Profiling of human CD4+ T subsets identifies a Th2-specific non-coding RNA GATA3-AS1
ABSTRACT: Host defense against diverse pathogens involves the recruitment and differentiation of CD4+ T effector subsets including T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T (Treg) cells. Surface phenotype studies have revealed subset-specific surface markers for the identification and purification of human primary CD4+ T effector subsets. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the mRNA and large intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) expression differences between human primary CD4+ T effector subsets and identify potential subset-specific genes. To achieve this goal, mRNA and lincRNA microarray profiling of flow cytometry-sorted human primary Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells was performed. Principal component and pathway analyses revealed subset-specific gene expression patterns. A Th2-specific lincRNA, GATA3-AS1, also termed FLJ45983, was identified in primary immune cells and tissues, as well as in in vitro polarized CD4+ T effector subsets. Further analysis showed that GATA3-AS1 was a potential diagnostic marker in allergy, a Th2-associated disease. This first systematic genome-wide analysis of gene expression differences between primary CD4+ T effector subsets may help to identify novel regulatory protein-coding genes and lincRNAs regulating CD4+ T cell subset differentiation, as well as potential diagnostic markers. As an example, we identified a GATA3-associated Th2-specific marker lincRNA GATA3-AS1. Gene expression microarray analysis of flow-cytometry sorted human primary naïve CD4+ T cells, CD4+ T central memory cells, Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells from buffy coat of four healthy controls Gene expression microarray analysis was performed using SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression 8X60K microarray.
Project description:Although lincRNAs are implicated in regulating gene expression in various tissues, little is known about lincRNA transcriptomes in the T cell lineages. Here we identify 1,524 lincRNAs in 42 T cell samples from early T cell progenitors to terminally differentiated T helper subsets. Our analysis revealed highly dynamic and cell-specific expression patterns of lincRNAs during T cell differentiation. Importantly, these lincRNAs are located in genomic regions enriched for protein-coding genes with immune-regulatory functions. Many of these transcripts are bound and regulated by the key T cell transcription factors, T-bet, GATA3, STAT4 and STAT6. We demonstrate that the lincRNA LincR-Ccr2-5'AS, together with GATA3, is an essential component of a regulatory circuit in Th2-specific gene expression. To obtain comprehensive profiles of lincRNA expression during the development and differentiation of T cell lineages, we purified CD4-CD8 double negative (DN) cells (DN1, DN2, DN3 and DN4), double positive (DP) cells (CD4+CD8+CD3low and CD4+CD8intCD69+), single positive (SP) CD4 and CD8 cells, and thymic-derived regulatory T cells (tTreg) from thymi of C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, we obtained Th1, Th2, Th17 and iTreg cells by in vitro differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells for a various length of time in culture (4 hrs, 8 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 1 week, 2weeks). Total and/or polyadenylated RNAs from these cells was analyzed using RNA-Seq. To understand the regulation of lincRNAs by T cell master regulator T-bet, we compared the transcriptiomes between T-bet deficient Th1 cells and control Th1 cells. We did similar experiments and data analysis for STAT4 (Th1), GATA3 (Th2) and STAT6 (Th2). Finally, to address the funcation of a Th2-specifically expressed lincRNA, lincR-Ccr2-5'AS, we compared the transcriptomes between lincR-Ccr2-5'AS knockdown Th2 cells and control Th2 cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inappropriately sustained inflammation is a hallmark of chronic ischemic heart failure (HF); however, the pathophysiological role of T lymphocytes is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:Permanent coronary ligation was performed in adult C57BL/6 mice. When compared with sham-operated mice, mice with HF (8 weeks after ligation) exhibited the following features: (1) significant (P<0.05) expansion of circulating CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic and CD3+CD4+ helper (Th) T lymphocytes, together with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T-cell (Treg) CD4+ subsets; (2) significant expansion of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in failing myocardium, with increased Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg CD4+ subsets, marked reduction of the Th1/Th2 ratio, augmentation of the Th17/Treg ratio, and upregulation of Th2 cytokines; and (3) significantly increased Th1, Th2, Th17 cells, and Tregs, in the spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes, with expansion of splenic antigen-experienced effector and memory CD4+ T cells. Antibody-mediated CD4+ T-cell depletion in HF mice (starting 4 weeks after ligation) reduced cardiac infiltration of CD4+ T cells and prevented progressive left ventricular dilatation and hypertrophy, whereas adoptive transfer of splenic CD4+ T cells (and, to a lesser extent, cardiac CD3+ T cells) from donor mice with HF induced long-term left ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in naive recipient mice. CONCLUSIONS:CD4+ T lymphocytes are globally expanded and activated in chronic ischemic HF, with Th2 (versus Th1) and Th17 (versus Treg) predominance in failing hearts, and with expansion of memory T cells in the spleen. Cardiac and splenic T cells in HF are primed to induce cardiac injury and remodeling, and retain this memory on adoptive transfer.
