Ribosome profiling in muscle reveals the translation landscape of the giant protein titin
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Ribosome profiling and RNA-Seq were used to map the location and abundance of translating ribosomes on mouse heart and skeletal muscle transcripts. Methods: Tissue was rapidly harvested and snap-frozen to minimize bias to the pool of translating ribosomes. RNA was prepared from a single homogenate for each tissue so that starting RNA populations for both libraries were closely matched. Homogenates were not clarified before RNase digestion to avoid loss of ribosomes associated with large molecular weight complexes, and RNA-Seq libraries were prepared after rRNA subtraction to avoid positional loss of 5’ reads. Trimmed reads from 50 cycles of Illumina single-end sequencing were mapped onto a non-redundant set of 18,499 mouse protein-coding RefSeq transcripts from the nuclear genome. Results: Mapped sequence reads to myosin, actin and the giant protein titin together account for ~20% of the total mRNA-derived ribosome protected fragments (RPFs). We observed large-scale uniformity in the distribution of RPFs on the >30,000 codon titin open reading frame, from which we inferred an in vivo ribosome elongation error rate of ≤10-5. Ribosome footprints on Ttn mRNA also uncovered a novel 5’ UTR within a phylogenetically conserved intronic element that would produce ~2.35 mDa titin isoform that corresponds to the titin 'T2' band frequently described as a proteolytic artifact. Local translation efficiency across several >10 kb muscle mRNAs was also uniform, while their global translation efficiencies varied by ~20-fold suggesting initiation rate plays a major role in the translation efficiency of large mRNAs. Evidence for RPFs on 5’ UTRs was widespread with particular enrichment for ribosomes positioned at CUG codons. Comparison of global translation efficiency in cardiac and skeletal muscle revealed novel examples of tissue-specific translational control including synthesis of the myogenic factor Mef2c, and the titin-binding stress response protein Ankrd23. Conclusions: Our study represents the first detailed analysis of translation in an adult mammalian tissue generated by ribosome profiling technology. Current limitations to using ribosomal profiling in tissues include unknown perturbations to the dynamic state of translation despite rapidly harvested and snap-frozen samples. The uniform 5’ to 3’ coverage observed on individual large mRNAs and the ability to observe footprints on the extremely small phospholamban coding sequence, suggests that initiation and elongation were halted on similar time scales. More detailed examination of the positional information within CDS region requires further understanding of the bias introduced during the library preparation steps for both RPF-and RNA-Seq, as well as local biases induced as translation is arrested. Despite these qualifications, this initial view of active translation in muscle tissue highlights the potential for ribosome profiling to monitor the dynamic translation response to exercise, injury or disease pathology in animal models at a level of resolution not easily attainable with other quantitative approaches. Heart and skeletal muscle ribosome-protected fragment and RNA-Seq profiles of 10-week old C57BL/6J male mice were generated by deep sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Purpose: Ribosome profiling and RNA-Seq were used to map the location and abundance of translating ribosomes on human skeletal muscle transcripts from a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy. Methods: Tissue homogenates were prepared from frozen sections of a muscle biopsy obtained from a patient with an NM_004006:c.40_41delGA dystrophin mutation and a normal control. Ribosome-protected fragments and total RNA were prepared from a single homogenate, so starting RNA populations for both libraries were closely matched. Homogenates were not clarified before RNase digestion to avoid loss of ribosomes associated with large molecular weight complexes and RNA-Seq libraries were prepared after rRNA subtraction to avoid positional loss of 5’ reads. RPF-Seq libraries were built using the TruSeq Small RNA Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) and RNA-Seq libraries were built using the TruSeq RNA Sample Preparation v2 Kit (Illumina). RPF-Seq and RNA-Seq libraries were subjected to 50 cycles of single-end sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. Trimmed and filtered RPF- and RNA-Seq reads were mapped to RefSeq fasta sequences downloaded from the UCSC genome browser (hg19 assembly). Results: Most mutations that truncate the reading frame of the DMD gene result in loss of dystrophin expression and lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, amelioration of disease severity can result from alternate translation initiation beginning in DMD exon 6 that results in the expression of a highly functional N-truncated dystrophin. This novel isoform results from usage of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within exon 5 that is glucocorticoid-inducible. IRES activity is confirmed in patient muscle by both peptide sequencing and ribosomal profiling. Conclusions: Our results provide a molecular explanation for the rescue of 5’ truncating mutations via a heretofore undescribed mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation of dystrophin expression. The presence of a glucocorticoid-inducible IRES within a highly conserved region of the DMD sequence strongly suggests a programmed role for alternate translation initiation, and ongoing efforts to understand the relevant cell lineage-specific and/or conditional activation signals will shed light on underlying mechanisms of IRES control and elucidate potentially novel functions of dystrophin. Skeletal muscle ribosome-protected fragment and RNA-Seq profiles from a patient with an NM_004006:c.40_41delGA dystrophin mutation and a normal control were generated by deep sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:mRNAs bound by ribosomes from yeast cells were analysed in order to determine the exact position of ribosomes in the presence or absence of Rio1p. Beside total Ribosome Protected Fragments (RPFs), RPFs from mRNAs protected by immature pre-40S pre-ribosomes was also analysed. The analysis showed that immature 40S ribosomes can carry out translation and their premature entry into translation is hindered by Rio1p. Overall design: mRNAs fragments protected by ribosomes were subjected to NGS Ribosome Profiling experiment. Samples included (1) total ribosome-associated mRNAs from yeast cells expressing Rio1p, (2) total ribosome-associated mRNAs from yeast cells depleted of Rio1p and (3) immuno-selected mRNAs associated with immature pre-40S pre-ribosomal particles from yeast-cells depleted of Rio1p. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments were used as templates for cDNA libraries. The resulting cDNAs were sequenced and the sequences were annealed to the yeast genome. The position of the reads were determined in relation to either the translation start site or the stop codon of the corresponding coding DNA sequences.
