Chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in self-gelling alginate discs reveals novel chondrogenic signature gene clusters
ABSTRACT: We have used a disc-shaped self-gelling alginate hydrogel as a scaffold for in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The comparison of monolayer cells and alginate embedded cells with or without differentiation medium allowed us to perform a detailed kinetic study of the expression of a range of genes and proteins known to be involved in chondrogenesis, using real-time polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and glycosaminoglycan measurement in the supernatant. mRNA encoding type II collagen (COL2), COL10, aggrecan, and SOX5, 6, and 9 were greatly elevated already at day 7, whereas COL1 and versican mRNA were gradually reduced. COL2 and aggrecan were dispersed throughout the extracellular matrix at day 21, whereas COL10 distribution was mainly intra/pericellular. COL1 seemed to be produced by only some of the cells. SOX proteins were predominantly localized in the nuclei. Then, using microarray analysis, we identified a signature cluster of extracellular matrix and transcription factor genes upregulated during chondrogenesis similar to COL2A1, and clusters of genes involved in immune responses, blood vessel development, and cell adhesion downregulated similar to the chemokine CXCL12. Analysis of the signature chondrogenic clusters, including novel potential marker genes identified here, may provide a better understanding of how the stem cell fate could be directed to produce perfect hyaline cartilage implants Comparison of gene expression patterns in 4 BM-MSC donors, before and after chondrogenic differentiation in alginate (BM-MSCs and DIF)
Project description:A combination therapy of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and simulated microgravity (SMG) has not been examined in regenerative medicine of cartilage. In the present study, a bioreactor system using extremely low-frequency EMF and SMG was applied during the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). It was hypothesized that a beneficial effect of EMF regarding chondrogenesis (COL2A) could be combined with an avoiding effect of SMG regarding hypertrophy (COLXA1) of cartilage. Pellet cultures of hMSCs formed cartilaginous tissue under the addition of growth factors (FGF; TGF-β3). Pure SMG reduced COLXA1 expression but also COL2A expression of hMSCs. Pure EMF showed no gene expression changes of hMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation. Combining EMF/SMG resulted in a re-increase of COL2A but did not reach control levels. The COL2A to COLXA1 ratio of combined EMF/SMG was not significantly different from control levels. The combination therapy of EMF/SMG did not significantly improve the chondrogenic potential of hMSCs. chondrogenic differentiation, electromagnetic stimulation-control, 1 timepoint with/without stimulation
Project description:Regulation of chondrogenic differentiation by DNA demethylation is little understood. The ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins oxidize methylated cytosines (5mC) to 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC eventually leading to DNA demethylation. However, 5hmC is stable and can potentially act as an epigenetic mark as well. In this study, we report that global changes in 5hmC mark chondrogenic differentiation. Overall design: Progenitor and differentiated chondrocyte gene expression patterns were examined to assess the changing expression profiles over the course of chondrogenesis.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that involves destruction of articular cartilage and eventually leads to disability. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in healthy and diseased cartilage, and through their chondrogenic potential may provide a strategy for cartilage repair. To this end, we performed an image-based, high throughput screen and identified the small molecule, kartogenin, that promotes selective MSC differentiation into chondrocytes (EC50=100nM), shows chondroprotective effects in vitro, and is efficacious in two OA animal models. Kartogenin binds filamin A and induces chondrogenesis by regulating the CBFbeta-RUNX1 transcriptional program. This work provides new insights into the control of chondrogenesis that may ultimately lead to an effective stem-cell based therapy for osteoarthritis. one compound, three doses, two time points, a vehicle control
Project description:Mutations in the RMRP gene are the origin of cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is associated with severe dwarfism caused by impaired skeletal development. However, it is not clear why mutations in the RMRP gene lead to skeletal dysplasia. Viperin is a known substrate of RMRP. Since chondrogenic differentiation of the growth plate is required for development of the long bones, we hypothesized that viperin functions as a chondrogenic regulator downstream of RMRP. Viperin protein is expressed throughout the stages of chondrogenic differentiation in vivo. Viperin gene expression is increased during knockdown of Rmrp RNA in the ATDC5 model for chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin is expressed during ATDC5 chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin knockdown reduces, while viperin overexpression increases overall protein secretion, with CXCL10 identified as a potential target via mass spectrometry-proteomics. CXCL10 protein expression is reduced during knockdown and increased during overexpression of viperin and CXCL10 protein expression coincides with viperin expression in ATDC5 chondrogenic differentiation. Viperin knockdown induces, while viperin overexpression reduces TGFβ activity. Furthermore, viperin knockdown conditioned media increases, while viperin overexpression conditioned media reduces chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. TGFβ target genes Pai1 and Smad7 are increased during knockdown and reduced during overexpression of viperin. Moreover, TGFβ activity is reduced when differentiating ATDC5 cells are exposed to CXCL10 and, acting as a viperin overexpression mimic, CXCL10 similarly reduces chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5. Lastly, we show that in CHH patient cells, RMRP expression is reduced and viperin expression is increased, coinciding with reduced chondrogenic differentiation and increased CXCL10 expression, possibly explaining the CHH phenotype. Together our data show that viperin may play a pivotal role in chondrogenic differentiation, with potential consequences for cartilage-hair hypoplasia pathobiology.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner where they function in various aspects of cell biology, often as key regulators of gene expression. In this study we established a role for lncRNAs in chondrocyte differentiation. Using RNA sequencing we identified a human articular chondrocyte repertoire of lncRNAs from normal hip cartilage donated by neck of femur fracture patients. Of particular interest are lncRNAs upstream of the master chondrocyte transcription factor SOX9 locus. SOX9 is an HMG-box transcription factor which is essential for chondrocyte development by directing the expression of chondrocyte specific genes. Two of these lncRNAs are upregulated during chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Depletion of one of these lncRNA, LOC102723505, which we termed ROCR (regulator of chondrogenesis RNA), by RNAi disrupted MSC chondrogenesis, concomitant with reduced cartilage-specific gene expression and incomplete matrix component production, indicating an important role in chondrocyte biology. Specifically, SOX9 induction was significantly ablated in the absence of ROCR, and overexpression of SOX9 rescued the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes. Our work sheds further light on chondrocyte specific SOX9 expression and highlights a novel method of chondrocyte gene regulation involving a lncRNA. Overall design: Human neck of femure fracture hip cartilage chondrocyte mRNA profile generated by RNA-seq
Project description:Long-term dynamic compression enhanced the mechanical properties of MSC-seeded constructs only when loading was initiated after 21 days of chondrogenic differentiation. This study examined the molecular differences of chondrogenic MSCs compared to undifferentiated MSCs (TGF-beta vs no TGF-beta) and the effects of dynamic loading on MSC chondrogenesis (loading vs free-swelling). Overall design: Free-swelling MSC-seeded constructs were cultured for 21 days in chemically defined media. Chondrogenesis was induced with TGF-beta3. Undifferentiated controls were maintained in parallel. After 21 days of chondrogenic differentiation, a subset of constructs were subjected to 21 days of dynamic compressive loading. On days 21 and 42, construct mechanical properties and biochemical content were assessed. Microarray analysis was carried out on day 3, day 21 and day 42 constructs. 6 arrays.
