Mitocans target tryptophan metabolism to remove the mimicry of tumour-initiating cells
ABSTRACT: Following therapy, tumour-initiating cells (TICs) survive and give rise to second-line tumours. Gene set enrichment analysis of microarray data and microRNA analysis confirmed the validity of spheroid cultures as models of TICs for breast and prostate cancer and mesothelioma cell lines. Pathway analysis revealed increased Trp metabolism in all types of TICs with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) as the rate-limiting enzyme. TICs also expressed higher levels of the Trp uptake system consisting of CD98 and LAT1 with functional consequences. Mitocans, represented by vitamin E (VE) analogues, suppressed IDO1 in TICs with functional mitochondrial complex II, a target for the agents. IDO1 expression was regulated via a mechanism involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. IDO1 increase and its suppression by VE analogues were replicated in TICs from primary human glioblastomas. Our work points to Trp metabolism as a novel mechanism of TICs to bypass the immune surveillance and to VE analogues as agents that remove this ‘mimicry’. Total RNA obtained from from breast cancer (MCF7), mesothelioma (IstMes2) and prostate cancer (LNCaP) adherent cell lines was compared to their corresponding sphere cultures
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) plays a special role in the biology of various cancer types, because it breaks down the essential amino acid tryptophan for immune cell activation. Upregulation of IDO1 significantly correlates with the number of various T cell types in tumor tissues in melanoma and other cancers, suggesting that IDO expression is linked with effective and ineffective ('exhausted') immune response in cancer. Based on the reported IDO inhibitors (?-Methylated and indole-N-methylated tryptophan (Trp)), here we report the synthesis of potential IDO1 imaging agents through direct introduction of 18F into the tryptophan aromatic ring. Overall, the resulting PET agents could be obtained in high radiochemical purity (>97%) with labeling yield ranges from 4.2-14.9% decay corrected yield. Using Trp as the model compound, our results also demonstrate that 18F could be directly introduced to the Trp backbone at the 4, 5, 6, and 7 position. Moreover, our initial imaging study suggests that 5-[18F]F-L-?-methyl tryptophan (5-[18F]F-AMT) holds great potential for cancer imaging. The success of this approach will provide researchers easy access to a library of Trp/Trp-derivative based PET agents for biomedical research, including potential IDO1 targeted imaging.
Project description:Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive type of tumour causing high mortality. One reason for this paradigm may be the existence of a subpopulation of tumour-initiating cells (TICs) that endow MM with drug resistance and recurrence. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise a TIC subpopulation in MM cells, using spheroid cultures, mesospheres, as a model of MM TICs. Mesospheres, typified by the stemness markers CD24, ABCG2 and OCT4, initiated tumours in immunodeficient mice more efficiently than adherent cells. CD24 knock-down cells lost the sphere-forming capacity and featured lower tumorigenicity. Upon serial transplantation, mesospheres were gradually more efficiently tumrigenic with increased level of stem cell markers. We also show that mesospheres feature mitochondrial and metabolic properties similar to those of normal and cancer stem cells. Finally, we show that mesothelioma-initiating cells are highly susceptible to mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate. This study documents that mesospheres can be used as a plausible model of mesothelioma-initiating cells and that they can be utilised in the search for efficient agents against MM.
