The Diagnostic Value of Salivary microRNA in Esophageal Cancer
ABSTRACT: Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls.
Project description:Early surgery is vital in the treatment of highly fatal pancreatic cancer (PC). But there is no valuable and non-invasive biomarker to screen PC currently. Studies showed many salivary molecules can detect several systemic diseases. We aimed to investigate whether salivary microRNAs (miRNAs) can act as a biomarker to detect resectable PC. By Agilent microarray salivary miRNAs were profiled from saliva samples from 8 patients with resectable PC and 8 healthy controls. Candidate biomarkers discovered from the profile were subjected to validation by qPCR.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue microRNAs (miRNAs) can detect cancers and predict prognosis. Several recent studies reported that tissue, plasma, and saliva miRNAs share similar expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory power of salivary miRNAs (including whole saliva and saliva supernatant) for detection of esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Agilent microarray, six deregulated miRNAs from whole saliva samples from seven patients with esophageal cancer and three healthy controls were selected. The six selected miRNAs were subjected to validation of their expression levels by RT-qPCR using both whole saliva and saliva supernatant samples from an independent set of 39 patients with esophageal cancer and 19 healthy controls. RESULTS: Six miRNAs (miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, miR-451, miR-486-5p, and miR-634) were identified as targets by Agilent microarray. After validation by RT-qPCR, miR-10b*, miR-144, and miR-451 in whole saliva and miR-10b*, miR-144, miR-21, and miR-451 in saliva supernatant were significantly upregulated in patients, with sensitivities of 89.7, 92.3, 84.6, 79.5, 43.6, 89.7, and 51.3% and specificities of 57.9, 47.4, 57.9%, 57.9, 89.5, 47.4, and 84.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found distinctive miRNAs for esophageal cancer in both whole saliva and saliva supernatant. These miRNAs possess discriminatory power for detection of esophageal cancer. Because saliva collection is noninvasive and convenient, salivary miRNAs show great promise as biomarkers for detection of esophageal cancer in areas at high risk.
Project description:Recent studies have reported both mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) in saliva, but little information has been documented on the quality and yield of RNA collected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop an improved RNA isolation method from saliva and to identify major miRNA species in human whole saliva. RNA samples were isolated from normal human saliva using a combined protocol based on the Oragene RNA collection kit and the mirVana miRNA isolation kit in tandem. RNA samples were analyzed for quality and subjected to miRNA array analysis. Twelve representing 6 males and 6 females, were selected for miRNA profiling using the TaqMan® Low Density Array Card (TLDA) Human miRNA Panel v2.0 (Applied Biosystems). The analysis of expression of the >700 miRNAs was performed by the DNA Core at the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research Center at the University of Florida, according to the manufacturer’s protocol except the pre-amplification step was omitted. The NormFinder algorithm was used to identify the optimal normalization of miRNA among the 25 most abundantly expressed miRNAs detected.
Project description:In this study, small RNAs were isolated from individual donations of eight forensically relevant biological fluids (blood, semen, vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, saliva, urine, feces, and perspiration) and subjected to next generation sequencing using the Illumina® Hi-Seq platform. Sequencing reads were aligned and annotated against miRbase release 21, resulting in a list of miRNAs and their relative expression levels for each sample analyzed. Body fluids with high bacterial loads (vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces) yielded relatively low annotated miRNA counts, likely due to oversaturation of small RNAs from the endogenous bacteria. Both body-fluid specific and potential normalization miRNAs were identified for further analysis as potential body fluid identification tools for each body fluid. 32 samples - 3-5 replicates of each human biological fluid: venous blood, urine, semen (normal and vasectomized), vaginal secretions, menstrual secretions, perspiration, feces, saliva
Project description:This study evaluates genetic and phenotypic variation in the high altitude Colla population living in the Argentinean Andes above 3500 m. They were compared to the Wichí population living in the nearby lowlands of the Gran Chaco region. This study attempts to pinpoint evolutionary mechanisms underlying adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. We have genotyped 25 individuals from both populations for 730,525 SNPs. DNA from 25 saliva samples from Collas living >3500 m and 25 saliva samples from Wichí living <500 m from the Province of Salta in Argentina was genotyped
Project description:Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. The DMFT INDEX (Decayed, Missing, Filled [DMF] teeth index used in dental epidemiology) values are provided for each sample We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults.
Project description:This study evaluates genetic and phenotypic variation in the intermediate altitude Calchaquí population living in the Calchaquí Valleys of the Argentinean Andes in the town of Cachi at 2300 m. This study attempts to pinpoint evolutionary mechanisms underlying adaptation to moderate hypoxia at a intermediate altitude. DNA from 24 saliva samples of Calchaquíes living at 2300 m in Cachi in the Province of Salta in Argentina was genotyped.
