhibitions are rapidly reversed by triacylglycerol feeding. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by pent-4-enoate in the suckling animal mimics the effect of starvation on the pattern of hepatic gluconeogenic metabolites. It is concluded that, in the newborn rat in vivo, hepatic fatty acids oxidation can increase the gluconeogenic flux by providing the acetyl-CoA necessary for the reaction catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase and the reducing equivalents (NADH) to displace the reversible reaction catalysed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the direction of gluconeogenesis.
Project description:1. The neuraminidase activity of homogenates of the mucosa of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine of rats increased about 5-fold between birth and 4 to 8 days of age, and then gradually declined to the much lower adult activity by 24 days. No comparable changes occurred in the proximal third. 2. In 8-day-old rats, the neuraminidase activity of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine was about 10 times greater than that of the proximal third, 20 times greater than that of the colon and at least 100 times greater than that of the liver, brain, gastric mucosa or pancreas. 3. In all other species investigated (mice, rabbits, cats and guinea pigs), the neuraminidase activity of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine was greater in suckling animals than in adults. 4. The sialic acid content of rat milk increased about 2-fold between birth and 8 days post partum and then declined. 5. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the intestinal neuraminidase activity of suckling animals of various species and ages and the sialic acid content of milk obtained from the corresponding species and stage of lactation. 6. It is suggested that the intestinal neuraminidase of suckling mammals functions primarily to remove sialic acid from various components of milk, thus providing sialic acid for the synthesis of sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides by the young.
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I is expressed in the intestine of suckling rats; its mRNA increases very rapidly after birth, remains on a plateau until day 18 and decreases until weaning, when basal (adult) values are reached, which remain unchanged thereafter. CPT II mRNA values do not show any appreciable change in this period. CPT I and CPT II are expressed mainly in mucosa and, to a lesser extent, in the muscular part of the intestine. Intestinal expression of CPT I is maximal in duodenum and jejunum, whereas CPT II is expressed in a similar pattern throughout the whole intestine. Dam's milk may influence the intestinal expression of CPT I, since mRNA levels at birth are low but increase after the first lactation. Moreover, rats weaned at either day 18 or 21 decrease their mRNA levels. Apparently, CPT II gene expression is not influenced by the mother's milk. CPT I and CPT II are also expressed in the liver of suckling rats. Hepatic CPT I is maximal at day 3, and levels of CPT II mRNA do not change, in a similar fashion to that in intestine. The profile of expression of CPT I in liver and intestine strongly resembles that previously reported for mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. PPARα is mainly expressed in the liver, where it activates fatty acid oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism and improves plasma lipid profiles. Therefore, PPARα activators are often used to treat patients with dyslipidemia. To discover additional PPARα activators as potential compounds for use in hypolipidemic drugs, here we established human hepatoblastoma cell lines with luciferase reporter expression from the promoters containing peroxisome proliferator-responsive elements (PPREs) and tetracycline-regulated expression of full-length human PPARα to quantify the effects of chemical ligands on PPARα activity. Using the established cell-based PPARα-activator screening system to screen a library of >12,000 chemical compounds, we identified several hit compounds with basic chemical skeletons different from those of known PPARα agonists. One of the hit compounds, a 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid derivative we termed compound 3, selectively up-regulated PPARα transcriptional activity, leading to PPARα target gene expression both in vitro and in vivo Of note, the half-maximal effective concentrations of the hit compounds were lower than that of the known PPARα ligand fenofibrate. Finally, fenofibrate or compound 3 treatment of high fructose-fed rats having elevated plasma triglyceride levels for 14 days indicated that compound 3 reduces plasma triglyceride levels with similar efficiency as fenofibrate. These observations raise the possibility that 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives might be effective drug candidates for selective targeting of PPARα to manage dyslipidemia.