Project description:Long-term dynamic compression enhanced the mechanical properties of MSC-seeded constructs only when loading was initiated after 21 days of chondrogenic differentiation. This study examined the molecular differences of chondrogenic MSCs compared to undifferentiated MSCs (TGF-beta vs no TGF-beta) and the effects of dynamic loading on MSC chondrogenesis (loading vs free-swelling). Free-swelling MSC-seeded constructs were cultured for 21 days in chemically defined media. Chondrogenesis was induced with TGF-beta3. Undifferentiated controls were maintained in parallel. After 21 days of chondrogenic differentiation, a subset of constructs were subjected to 21 days of dynamic compressive loading. On days 21 and 42, construct mechanical properties and biochemical content were assessed. Microarray analysis was carried out on day 3, day 21 and day 42 constructs. 6 arrays.
Project description:Comparison of gene expressions among FOP- or resFOP-iMSCs after chondrogenic differentiation with or without Activin-A. Comparison of gene expressions among FOP- or resFOP-iMSCs after chondrogenic differentiation with or without Activin-A.
Project description:MSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with different capacities for lineage differentiation. MSC clones were prepared from a single adult human bone marrow sample and screened for their chondrogenic capacity using cartilage tissue engineering (measured by type II collagen content). The aim was to compare genes expressed by highly and poorly chondrogenic clones to identify genes associated with those MSCs with an enhanced capacity for cartilage formation. The 4 most highly chondrogenic and the 4 least chondrogenic MSC clones identified following screening by cartilage tissue engineering were selected for gene array comparison using Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is a routine technique to regenerate focal cartilage lesions. However, patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking an appropriate long-lasting treatment alternative, partly since it is not known if chondrocytes from OA patients have the same chondrogenic differentiation potential as chondrocytes from donors not affected by OA. Articular chondrocytes from patients with OA undergoing total knee replacement (Mankin Score >3, Ahlbäck Score >2) and from patients undergoing ACT, here referred to as normal donors (ND), were isolated applying protocols used for ACT. Their chondrogenic differentiation potential was evaluated both in high-density pellet and scaffold (Hyaff-11) cultures by histological proteoglycan assessment (Bern Score) and immunohistochemistry for collagen types I and II. Chondrocytes cultured in monolayer and scaffolds were subjected to gene expression profiling using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays. Expression data were verified by using quantitative RT-PCR. Chondrocytes from ND and OA donors demonstrated accumulation of comparable amounts of cartilage matrix components, including sulphated proteoglycans and collagen types I and II. The mRNA expression of cartilage markers (COL2A1, COMP, aggrecan, CRTL1, SOX9) and genes involved in matrix synthesis (biglycan, COL9A2, COL11A1, TIMP4, CILP2) was highly induced in 3D cultures of chondrocytes from both donor groups. Genes associated with hypertrophic or OA cartilage (COL10A1, RUNX2, periostin, ALP, PTHR1, MMP13, COL1A1, COL3A1) were not significantly regulated between the two groups of donors. The expression of 661 genes, including COMP, FN1, and SOX9, were differentially regulated between OA and ND chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. During scaffold culture, the differences diminished between the OA and ND chondrocytes, and only 184 genes were differentially regulated. Only few genes were differentially expressed between OA and ND chondrocytes in Hyaff-11 culture. The risk of differentiation into hypertrophic cartilage does not seem to be increased for OA chondrocytes. Our findings suggest that the chondrogenic capacity is not significantly affected by OA and OA chondrocytes fulfill the requirements for matrix-associated ACT. Keywords: time course, cell type comparison, tissue engineered cartilage; osteoarthritis; Hyaff-11 scaffold; human chondrocytes; gene expression profiling; regenerative medicine; differentiation potential Overall design: Gene expression profiles of monolayer cultures (ML; passage 2) and Hyaff-11 scaffold cultures (3D; 14 days in vitro) of chondrocytes from 3 normal donors (ND; underwent ACT treatment) and 3 donors suffering from Osteoarthritis (OA; underwent knee replacement surgery) were determined. Comparative analyses between 3D and ML cultures (3D vs. ML) were performed to assess differentiation capacity of ND and OA chondrocytes. Furthermore, OA-related differences were determined comparing OA and ND monolayers as well as scaffold cultures (each OA vs. ND).