Project description:Exosomes are molecular entities derived from membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types. These vesicles are implicated in cell-to-cell communication, deliver proteins and mRNA molecules between cells. Recent studies have shown that exosomes are found in body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, amniotic fluid, malignant ascites, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluids and breast milk. Exosomes secreted through human saliva contain mRNA may potentially be useful for diagnostic purposes. Although the exact protective mechanism of saliva RNA is a topic of debate, the consensus is that the enrichment of mRNAs in these nano-vesicles in one of the features of the biomarker discoveries. Our aim was to determine if exosomes are present in human saliva and to nano-characterize their transcriptomic content. Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation, identified by immunoelectron microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot using a CD-63 antibody. Atomic force microscopy studies revealed ultra structural analysis of both size and density of exosomes. Microarray analysis revealed the presence of 590 mRNA core transcripts are relatively stable inside the exosomes, which can be of saliva mRNA biomarkers. Exosomal mRNA stability was determined by detergent lyses with treatment of RNase. Under in vitro conditions fluorescent dye labeled saliva exosomes were able to communicate between human oral keratinocytes studied by using fluorescence microscopy. The RNA from saliva exosomes can transfer their genetic information to human oral keratinocytes and alters gene expression in the new location. Together, these results suggest that saliva is involved in mRNA trafficking via exosomes, and provides a mechanism for cargoing passenger mRNAs. Our findings are consistent with proposal that exosomes can shuttle RNAs between cells and mRNA is protected inside these vesicles may be a possible resource for biomarker discovery. Experiment Overall Design: Human saliva exosomes were purified through differential centrifugation followed by RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We were able to obtain normal human subjects saliva which are pooled and subjected to ultracentrifugation. The protocol was approved by UCLA Institutional review board. 1 ml of saliva exosomes were used to extract RNA followed by two rounds of amplification by Actorus Amp kit. The amplified RNA was biotin labled and hybridized with Affymetrix protocol.
Project description:Epigenetics presents a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children, despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain, because of difficulties obtaining blood tissue samples. This proof of principle study examined DNA methylation in 92 saliva samples, comparing Latino preschool children of normal weight mothers (Body Mass Index [BMI] <27 kg/m2 and WC <90 cm) to children of obese mothers (BMI >30 kg/m2 and WC >100 cm). We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns in Latino preschool age children born of normal weight vs obese weight mothers would be: 1) associated with maternal BMI phenotype in continuous linear regression analysis; 2) saliva could demonstrate epigenetic variation across individuals; and 3) preschool child saliva would be differentially methylated when comparing those children with obese versus normal weight mothers. One hundred and nineteen CpG sites were significantly (p-value <1.56 X 10-5, p-value adjusted <.05) associated with maternal BMI in linear regression models controlling for child’s age, gender, and BMI. Of these 119 CpG sites, 41 were found within the transcription start site, 5’ UTR, 3’ UTR, or another regulatory region outside of the gene body. Saliva, a practical human tissue to obtain in naturalistic settings and in pediatric populations, was confirmed to be a viable medium for genome-wide epigenetic testing with maternal weight. Although not identical to results yielded from other human tissue types (i.e., cord blood samples), saliva findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Latino preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. This proof of principle study examined DNA methylation in 92 saliva samples, comparing Latino preschool children of normal weight mothers (Body Mass Index [BMI] <27 kg/m2 and WC <90 cm) to children of obese mothers (BMI >30 kg/m2 and WC >100 cm). Antropometry was measured objectively according to a standardized protocol.Saliva from preschool Latino children at risk for obesity (BMI>50% < 95% participating in WIC/SNAP programs) was collected using the Oragene DNA saliva kit following a strict data collection protocol. DNA extraction was performed as per DNA Genotek's recommendations using the PrepIT L2P reagent. Extracted DNA was stored in individually barcoded cryovials at –80 degrees Fahrenheit. For children, saliva was obtained using the “baby brush” approach, in which small sponges attached to plastic handles are inserted between cheek and gumline to absorb saliva .Arrays were processed using standard protocol , with 3 samples randomly selected to serve as duplicates and 1 sample run with HapMap DNA to test functionality of reagents. Duplicates were measured for high technique consistency with Pearson correlation coefficient (>.99). Methylation data were quality controlled using Illumina GenomeStudio (V2011.1), Methylation module (V1.9.0). Samples with lower than 98% call rate (i.e. <485,000 probes) were excluded. Any non-specific cross-reacting probes, probes carrying common SNPs (MAF >1%), or any probes with p-values greater than 0.05 for more than 20% of the sample were sequentially excluded. Validation via pyrosequencing was conducted.
Project description:We have performed gene expression microarray analysis to profile transcriptomic signatures between cancer and noncancerous patients Gastric cancer is currently the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Due to the difficulty of diagnosing patients in the early stages of gastric cancer, it is critical to develop a method that can diagnose the disease at the early stage to allow for better treatment options. In this study, we discovered salivary transcriptomic and miRNA biomarkers for the detection of gastric cancer and identified there are mRNA-miRNA correlations in saliva. RNA was extracted from saliva supernatant and mRNA candidates were identified that can distinguish gastric cancer from non-gastric cancer patients