Project description:It is increasingly recognized that psychological stress influences inflammatory responses and mood. Here, we investigated whether psychological stress (combined acoustic and restraint stress) activates the tryptophan (Trp) catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1(IDO1) and thereby alters the immune homeostasis and behavior in mice. We measured IDO1 mRNA expression and plasma levels of Trp catabolites after a single 2-h stress session and in repeatedly stressed (4.5-days stress, 2-h twice a day) naïve BALB/c mice. A role of cytokines in acute stress-induced IDO1 activation was studied after IFNgamma and TNFalpha blockade and in IDO1(-/-) mice. RU486 and 1-Methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) were used to study role of glucocorticoids and IDO1 on Trp depletion in altering the immune and behavioral response in repeatedly stressed animals. Clinical relevance was addressed by analyzing IDO1 activity in patients expecting abdominal surgery. Acute stress increased the IDO1 mRNA expression in brain, lung, spleen and Peyer's patches (max. 14.1+/-4.9-fold in brain 6-h after stress) and resulted in a transient depletion of Trp (-25.2+/-6.6%) and serotonin (-27.3+/-4.6%) from the plasma measured 6-h after stress while kynurenine levels increased 6-h later (11.2+/-9.3%). IDO1 mRNA up-regulation was blocked by anti-TNFalpha and anti-IFNgamma treatment. Continuous IDO1 blockade by 1-MT but not RU486 treatment normalized the anti-bacterial defense and attenuated increased IL-10 inducibility in splenocytes after repeated stress as it reduced the loss of body weight and behavioral alterations. Moreover, kynurenic acid which remained increased in 1-MT treated repeatedly stressed mice was identified to reduce the TNFalpha inducibility of splenocytes in vitro and in vivo. Thus, psychological stress stimulates cytokine-driven IDO1 activation and Trp depletion which seems to have a central role for developing stress-induced immunosuppression and behavioral alteration. Since patients showed Trp catabolism already prior to surgery, IDO is also a possible target enzyme for humans modulating immune homeostasis and mood.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) mediates the degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and is constitutively expressed in the chorionic vascular endothelium of the human placenta with highest levels in the microvasculature. Given that endothelial expression of IDO1 has been shown to regulate vascular tone and blood pressure in mice under the condition of systemic inflammation, we asked whether IDO1 is also involved in the regulation of placental blood flow and if yes, whether this function is potentially impaired in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE). In the large arteries of the chorionic plate L-Trp induced relaxation only after upregulation of IDO1 using interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. However, ex vivo placental perfusion of pre-constricted cotyledonic vasculature with L-Trp decreases the vessel back pressure without prior IDO1 induction. Further to this finding, IDO1 protein expression and activity is reduced in IUGR and PE when compared to gestational age-matched control tissue. These data suggest that L-Trp catabolism plays a role in the regulation of placental vascular tone, a finding which is potentially linked to placental and fetal growth. In this context our data suggest that IDO1 deficiency is related to the pathogenesis of IUGR and PE.
Project description:The evolutionary process has conferred a dual - enzymatic and signaling - function on the ancestral metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which has long been known for converting the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) into neuroactive and immunoactive catabolites (kynurenines). In addition to TRP catabolic activity, phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, present in the IDO1 protein, act as docking sites for different molecular partners, which activate positive (transcriptional) or negative (post-translational) modulation of IDO1 protein. The ligand-operated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) contributes to Ido1 transcription, and it can be operated by both exogenous and endogenous ligands, including l-kynurenine itself, the first byproduct of TRP catabolism. Ligand-bound AhR is also a component of a ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for regulatory proteolysis of different target proteins. Because IDO1 half-life is controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, we here discuss the possibility that AhR, in addition to enhancing Ido1 transcription, contributes to IDO1 regulation by a non-genomic mechanism affecting the protein's half-life.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis of U87 cells under different treatments to identify IDO1-regulated genes Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a tryptophan (Trp) catabolic enzyme that converts Trp into downstream kynurinine (Kyn). Many studies have indicated that IDO1 is a critical suppressive immune checkpoint molecule invovled in various types of cancer. Canonically, the underlying mechanism of IDO1 immunosuppressive role is related with its enzyme activity, that is the depletion of Trp and accumulation of Kyn lead to increased tumor infiltrating suppressive regulatory T cells. Recent studies, however, challenged this hypothesis and imply that tumor cell-derived IDO1 can mediate immunosuppression independent of its enzyme activity. In this study, we aim to identify genes that are regulated by IDO1 in human glioblastoma cells, a gene expression regulatory function of IDO1 that is indepent of its enzyme activity. Overall design: U87 cells were either non-treated or treated with 20 nM human IDO1-specific siRNA for 16-18 hours, followed by human IFN-g (100 ng/ml) treatment for another 24 hours. Human IDO1 overexpressing U87 (O/E) cells were either non-treated or treated with 20 nM human IDO1-siRNA for 24 hours. At the end of experiment, total RNAs were extracted from the following 6 groups: 1) U87 NT; 2) U87 + IFNg; 3) U87 + siRNA; 4) U87 + siRNA + IFNg; 5) IDO1-O/E U87 NT; 6) IDO1-O/E U87 + siRNA and subject to microarray analysis. Each treatment group has two replicates. Experiment was repeated 3 times. Totally 36 samples were analyzed.