Gene expression analysis of human CD4+ T cells differentiated into Th17 cells in the presence of high-salt
ABSTRACT: Th17 cells are believed to be a critical cell population for driving autoimmune diseases. However, environmental factors that are directly related to the development of Th17 cells are largely unknown. High-salt (NaCl) concentrations enhance Th17 differentiation of human naive CD4+ T cells in vitro. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in gene expression induced by high-salt conditions during Th17 differentiation. Naive human CD4+ T cells were in vitro differentiated into Th17 cells in the presence or absence of high-salt. We arrayed 2 different donors for each condition (control & high-salt).
Project description:Mouse spleen CD4+CD44LowCD62LHigh cells were stimulated with 2ug/ml anti-CD3(eBioscience), 2ug/ml anti-CD28 (eBioscience) in the presence (Th17 condition) or absence (Th0 condition) of hTGFb-1 (1ng/ml eBioscience), mouse IL-6(10ng/ml eBioscience). Cells were collected after 24 hourÕs culture using RNAeasy columns (Qiagen) for total RNA isolation. Isolated total RNA from Th0 and Th17 conditioned cells were submitted for the microarray gene transcription comparison analysis using Affymetrix Mouse 430A 2.0 array chips.
Project description:TGF-beta3 produced by developing Th17 cells induces highly pathogenic T cells that are functionally and molecularly distinct from TGF-beta1-induced Th17 cells. The microarray data represent a distinct molecular signature for pathogenic versus non-pathogenic Th17 cells. Total of seven groups with two to four samples per group from two independent experiments. The no cytokines group (Th0) was used as a control to normalize the data. 7 groups: B6: (IL-1beta, IL-6) B623: (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23) T16: (TGF-beta1, IL-6) T1623: (TGF-beta1, IL-6, IL-23) T36: (TGF-beta3, IL-6) T3623: (TGF-beta3, IL-6, IL-23) NOCYTO: no cytokines
Project description:Th17 cells are highly proinflammatory cells that are critical for clearing extracellular pathogens like fungal infections and for induction of multiple autoimmune diseases1. IL-23 plays a critical role in stabilizing and endowing Th17 cells with pathogenic effector functions2. Previous studies have shown that IL-23 signaling reinforces the Th17 phenotype by increasing expression of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R)3. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which IL-23 sustains the Th17 response and induces pathogenic effector functions has not been elucidated. Here, we used unbiased transcriptional profiling of developing Th17 cells to construct a model of their signaling network and identify major nodes that regulate Th17 development. We identified serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1), as an essential node downstream of IL-23 signaling, critical for regulating IL-23R expression and for stabilizing the Th17 cell phenotype by deactivation of Foxo1, a direct repressor of IL-23R expression. A serine-threonine kinase homologous to AKT4, SGK1 has been associated with cell cycle and apoptosis, and has been shown to govern Na+ transport and homeostasis5, 6 7, 8. We here show that a modest increase in salt (NaCl) concentration induces SGK1 expression, promotes IL-23R expression and enhances Th17 cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo, ultimately accelerating the development of autoimmunity. The loss of SGK1 resulted in abrogation of Na+-mediated Th17 differentiation in an IL-23-dependent manner. These data indicate that SGK1 is a critical regulator for the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells and provides a molecular insight by which an environmental factor such as a high salt diet could trigger Th17 development and promote tissue inflammation. Th17 cells; comparing Sgk1-/- to WT
Project description:IFNβ, an effective therapy against relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) is naturally secreted during the innate immune response against viral pathogens. The objective of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory mechanisms of IFNβ targeting innate immune response and their effects on DC-mediated regulation of T-cell differentiation. We found that IFNβ−1a in-vitro treatment of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) induced the expression of TLR7 and the members of its downstream signaling pathway, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4, and TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)6, while it inhibited the expression of IL-1R. Using siRNA TLR7 gene silencing, we confirmed that IFNβ-1a-induced changes in MyD88, IRAK4 and IL-1R expression were dependent on TLR7. TLR7 expression was also necessary for the IFNβ-1a-induced inhibition of IL-1β and IL-23, and the induction of IL-27 secretion by DCs. Supernatant (SN) transfer experiments confirmed that IFNβ-1a-induced changes in DCs’ cytokine secretion inhibit Th17 cell differentiation as evidenced by the inhibition of retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear hormone receptor C (RORC) and IL-17A gene expression and IL-17A secretion. Our study has identified a novel therapeutic mechanism of IFNβ−1a, that selectively targets the autoimmune response in MS. Experiment Overall Design: Gene expression changes induced by IFNβ−1a were tested using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 (HG-U133) arrays (Affymetrix) that contain 45,000 probe sets representing 39,000 transcripts derived from approximately 33,000 human genes. 107 PBMCs per condition derived from 15 CIS patients were stimulated with plate-immobilized αCD3 (1 μg/ml) and αCD28 (5 μg/ml) mAb (BD Biosciences) in the absence or presence of IFNβ-1a (1000 U/ml) (EMD Serono Inc) for 24 h in serum-free medium (Gibco). Cells were harvested and the total RNA was isolated using a Rneasy kit (Quiagen). Arrays were hybridized for 16 hours at 45oC in the GeneChip® Hybridization Oven 640 (Affymetrix). The arrays were washed and stained with R-phycoerythrin streptavidin in the GeneChip® Fluidics Station 400 (Affymetrix). The arrays were scanned with a Hewlett Packard GeneArray Scanner. Affymetrix GeneChip® Microarray Suite 5.0 software was used for washing, scanning and basic analysis.
