Genome-wide targets of conserved histone chaperone Asf1 in budding yeast
ABSTRACT: Asf1, through its histone chaperone activity, helps chromatin closing/opening during DNA replication, repair, recombination and transcription. Despite extensive research on Asf1-mediated physiological functions, a genome-wide localization map is lacking, limiting our knowledge of chromosomal features targeted by Asf1. We present a high-resolution genome-wide map of Asf1, localizing at essentially all pol III-transcribed genes, highly active pol II-transcribed genes and heterochromatic features. Pol III-transcribed genes are negatively regulated by Asf1, whereas pol II genes are regulated indirectly by Asf1-dependent H3K56 acetylation. Interestingly, Asf1 localization along yeast chromosomes shows nearly identical distribution to that of the condensin complex, predicting a functional overlap in chromosome architecture and genome organization. ChIP-seq analysis of Asf1 targets using a yeast strain that expresses an 18-Myc tag fused to the C-terminus of ASF1. Two biological replicates and one mock/control were performed. The Illumina GAII was used. ChIP-seq reads are aligned to the budding yeast sacCer3 (2011) assembly.
Project description:Nuclear pores associate with active protein-coding genes in yeast and have been implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that in addition to transcriptional regulation, key components of C. elegans nuclear pores are required for processing of a subset of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and tRNAs transcribed by RNA Polymerase (Pol) III. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of NPP-13 and NPP-3, two integral nuclear pore components, and importin-ß IMB-1, provides strong evidence that this requirement is direct. All three proteins associate specifically with tRNA and snoRNA genes undergoing Pol III transcription. These pore components bind immediately downstream of the Pol III pre-initiation complex, but are not required for Pol III recruitment. Instead, NPP-13 is required for cleavage of tRNA and snoRNA precursors into mature RNAs, whereas Pol II transcript processing occurs normally. Our data suggest that integral nuclear pore proteins act to coordinate transcription and processing of Pol III transcripts in C. elegans. Genome-wide ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip were performed in mixed-stage C. elegans embryos for nuclear pore proteins NPP-13, NPP-3, IMB-1 and chromatin proteins Pol III (RPC-1), TBP-1, TFC-1 (SFC-1), TFC-4 (TAG-315), and Pol II (AMA-1). For RPC-1 and TBP-1 ChIP-seq, embryos depleted for NPP-13 were also used. Total RNAs from wild-type, NPP-13 RNAi, and IMB-1 RNAi embryos were analyzed by RNA-seq.
Project description:Genome/chromosome organization is highly ordered and controls nuclear events. Here, we show that the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) interacts with the Cnd2 kleisin subunit of condensin to mediate interphase and mitotic chromosome organization in fission yeast. TBP recruits condensin onto RNA polymerase III-transcribed (Pol III) genes and highly transcribed Pol II genes; condensin in turn associates these genes with centromeres. Inhibition of the Cnd2-TBP interaction disrupts condensin localization across the genome and the proper assembly of mitotic chromosomes, leading to severe defects in chromosome segregation and eventually causing cellular lethality. We propose that the Cnd2-TBP interaction coordinates transcription with chromosomal architecture by linking dispersed gene loci with centromeres. This chromosome arrangement can contribute to the efficient transmission of physical force at the kinetochore to chromosomal arms, thereby supporting the fidelity of chromosome segregation. Genome-wide distributions of condensin and Pol III factors in fission yeast.
Project description:To study the biogenesis of long non-coding RNAs transcribed during genome rearrangements in Oxytricha development, genome-wide localization pattern of Rpb1 (RNA Pol-II largest subunit) was studied from Oxytricha cells undergoing conjugation. Chromatin from 12hr conjugating O.trifallax cells was subjected to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing of Input and ChIP samples via Illumina paired-end sequencing.
Project description:RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcribes many noncoding RNAs (for example, transfer RNAs) important for translational capacity and other functions. We localized Pol III, alternative TFIIIB complexes (BRF1 or BRF2) and TFIIIC in HeLa cells to determine the Pol III transcriptome, define gene classes and reveal 'TFIIIC-only' sites. Pol III localization in other transformed and primary cell lines reveals previously uncharacterized and cell type–specific Pol III loci as well as one microRNA. Notably, only a fraction of the in silico–predicted Pol III loci are occupied. Many occupied Pol III genes reside within an annotated Pol II promoter. Outside of Pol II promoters, occupied Pol III genes overlap with enhancer-like chromatin and enhancer-binding proteins such as ETS1 and STAT1. Moreover, Pol III occupancy scales with the levels of nearby Pol II, active chromatin and CpG content. These results suggest that active chromatin gates Pol III accessibility to the genome. Use of ChIP-seq to identify genomic regions bound by RNA Polymerase III machinery in multiple cell types as well as RNA-seq in HeLa for gene expression analysis. See GSE20609 for whole human genome raw Pol III ChIP-array data. See link below for supplementary methods and analysis.
