Postnatal fluoxetine evoked gene expression changes in the rat hippocampus
ABSTRACT: to understand the consequences of chronic exposure to fluoxetine during postnatal life on global transcriptional changes withing the rat hippocamps Agilent one-color experiment,Organism: Rattus Norvegicus, Agilent-016352 Genotypic designed Custom Rattus Norvegicus 8x15k, Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442)
Project description:In this study, we examined the consequences of the early stress (ES) of maternal separation on hippocampal gene expression in young adulthood. Young adult (2 months old) ES animals exhibit hippocampal transcriptome changes with a significant regulation of genes associated with intracellular signaling, MAP kinase signaling, plasma membrane function, neurotransmitter and neuropeptide receptors and cytoskeletal components. Agilent one-color experiment, Agilent-024724 Genotypic-designed Custom Rattus Norvegicus 8x15k; Organism: Rattus norvegicus; Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442); Biological replicates: 4 per treatment group.
Project description:In this study, we examined the consequences of the early stress (ES) of maternal separation on hippocampal gene expression in middle-aged animals. Middle-aged (15 months old) ES animals exhibit hippocampal transcriptome changes with a significant regulation of genes associated with ion binding, transcriptional regulation, cellular projection, cellular stress responsive pathways, neuronal development and chromatin remodeling. Agilent one-color experiment, Agilent-024724 Genotypic-designed Custom Rattus Norvegicus 8x15k; Organism: Rattus norvegicus; Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442); Biological replicates: 5 per early stress group, 3 per control group
Project description:Invasive species are the primary driver of island taxa extinctions and, among them, those belonging to the genus Rattus are considered as the most damaging. The presence of black rat (Rattus rattus) on Cyprus has long been established, while that of brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is dubious. This study is the first to provide molecular and morphological data to document the occurrence of R. norvegicus in the island of Cyprus. A total of 223 black rats and 14 brown rats were collected. Each sample was first taxonomically attributed on the basis of body measurements and cranial observations. Four of the specimens identified as R. norvegicus and one identified as R. rattus were subjected to molecular characterization in order to corroborate species identification. The analyses of the mitochondrial control region were consistent with morphological data, supporting the taxonomic identification of the samples. At least two maternal molecular lineages for R. norvegicus were found in Cyprus. The small number of brown rats collected in the island, as well as the large number of samples of black rats retrieved in the past years might be an indication that the distribution of R. norvegicus is still limited into three out of the six districts of Cyprus.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses cause human disease in endemic regions around the world. Outbreaks of hantaviral diseases have been associated with changes in rodent population density and adaptation to human settlements leading to their proliferation in close proximity to human dwellings. In a parallel study initiated to determine the prevalence of pathogens in Singapore's wild rodent population, 1206 rodents were trapped and screened. The findings established a hantavirus seroprevalence of 34%. This paper describes the molecular characterization of hantaviruses from Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi, the predominant rodents caught in urban Singapore. METHODOLOGY: Pan-hanta RT-PCR performed on samples of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi indicated that 27 (2.24%) of the animals were positive. sequence analysis of the S and M segments established that two different hantavirus strains circulate in the rodent population of Singapore. Notably, the hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus clusters with other Asian Seoul virus sequences, while the virus strains found in Rattus tanezumi had the highest sequence similarity to the Serang virus from Rattus tanezumi in Indonesia, followed by Cambodian hantavirus isolates and the Thailand virus isolated from Bandicota indica. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence analysis of the S and M segments of hantavirus strains found in Rattus norvegicus (Seoul virus strain Singapore) and Rattus tanezumi (Serang virus strain Jurong TJK/06) revealed that two genetically different hantavirus strains were found in rodents of Singapore. Evidently, together with Serang, Cambodian and Thailand virus the Jurong virus forms a distinct phylogroup. Interestingly, these highly similar virus strains have been identified in different rodent hosts. Further studies are underway to analyze the public health significance of finding hantavirus strains in Singapore rodents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Urban rodents and house shrews are closely correlated in terms of location with humans and can transmit many pathogens to them. Hepatitis E has been confirmed to be a zoonotic disease. However, the zoonotic potential of rat HEV is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genomic characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in rodents and house shrews. RESULTS:We collected a total of 788 animals from four provinces in China. From the 614 collected murine rodents, 20.19% of the liver tissue samples and 45.76% of the fecal samples were positive for HEV. From the 174 house shrews (Suncus murinus), 5.17% fecal samples and 0.57% liver tissue samples were positive for HEV. All of the HEV sequences obtained in this study belonged to Orthohepevirus C1. However, we observed a lower percentage of identity in the ORF3 region upon comparing the amino acid sequences between Rattus norvegicus and Rattus losea. HEV derived from house shrews shared a high percentage of identity with rat HEV. Notably, the first near full-length of the HEV genome from Rattus losea is described in our study, and we also report the first near full-length rat HEV genomes in Rattus norvegicus from China. CONCLUSION:HEV is prevalent among the three common species of murine rodents (Rattus. norvegicus, Rattus. tanezumi, and Rattus. losea) in China. HEV sequences detected from house shrews were similar to rat HEV sequences. The high identity of HEV from murine rodents and house shrews suggested that HEV can spread among different animal species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. RESULTS: To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. CONCLUSIONS: This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing historical insights into introductions and for directing future sampling. The apparent ease with which a cryptic species can become established signals the need for broader implementation of genetic monitoring programmes. In addition to providing baseline data and potentially identifying high-risk introduction routes, the predictive power of ecological niche modelling is enhanced when species records are genetically verified.
Project description:PMSG acts like LH in horses and mares but works like FSH in heterologous animals under certain circumstances. Overall design: Organism: Rattus norvegicus. Agilent Rat Gene expression 8x60k Array AMADID: 028279. Ovaries from control rats or rats treated with PMSG. 4 replicates each.
Project description:Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.