Transcriptional profiling of swine lung and hilar node after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
ABSTRACT: This study aimed at: (1) Establishing the pleuropneumoniae pathological model of artificial infection; (2) Using the Agilent swine genome-wide microarray containing 43,603 probes to detect the changes in gene expression of infected pigs’ lungs and hilar nodes. Infection induced gene expression in swine lung and hilar node were measured at 48 hours after being inoculated with 1 mL containing 3.8 × 10^7 cfu/mL pleuropneumoniae serotype I by atomizing inhalation in each nostril.
Project description:This study aimed at: (1) Establishing the pleuropneumoniae pathological model of artificial infection; (2) Using the Agilent swine genome-wide microarray containing 43,603 probes to detect the changes in gene expression of infected pigs’ lungs and hilar nodes. Overall design: Infection induced gene expression in swine lung and hilar node were measured at 48 hours after being inoculated with 1 mL containing 3.8 × 10^7 cfu/mL pleuropneumoniae serotype I by atomizing inhalation in each nostril.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. Comparative Genomic Hybridizations between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b strain L20 (ref) and serotype 5b fresh field isolate 896-07, recovered from infected pig lung tissues following natural acute infection. Two condition transcript profiling experiments : infectious 5b field strain isolated directly from lungs of naturally deceased pigs after acute infection vs infectious 5b field strain grown in BHI broth to an OD600 of 0.300.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes porcine pleuropneumonia, which is a widespread, highly contagious, and often fatal respiratory disease in swine. In this experiment pigs were inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b. Liver samples from three non-inoculated pigs and three experimental inoculated pigs were used to characterize the expression profiles of mRNA and microRNA genes using DNA microarrays and Illumina GA deep sequencing, respectively. The microarray analysis identified a large number of genes, which significantly differed in expression in infected versus non-infected animals. MicroRNAs are short single stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by sequence specific binding to the 3´ untranslated region (3´UTR) of target mRNAs. The deep sequencing analysis determined the identity and abundance of nearly 400 microRNAs, of which a portion was found to significantly differ in expression between the infected and non-infected animals. Target genes for differentially expressed microRNAs were predicted using microCosm Targets, which is based on the miRanda algorithm. Comparison on the two gene lists showed many common genes, which may suggest a causative relationship between changes in microRNA expression and target gene expression. The expression profiles of mRNA and smallRNA in liver from three experimentally infected pigs were compared with the profiles three non-infected contol pigs.
Project description:LuxS is an enzyme involved in the activated methyl cycle and the by-product autoinducer 2 (AI-2) was a quorum sensing signal in some species. In our previous study, the functional LuxS in AI-2 production was verified in the porcine respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Enhanced biofilm formation and reduced virulence were observed in the luxS mutant. To comprehensively understand the luxS function, in this study, the transcriptional profiles were compared between the A. pleuropneumoniae luxS mutant and its parental strain in four different growth phases using microarray. Many genes associated with infection were differentially expressed. The biofilm formation genes pgaABC in the luxS mutant were up-regulated in early exponential phase, while 8 genes associated with adhesion were down-regulated in late exponential phase. A group of genes involved in iron acquisition and metabolism were regulated in four growth phases. Further investigations on these virulence traits demonstrated that the luxS mutant showed enhanced biofilm formation and reduced adhesion ability and these effects were not due to lack of AI-2. But AI-2 could increase biofilm formation and adhesion of A. pleuropneumoniae independent of LuxS. Growth under iron restricted condition could be controlled by LuxS through AI-2 production. These results revealed pleiotropic roles of LuxS and AI-2 on A. pleuropneumoniae virulence traits. A. pleuropneumoniae strains were cultured in TSB medium supplemented with 10 μg/ml of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and 10% (v/v)filtered cattle serum at 37°C. The samples were collected from early exponential phase, middle exponential phase, late exponential phase and stationary phase respectively and the total RNA were extracted using RNA-Solv Reagent (Omega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For each time point, four biological replicates were combined into two samples. The intensities were normalized and transformed into log2 value.The fold changes >=1.5 or <=-1.5 were selected as differentially expressed genes.