Project description:During transcription the nascent RNA can invade the DNA template, forming extended RNA-DNA duplexes (R-loops). Here we employ ChIP-seq in strains expressing or lacking RNase H to map targets of RNase H activity throughout budding yeast genome. In wild-type strains, R-loops were readily detected over the 35S rDNA region transcribed by Pol I and over the 5S rDNA transcribed by Pol III. In strains lacking RNase H activity, R-loops were elevated over other Pol III genes notably tRNAs, SCR1 and U6 snRNA, and were also associated with the cDNAs of endogenous TY1 retrotransposons, which showed increased rates of mobility to the 5?-flanking regions of tRNA genes. Unexpectedly, R-loops were also associated with mitochondrial genes in the absence of RNase H1, but not of RNase H2. Finally, R-loops were detected on highly expressed protein-coding genes in the wild-type, notably over the second exon of spliced ribosomal protein genes. ChIP-seq of RNA-DNA hybrids using antibody S9.6
Project description:Epigenetic control is an important aspect of gene regulation. Despite detailed understanding of many examples, the transcription of non-coding RNA genes by RNA polymerase (pol) III is less well characterized. Here we profile the epigenetic features of pol III target genes throughout the human genome. This reveals that the chromatin landscape of pol III-transcribed genes resembles that of pol II templates in many ways, although there are also clear differences. Our analysis also discovered an entirely unexpected phenomenon, namely that pol II co-localizes with the majority of genomic loci that are bound by pol III. Chip-Seq experiments for six samples: Pol III, TFIIIB, TFIIIC, H3K4me3 in HeLa cells and Pol III, S2 phos Pol II in CD4+ cells.
Project description:Genome wide mapping of RNA polymearase III binding sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under normal growth and nutrient starved condition using ChIP-seq. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation (ChIP) was performed for FLAG tagged version of pol III subunit RPC128 after crosslinking the log-phase cells with formaldehyde. MOCK and IP DNA was sequenced and coverage of pol III was calculated at each base of the genome. RPC128-FLAG ChIP-seq single end seqquencing on Illumina GAII. 2 replicates of IP samples and 1 MOCK sample. Done in under normal growth and nutrient deprivation (4 hours).
Project description:Epigenetic control is an important aspect of gene regulation. Despite detailed understanding of many examples, the transcription of non-coding RNA genes by RNA polymerase (pol) III is less well characterized. Here we profile the epigenetic features of pol III target genes throughout the human genome. This reveals that the chromatin landscape of pol III-transcribed genes resembles that of pol II templates in many ways, although there are also clear differences. Our analysis also discovered an entirely unexpected phenomenon, namely that pol II co-localizes with the majority of genomic loci that are bound by pol III. RNA-seq experiment for total RNA in CD4+ cells.
Project description:ChIP-on chip assays to measure the change in histone acetylation over the yeast genome, in ASF1, SET2 and ASF1 SET2 deletion yeast strains compared to the wild-type control. ChIPs of AcH4 from wild-type, ASF1, SET2 and ASF1 SET2 deletion yeast strains were normalized to the H3 enrichment. Overall design: Two color experiment. Deletion mutant vs. WT cells. Biological replicates=3 per IP per cell type.
Project description:RNA polymerase III transcribes many noncoding RNAs (e.g. tRNAs) important for translational capacity and other functions. Here, we localized RNA polymerase III, alternative TFIIIB complexes (BRF1/2) and TFIIIC in HeLa cells, determining the Pol III transcriptome, defining gene classes, and revealing ‘TFIIIC-only’ sites. Pol III localization in other transformed and primary cell lines revealed both novel and cell-type specific Pol III loci, and one occupied miRNA. Surprisingly, only a fraction of the in silico-predicted Pol III loci are occupied. Interestingly, many occupied Pol III genes reside within an annotated Pol II promoter. Outside of Pol II promoters, occupied Pol III genes overlap with enhancer-like chromatin and enhancer binding proteins such as ETS1 and STAT1. Remarkably, Pol III occupancy scales with the levels of nearby Pol II, active chromatin and CpG content. Taken together, active promoter and enhancer-like chromatin appears to gate Pol III accessibility to the genome. Use of ChIP-array to identify genomic regions bound by RNA Polymerase III machinery