Project description:To analyse the influence of pentanoate on the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells under Th17 inducing conditions, murine CD4 T cells were isolated from spleen and lymphnodes of FIR/TIGER mice (IL-10 (GFP) - Foxp3 (RFP) - Reporter mice). The T cells were kept for 3 days under Th17 inducing conditions either with 4 mM pentanoate or without pentanoate (control).
Project description:Introduction: Expansion of antigen (Ag)-specific natural occurring regulatory T cells (nTregs) is required to obtain sufficient numbers of cells for cellular immunotherapy. In this study, different allogeneic stimuli were studied for their capacity to generate functional alloAg-specific nTregs. Methods: A highly enriched nTreg-fraction (CD4+CD25brightCD127- T cells) was alloAg-specific expanded using HLA-mismatched immature, mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The allogeneic mature moDC-expanded nTregs were fully characterized by analysis of the demethylation status within the TSDR of the FOXP3 gene and the expression of both protein and mRNA of FOXP3, HELIOS, CTLA4 and cytokines. In addition, the antigen-specific suppressive capacity of these expanded nTregs was tested. Results: Allogeneic mature moDC and skin-derived DC were superior in inducing nTreg-expansion compared to immature moDC or PBMC in an HLA-DR and CD80/CD86-dependent way. Remarkably, the presence of exogenous IL-15 without IL-2, could facilitate optimal mature moDC-induced nTreg-expansion. Allogeneic mature moDC-expanded nTregs were at low ratios (<1:320), potent suppressors of alloAg-induced proliferation without significant suppression of completely HLA-mismatched-Ag-induced proliferation. Mature moDC-expanded nTregs were highly demethylated at the TSDR within the FOXP3 gene and highly expressed of FOXP3, HELIOS and CTLA4. A minority of the expanded nTregs produced IL-10, IL-2, IFN-g and TNF-a but very few IL-17 producing nTregs were found. Next generation sequencing of mRNA of moDC-expanded nTregs revealed a strong induction of Treg-associated mRNAs. Conclusions: Human allogeneic mature moDC are highly efficient stimulator cells, in presence of exogenous IL-15, for expansion of stable alloAg-specific nTregs with superior suppressive function. Four different batches of highly pure regulatory T cells (all from the same donor) were expanded in two different ways, and compared to non-expanded samples.
Project description:The human dataset includes the gene expression profile of CD4+ T cells isolated from blood of healthy controls and plated on TCP in RPMI-1640 containing 10% FCS, Penicillin-Streptomycin (50,000 units-50 mg) and L-glutamine (2 mM). Cells were stimulated for 4 days with 20 ng/ml of IL-1beta, 100 IU/ml of IL-2, 20 ng/ml of IL-6, 20 ng/ml IL-23 plus anti-CD2/3/28 beads at a ratio of 1 bead per 10 cells. RNA samples were isolated using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) with on-column DNA digestion. The transcriptional profile was evaluated in three different donors using the HT12v4.1 BeadChip arrays from Illumina. Total RNA obtained from CD4+ T cells exposed to Th17-promoting cytokines.
Project description:During activation, T cells integrate multiple signals from APCs and cytokine milieu. The blockade of these signals can have clinical benefits as exemplified by CTLA4-Ig, which blocks interaction of B7 co-stimulatory molecules on APCs with CD28 on T cells. Variants of CTLA4-Ig, abatacept and belatacept are FDA approved as immunosuppressive agents in arthritis and transplantation whereas murine studies suggested that CTLA4-Ig can be beneficial in a number of other diseases. However, detailed analysis of human CD4 cell hyporesponsivness induced by CTLA4-Ig has not been performed. Herein, we established a model to study effect of CTLA4-Ig on the activation of human naïve T cells in a human mixed lymphocytes system. Comparison of human CD4 cells activated in the presence or absence of CTLA4-Ig, showed that co-stimulation blockade during TCR activation does not affect NFAT signaling but results in decreased activation of NF-kB and AP-1 transcription factors followed by profound decrease in proliferation and cytokine production. The resulting T cells become hyporesponsive to secondary activation and, although capable of receiving TCR signals, fail to proliferate or produce cytokines, demonstrating properties of anergic cells. However, unlike some models of T cell anergy, these cells did not possess increased levels of TCR signaling inhibitor CBLB. Rather, the CTLA4-Ig induced hyporesponsiveness was associated with an elevated level of p27kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Time series. Human resting and activated T cell dUTP mRNA-Seq profiles were generated on Illumina HiSeq2500