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is considered as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer, chronic infections and other diseases that are associated with immune suppression. Recent developments in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the IDO1 enzyme revealed that conversion of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) to N-formylkynurenine proceeded through an epoxide intermediate state. Accordingly, we synthesized a series of 3-substituted oxindoles from l-Trp, tryptamine and isatin. Compounds with C3-substituted oxindole moieties showed moderate inhibitory activity against the purified human IDO1 enzyme. Their optimization led to the identification of potent compounds, 6, 22, 23 and 25 (IC50 = 0.19 to 0.62 ?M), which are competitive inhibitors of IDO1 with respect to l-Trp. These potent compounds also showed IDO1 inhibition potencies in the low-micromolar range (IC50 = 0.33-0.49 ?M) in MDA-MB-231 cells. The cytotoxicity of these potent compounds was trivial in different model cancer (MDA-MB-231, A549 and HeLa) cells and macrophage (J774A.1) cells. Stronger selectivity for the IDO1 enzyme (124 to 210-fold) over the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) enzyme was also observed for these compounds. These results suggest that the oxindole moiety of the compounds could mimic the epoxide intermediate state of l-Trp. Therefore, the structural simplicity and low-micromolar inhibition potencies of these 3-substituted oxindoles make them quite attractive for further investigation of IDO1 function and immunotherapeutic applications.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system, accounting for over 50% of all primary malignant gliomas arising in the adult brain. Even after surgical resection, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, as well as tumor-treating fields, the median survival is only 15-20 months. We have identified a pathogenic mechanism that contributes to the tumor-induced immunosuppression in the form of increased indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) expression; an enzyme that metabolizes the essential amino acid, tryptophan (Trp), into kynurenine (Kyn). However, real-time measurements of IDO1 activity has yet to become mainstream in clinical protocols for assessing IDO1 activity in GBM patients. METHODS:Pre-treatment and on-treatment ?-[11C]-methyl-L-Trp (AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) with co-registered MRI was performed on patients with recurrent GBM treated with the IDO1 pathway inhibitor indoximod (D1-MT) and TMZ. RESULTS:Regional intratumoral variability of AMT within enhancing and non-enhancing tumor was noted at baseline. On treatment imaging revealed decreased regional uptake suggesting IDO1 pathway modulation with treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we have validated the ability to use PET of the Trp probe, AMT, for use in visualizing and quantifying intratumoral Trp uptake in GBM patients treated with an IDO1 pathway inhibitor. These data serve as rationale to utilize AMT-PET imaging in the future evaluation of GBM patients treated with IDO1 enzyme inhibitors.
Project description:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step of the so-called "kynurenine pathway", which converts the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) into the immunosuppressive metabolite L-kynurenine (Kyn). While expressed constitutively by some tissues, IDO1 can also be induced in specific subsets of antigen-presenting cells that ultimately favor the establishment of immune tolerance to tumor antigens. At least in part, the immunomodulatory functions of IDO1 can be explained by depletion of Trp and accumulation of Kyn and its derivatives. In animal tumor models, genetic or pharmacological IDO1 inhibition can cause the (re)activation of anticancer immune responses. Similarly, neoplasms expressing high levels of IDO1 may elude anticancer immunosurveillance. Therefore, IDO1 inhibitors represent promising therapeutic candidates for cancer therapy, and some of them have already entered clinical evaluation. Here, we summarize preclinical and clinical studies testing IDO1-targeting interventions for oncologic indications.
Project description:The activation marker CD69 is expressed by skin ?? T cells. Here we found that CD69 controlled the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent secretion of interleukin 22 (IL-22) by ?? T cells, which contributed to the development of psoriasis induced by IL-23. CD69 associated with the aromatic-amino-acid-transporter complex LAT1-CD98 and regulated its surface expression and uptake of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and the intracellular quantity of L-Trp-derived activators of AhR. In vivo administration of L-Trp, an inhibitor of AhR or IL-22 abrogated the differences between CD69-deficient mice and wild-type mice in skin inflammation. We also observed LAT1-mediated regulation of AhR activation and IL-22 secretion in circulating V?9(+) ?? T cells of psoriatic patients. Thus, CD69 serves as a key mediator of the pathogenesis of psoriasis by controlling LAT1-CD98-mediated metabolic cues.