Project description:Bacteria can use host hormones as environment cue to modulate their pathogenic processes, which was discovered to play essential role in disease development. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is one of the most important porcine respiratory pathogens causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Stress factors were found to contribute to the outcome of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. To test whether A. pleuropneumoniae could respond to host stress hormone catecholamines, the gene expression profiles after epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) treatment were compared with the untreated bacteria using microarray. Although the bacterial growth was not affected in the conditions tested, 157 and 104 genes associated with various function categories including many virulence factors were differentially expressed by Epi and NE treatment. 18 common genes were regulated by the two hormones, these genes included genes encoding virulence factors and potential responsors of Epi and NE. Further investigations on virulence traits demonstrated that cytotoxic activity was enhanced by Epi but repressed by NE in accordance with the regulations on apxIA. Biofilm formation was not affected by the two hormones despite that the biofilm formation gene pgaB was affected. Adhesion to host cells was induced by NE but not by Epi, possibly involving other putative adhesins affected by the hormones in addition to the autotransporter adhesin (APL_0443). Our study demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae could actively respond to catecholamines to control its virulence traits. The different regulated genes and effects caused by Epi and NE suggested A. pleuropneumoniae may have multiple responsive systems to sense different type of catecholamine hormones. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using microarray to compared the epinephrine (Epi) or norepinephrine(NE) treated and untreated A. pleuropneumoniae. All samples were harvested from middle exponential phase (4 hours after sub-culture) at the OD600=1.435±0.065 for control, OD600=1.461±0.019 for Epi treated strain and OD600=1.545±0.115 for NE treated strain. Three biological replicates were conducted for each treatment. The total RNA were extracted and hybridized with the whole genome microarray of A. pleuropneumoniae. The signal intensities were normalized and transformed into log2 values. The genes with fold change ≥ 1.5 and P < 0.05 were selected as differentially expressed.
Project description:Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Keywords: Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Microarray data for 15 known serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (at least 2 replicates per serotype).
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiologic agent of contagious pleuropneumonia, an economically important disease of commercially reared swine throughout the world. To cause this disease, A. pleuropneumoniae must rapidly overcome porcine pulmonary innate immune defenses. Effects of koromycin, an antimicrobial agent that acts as an noncompetitive inhibitor of the interaction of NQR with its quinone substrate, on the transcriptome of A. pleuropneumoniae was investigated. Overall design: Labelled cDNA synthetised from tester condition (namely wt strain growing in BHI-koromycin) was co-hybridized on the microarray with labelled cDNA from the control condition (wt BHI). Control was labelled with Cy3.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE13006 At least four hybridizations were conducted for each sample combination type. Microarray analysis was carried out using the TM4 Suite of softwares (TIGR) and the SAM algorithm, using a false discovery rate (FDR) value of 0%. For the planktonic and adhesion experiments, Cy5 signal (test) was compared to Cy3 signal (control), except for one dye swap, in order to obtain a list of significant differentially expressed genes.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using microarray to compare the gene expressions of A. pleuropneumoniae cultured under aerobic and anaerobic condition. The bacteria was cultured under aerobic condition to mid-log phase (3 hours) and then divided into two separate groups, one group was continually cultured under aerobic condition for 1 hour (OD600nm = 0.417 ± 0.008) and the other group was cultured under anaerobic condition for 1 hour (OD600nm = 0.333 ± 0.015). Three independent biological replicates were performed. The total RNA were extracted and hybridized with the whole genome microarray of A. pleuropneumoniae. The signal intensities were normalized and transformed into log2 values. The genes with P-value < 0.05 were selected as differentially expressed genes.
Project description:To determine the role of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae two-component system QseBQseC, we constructed a qseBqseC gene-deleted mutant ΔqseBΔqseC based on the wild type A. pleuropneumoniae 4074. The transcriptional profiles were compared between the A. pleuropneumoniae ΔqseBΔqseC and its parental strain under the normal growth condition using microarray. A total of 44 genes were found differentially expressed (DE) compared to the wild type strain. These functional genes are primarily related to metabolism, cell wall biogenesis, energy, replication and recombination. Further investigations indicated that the type IV pili (Tfp) assembly protein PilM is regulated directly by QseB, and PilM is essential for adherence and virulence. Characterization of the QseBQseC regulon genes will provides new insight into understanding of the relevant signal transduction pathways and prevention of the infection. A. pleuropneumoniae strains were cultured in TSB medium supplemented with 10 μg/ml of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and 10% (v/v)filtered cattle serum at 37℃. The samples were collected at the mid-exponential phase and the total RNA were extracted using RNA-Solv Reagent (Omega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Expression profiles of two different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (4074 and ΔqseBΔqseC) were determined. The fold changes >=1.5 or <=-1.5 were selected as differentially expressed genes.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome changes in six serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in control cultures compared to bacteria grown in media containg the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl. A 48 chip study using total RNA recovered from four different control cultures and four different iron depleted cultures of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniea serotype 1 (4074), serotype 2 (4226), serotype 3 (1421), serotype 5b(L209, serotype 6 (7712640) and serotype 7 (WF87).