Project description:We use mRNA-seq in combination with polysome profiling to determine translational status for all mRNAs in Drosophila mature oocytes and activated eggs. Puromycin-treated lysates are used as a negative control in polysome profiling experiments. Additionally, we use ribosome footprinting to globally measure translational efficiency of mRNAs in wild type mature oocytes as well as wild type and png mutant activated eggs. Lysates of hand-dissected Drosophila mature oocytes (containing ~540 μg of total RNA) were subjected to separation by velocity sedimentation through sucrose gradients. In this way, free mRNAs (present in RNPs fraction) or those comigrating with ribosomal subunits (40S or 60S+80S fractions) or with varying numbers of bound ribosomes (low polysomes (2-4 ribosomes), medium polysomes (5-9 ribosomes), and heavy polysomes (more than 10 ribosomes) can be separated based on their size and collected as sucrose gradient fractions. To compare quantitatively the levels of every mRNA across the polysome gradient fractions, we added 5ng of S. cerevisiae mRNA as an exogenous spike-in to each of the six fractions of interest: RNPs, 40S, 60S+80S, low polysomes, medium polysomes and heavy polysomes. RNA was extraced from these fractions, follwing proteinase K treatment, by hot acid phenol method. In case of unfractionated lysates, RNA was extracted using TRIzol (Invitrogen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. mRNA-seq samples were prepared from 1 μg of total RNA (in case of sucrose gradient fractions and unfractionated lysates) and subject to Illumina based sequencing. Puromycin-treated lysates of mature oocytes or 0-2h Drosophila activated eggs (containing ~540 μg of total RNA) were also subjected to separation by velocity sedimentation through sucrose gradients. Puromycin causes premature termination of elongating ribosomes and thus it can be used to determine whether the mRNAs co-sedimenting with the polysomal peaks (defined here as ≥5 ribosomes) were actively engaged in translation. As an independent approach to assess translation and obtain information on the position of ribosomes on mRNAs, we employed ribosome footprinting. In addition to analyzing the same samples, as by polysome profiling, we also analyzed png mutant activated eggs by ribosome footprinting. Ribosome footprint profiling measures the number of ribosome-protected fragments (RPFs) derived from the mRNAs of each gene, resulting in a singular value of translational efficiency (TE) for each gene (TE=RPF/RNA).
Project description:Oxygen and glucose metabolism plays a pivotal role in many (patho)physiological conditions. In particular, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) occurs during ischemia and stroke, resulting in extensive tissue injury and cell death. We applied time-resolved ribosome profiling technique to assess early events at the level of gene expression in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells during short-term OGD. Most substantial alterations in transcripts levels and their translation were seen to occur in the first 20 minutes of OGD. The rapid adaptation of translation apparatus to OGD is global and involves altered elongation and initiation rates. We also observed salient and reproducible alterations in ribosome densities of individual mRNAs such as increased translation of particular upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs); induced site-specific arrests of the ribosomes and synthesis of extended protein isoforms. Ribosome profiling (with mRNA-seq sequencing) was carried out at 0,20,40 and 60 minutes of OGD. Two biological replicates were used.
Project description:IFN-g primes macrophages for enhanced inflammatory activation by TLRs and microbial killing, but little is known about the regulation of cell metabolism or mRNA translation during priming. We found that IFN-g regulates macrophage metabolism and translation in an integrated manner by targeting mTORC1 and MNK pathways that converge on the selective regulator of translation initiation eIF4E. Physiological downregulation of the central metabolic regulator mTORC1 by IFN-g was associated with autophagy and translational suppression of repressors of inflammation such as HES1. Genome-wide ribosome profiling in TLR2-stimulated macrophages revealed that IFN-g selectively modulates the macrophage translatome to promote inflammation, further reprogram metabolic pathways, and modulate protein synthesis. These results add IFN-g-mediated metabolic reprogramming and translational regulation as key components of classical inflammatory macrophage activation. RPF and RNAseq libraries were generated from mock or IFN-g-primed human macrophages. Cells were stimulated with Pam3Cys and harvested at 4 hours. Libraries were generated using protocol modified from Illumina Truseq technology.
