Transcriptome sequencing of Prunus mume for different tissues.
ABSTRACT: We have sequenced a wild Prunus mume and constructed a reference sequence for this genome. In order to improve quality of gene models, RNA samples of five tissues (bud, leaf, root, stem, fruit) were extracted from the Prunus mume. To investigate tissue specific expression using the reference genome assembly and annotated genes, we extracted RNA samples of different tissues and conducted transcriptome sequencing and DEG analysis. Five RNA pools were created corresponding to different tissues of the Prunus mume.
Project description:We have sequenced the whole genome of Cleome hassleriana by NGS [SRA accession number SRA058749] and build a reference sequence for this genome. In order to improve quality of gene models, a mix transcriptome sample extracted from the bud, leaf, petiole, stems and flowers of Cleome. A mixed RNA pool extracted from the tissues of bud, leaf, petiole, stems and flower is sequenced for Cleome hassleriana.
Project description:The domestic goat, Capra hircus (2n=60), is one of the most important domestic livestock species in the world. Here we report its high quality reference genome generated by combining Illumina short reads sequencing and a new automated and high throughput whole genome mapping system based on the optical mapping technology which was used to generate extremely long super-scaffolds. The N50 size of contigs, scaffolds, and super-scaffolds for the sequence assembly reported herein are 18.7 kb, 3.06 Mb, and 18.2 Mb, respectively. Almost 95% of the supper-scaffolds are anchored on chromosomes based on conserved syntenic information with cattle. The assembly is strongly supported by the RH map of goat chromosome 1. We annotated 22,175 protein-coding genes, most of which are recovered by RNA-seq data of ten tissues. Rapidly evolving genes and gene families are enriched in metabolism and immune systems, consistent with the fact that the goat is one of the most adaptable and geographically widespread livestock species. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the primary and secondary follicles of a cashmere goat revealed 51 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between the two types of hair follicles. This study not only provides a high quality reference genome for an important livestock species, but also shows that the new automated optical mapping technology can be used in a de novo assembly of large genomes. Corresponding whole genome sequencing is available in NCBI BioProject PRJNA158393. We have sequenced a 3-year-old female Yunnan black goat and constructed a reference sequence for this breed. In order to improve quality of gene models, RNA samples of ten tissues (Bladder, Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Lymph, Muscle, Ovarian, Spleen) were extracted from the same goat which was sequenced. To investigate the genic basis underlying the development of cashmere fibers using the goat reference genome assembly and annotated genes, we extracted RNA samples of primary hair follicle and secondary hair follicle from three Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and conducted transcriptome sequencing and DGE analysis. This submission represents RNA-Seq component of study.
Project description:The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium.We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths.These results demonstrated high conservation in chloroplast and mitochondrial genome among Prunus species during the evolutionary process. These findings are valuable to study the organelle DNA diversity in different species and genotypes of Prunus to provide in depth insight in to the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes.
Project description:A new species of Rosaceae from Central China, Prunus sunhangii D. G. Zhang & T. Deng, sp. nov. , is described and illustrated. The new species is placed in Prunus subgenus Cerasus by flower and fruit characteristics. It is most similar to Prunus cerasoides, but differs by having longitudinally 2-lobed apical petals, an acuminate leaf apex, 17-25 stamens, white petals, dark black drupes, brown hypanthium, and different phenology. The phylogenetic placement of this species was assessed based on morphological and molecular data. Molecular analysis (cpDNA + ITS) corroborated its placement in subgenus Cerasus, specifically Prunus section Serrula.
Project description:Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees.
Project description:Transcriptome sequencing of Foxtail millet Setaria italica (Zhang-gu) for different tissues. Four RNA pools were created corresponding to four different tissues: root, leaf, stem, spica (tassel) at developmental stage, then each pool was sequenced.
Project description:In this work, an electrochemical oscillation system has been developed using the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. The effect of the combination of each reagent, reaction temperature, and stirring speed on the induction period, oscillating period, and oscillating life were optimized. The nuts of Prunus persica, Prunus davidiana, and Prunus armeniaca have been widely used for medical purposes. The proposed electrochemical oscillation system was then used for the identification of P. persica, P. davidiana, and P. armeniaca. Three nuts exhibited very different electrochemical oscillation profiles. The dendrogram was divided into three main principal infrageneric clades. Each cluster only contains one species, suggesting that no outlier was observed in this study. Based on the discussed results, we proposed a simple method for herbal medicine identification.
Project description:The Maddenia clade of Prunus L. is monographed based on herbarium and field studies. Four species are currently accepted in this group: Prunus himalayana J.Wen, Prunus hypoleuca (Koehne) J.Wen, Prunus hypoxantha (Koehne) J.Wen, and Prunus gongshanensis J.Wen, with the last described herein as a new species. Maddenia fujianensis Y.T.Chang and Maddenia incisoserrata T.T.Yü & T.C.Ku are treated as synonyms of Prunus hypoleuca.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fragmentary conservation of synteny has been reported between map-anchored Prunus sequences and Arabidopsis. With the availability of genome sequence for fellow rosid I members Populus and Medicago, we analyzed the synteny between Prunus and the three model genomes. Eight Prunus BAC sequences and map-anchored Prunus sequences were used in the comparison. RESULTS: We found a well conserved synteny across the Prunus species -- peach, plum, and apricot -- and Populus using a set of homologous Prunus BACs. Conversely, we could not detect any synteny with Arabidopsis in this region. Other peach BACs also showed extensive synteny with Populus. The syntenic regions detected were up to 477 kb in Populus. Two syntenic regions between Arabidopsis and these BACs were much shorter, around 10 kb. We also found syntenic regions that are conserved between the Prunus BACs and Medicago. The array of synteny corresponded with the proposed whole genome duplication events in Populus and Medicago. Using map-anchored Prunus sequences, we detected many syntenic blocks with several gene pairs between Prunus and Populus or Arabidopsis. We observed a more complex network of synteny between Prunus-Arabidopsis, indicative of multiple genome duplication and subsequence gene loss in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSION: Our result shows the striking microsynteny between the Prunus BACs and the genome of Populus and Medicago. In macrosynteny analysis, more distinct Prunus regions were syntenic to Populus than to Arabidopsis.
Project description:Prunus spp. is one of the most recalcitrant fruit tree species in terms of in vitro regeneration and transformation, mostly when mature tissues are used as explants. The present study describes the in vitro regeneration via indirect organogenesis, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the peach rootstock Hansen 536 (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus) through the use of meristematic bulks (MBs) as starting explants. Efficient adventitious shoot regeneration was obtained when Hansen 536 MBs were cultured on an optimized medium consisting of modified McCown Woody Plant medium (WPM) enriched with 4.4 M 6-Benzyladenine (BA), 0.1 M 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6.0 g L-1 plant agar S1000 (B&V). MB slices were used later as starting explants for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to introduce an RNAi construct "ihp35S-PPV194" against PPV virus. Transgenic events were identified by both green fluorescent protein (GFP) screening and kanamycin selection at different concentrations (0, 17 or 42 M). GFP-fluorescent proliferating callus lines were selected and confirmed to stably express the ihp35S-PPV194::eGFP gene construct by molecular analysis. Although shoot regeneration from these transgenic calli has not been obtained yet, this represents one of the few examples of successful attempts in peach genetic transformation from somatic tissues, and also serves as a useful in vitro system for future gene functional analysis in peach.