Project description:Fully assembled ribosomes exist in two populations: polysomes and monosomes. While the former has been studied extensively, to what extent translation occurs on monosomes and its importance for overall translational output remains controversial. Here, we used ribosome profiling to examine the translational status of 80S monosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the vast majority of 80S monosomes are elongating, not initiating. Further, most mRNAs exhibit some degree of monosome occupancy, with monosomes predominating on nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) targets, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), canonical ORFs shorter than ~590 nucleotides and ORFs for which the total time required to complete elongation is substantially shorter than that required for initiation. Importantly, mRNAs encoding low-abundance regulatory proteins tend to be enriched in the monosome fraction. Our data highlight the importance of monosomes for the translation of highly regulated mRNAs. We examined the translational status of single 80S ribosomes using ribosome profiling, and compared these monosome footprints to both polysome ribosome footprints and general ribosome profiling. RNASeq libraries were also prepared from the overall sample input.
Project description:During translation elongation, the ribosome ratchets along its mRNA template, incorporating each new amino acid and translocating from one codon to the next. The elongation cycle requires dramatic structural rearrangements of the ribosome. We show here that deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments reveals not only the position of each ribosome but also, unexpectedly, its particular stage of the elongation cycle. Sequencing reveals two distinct populations of ribosome footprints, 28-30 nucleotides and 20-22 nucleotides long, representing translating ribosomes in distinct states, differentially stabilized by specific elongation inhibitors. We find that the balance of small and large footprints varies by codon and is correlated with translation speed. The ability to visualize conformational changes in the ribosome during elongation, at single-codon resolution, provides a new way to study the detailed kinetics of translation and a new probe with which to identify the factors that affect each step in the elongation cycle. Ribosome profiling, or sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments, in yeast. We assay ribosome footprint sizes and positions in three conditions: untreated yeast (3 replicates) and yeast treated with translation inhibitors cycloheximide (2 replicates) and anisomycin (2 biological replicates, one technical replicate). We also treat yeast with 3-aminotriazole to measure the effect of limited histidine tRNAs on ribosome footprint size and distribution (two treatment durations).
Project description:Because maturing oocytes and early embryos lack transcription, posttranscriptional regulatory processes must control their development. To better understand this control, we profiled translational efficiencies and poly(A)-tail lengths throughout Drosophila oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The correspondence between translational-efficiency changes and tail-length changes indicated that tail-length changes broadly reshape translational activity until gastrulation, when this coupling disappears. Relative changes were largely retained in the absence of poly(A)-tail lengthening, which indicated that selective poly(A)-tail shortening primarily specifies the changes. Many translational changes depended on PAN GU and Smaug, and both acted primarily through tail-length changes. Our results also revealed tail-length–independent mechanisms of translational control that repressed translation regardless of tail-length changes during oocyte maturation, maintained translation despite tail-length shortening during oocyte maturation, and prevented detectable translation of bicoid and several other mRNAs before egg activation. In addition to these fundamental insights, our results provide valuable resources for future studies. 42 samples analyzed using RNA-seq, ribosome footprint profiling, and PAL-seq.
Project description:We have integrated nucleotide resolution genome-scale measurements of the transcriptome and translatome of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), the model antibiotic-producing actinomycete. Our systematic study determined 3,473 transcription start sites, leading to discovery of a high proportion (~21%) of leaderless mRNAs and 230 non-coding RNAs; this enabled deduction of promoter architecture on a genome-scale. Ribosome profiling analysis revealed that the translation efficiency was negatively correlated for secondary metabolic genes. These results provide novel fundamental insights into translational regulation of secondary metabolism that enables rational synthetic biology approaches to awaken such ‘silent’ secondary metabolic pathways. Profiles of primary transcripts, whole transcripts, and ribosome protected fragments (RPFs) of Streptomyces coelicolor were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina Miseq.
Project description:Protein translation is at the heart of cellular metabolism and its in-depth characterization is key for many lines of research. Recently, ribosome profiling became the state-of-the-art method to quantitatively characterize translation dynamics at a transcriptome-wide level. However, the strategy of library generation affects its outcomes. Here, we present a modified ribosomeprofiling protocol starting from yeast, human cells and vertebrate brain tissue. We use a DNA linker carrying four randomized positions at its 5’ and a reverse-transcription (RT) primer with three randomized positions to reduce artifacts during library preparation. The use of seven randomized nucleotides allows to efficiently detect library-generation artifacts. We find that the effect of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) artifacts is relatively small for global analyses when sufficient input material is used. However, when input material is limiting, our strategy improves the sensitivity of gene-specific analyses. Furthermore, randomized nucleotides alleviate the skewed frequency of specific sequences at the 3’ end of ribosome-protected fragments (RPFs) likely resulting from ligase specificity. Finally, strategies that rely on dual ligation show a high degree of gene-coverage variation. Taken together, our approach helps to remedy two of the main problems associated with ribosome-profiling data. This will facilitate the analysis of translational dynamics and increase our understanding of the influence of RNA modifications on translation. Ribosome profiling and mRNA-seq libraries from wt yeast comparing different library preparation approaches using different combinations of randomized and non-randomized linkers and RT primers.