Project description:Disrupted balance in the lineages of CD4+ T cell subsets, including pro-inflammatory T helper (Th) cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Treg), is a primary pathogenic factor for developing autoimmunity. We have found that this immunomodulatory effect of naringenin on effector T cells and T-cell mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We therefore explored the effects of naringenin on the development of different effector CD4+ T cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells were differentiated under respective Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg polarizing conditions with naringenin. Percent populations of each differentiated CD4+ T cell subsets were determined and the corresponding regulating pathways were investigated as underlying mechanisms. Naringenin mainly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation and differentiation to Th1 and Th17, but did not affect Th2 cells. Impeded Th1 polarization was associated with inhibition of its specific regulator proteins T-bet, p-STAT1, and p-STAT4 by naringenin. Likewise, Th17 regulator proteins ROR?t, p-STAT3, and Ac-STAT3 were also inhibited by naringenin. In addition, naringenin promoted Treg polarization and also prevented IL-6-induced suppression of Treg development via down-regulation of p-Smad2/3 as well as inhibition of IL-6 signaling, and the latter was further supported by the in vivo results showing lower soluble IL-6R but higher soluble gp130 levels in plasma of naringenin-fed compared to the control EAE mice. Naringenin impacts CD4+ T cell differentiation in a manner that would explain its beneficial effect in preventing/mitigating T cell-mediated autoimmunity.
Project description:Activated naive CD4(+) T cells are highly plastic cells that can differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell fates characterized by the expression of effector cytokines like IFN-? (Th1), IL-4 (Th2) or IL-17A (Th17). Although previous studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms including DNA demethylation can stabilize effector cytokine expression, a comprehensive analysis of the changes in the DNA methylation pattern during differentiation of naive T cells into Th cell subsets is lacking. Hence, we here performed a genome-wide methylome analysis of ex vivo isolated naive CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells. We could demonstrate that naive CD4(+) T cells share more demethylated regions with Th17 cells when compared to Th1 cells, and that overall Th17 cells display the highest number of demethylated regions, findings which are in line with the previously reported plasticity of Th17 cells. We could identify seven regions located in Il17a, Zfp362, Ccr6, Acsbg1, Dpp4, Rora and Dclk1 showing pronounced demethylation selectively in ex vivo isolated Th17 cells when compared to other ex vivo isolated Th cell subsets and in vitro generated Th17 cells, suggesting that this unique epigenetic signature allows identifying and functionally characterizing in vivo generated Th17 cells.
Project description:Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12R?1/TYK2 and IFN-?R/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12R?1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation.
Project description:Functionally polarized CD4+ T helper (Th) cells such as Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells are central to the regulation of acquired immunity. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the maintenance of the polarized functions of Th cells remain unclear. GATA3, a master regulator of Th2 cell differentiation, initiates the expressions of Th2 cytokine genes and other Th2-specific genes. GATA3 also plays important roles in maintaining Th2 cell function and in continuous chromatin remodeling of Th2 cytokine gene loci. However, it is unclear whether continuous expression of GATA3 is required to maintain the expression of various other Th2-specific genes. In this report, genome-wide DNA gene expression profiling revealed that GATA3 expression is critical for the expression of a certain set of Th2-specific genes. We demonstrated that GATA3 dependency is reduced for some Th2-specific genes in fully developed Th2 cells compared to that observed in effector Th2 cells, whereas it is unchanged for other genes. Moreover, effects of a loss of GATA3 expression in Th2 cells on the expression of cytokine and cytokine receptor genes were examined in detail. A critical role of GATA3 in the regulation of Th2-specific gene expression is confirmed in in vivo generated antigen-specific memory Th2 cells. Therefore, GATA3 is required for the continuous expression of the majority of Th2-specific genes involved in maintaining the Th2 cell identity.
Project description:Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-?, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2R?) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-? (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p < 0.001) compared to non-responders. GATA3/T-bet ratio correlated positively with serum neopterin (p = 0.008), IFN-? (p = 0.013) and KTR (p = 0.018) after the first BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p < 0.05), with only a modest tendency toward higher frequency in responders compared to non-responders (p = 0.303). The combined assessment of GATA3/T-bet ratio, neopterin and KTR may be a useful biomarker in predicting BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.
Project description:Imbalances in effector T cell functioning have been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Differentiation of effector T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) lymphocytes is regulated by transcription factors, including Th1-specific T box (T-bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA3), retinoid-related orphan receptor (ROR)-α and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3). This study aimed to investigate Th1/Th2, Th1/Treg, Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg balances at the level of these transcription factors.This study took place between October 2015 and August 2016. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from a control group of 40 healthy women recruited from the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran, and a patient group of 40 women with HT referred to the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital, Zahedan. Total ribonucleic acid extraction was performed and the gene expression of transcription factors was quantitated using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique.Expression of T-bet and GATA3 was significantly elevated, while FOXP3 expression was significantly diminished among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P = 0.03, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Expression of RORα was higher among HT patients, although this difference was not significant (P = 0.15). Expression of T-bet/FOXP3, GATA3/FOXP3 and RORα/FOXP3 ratios were increased among HT patients in comparison with the controls (P <0.02, <0.01 and <0.01, respectively).These results indicate that HT patients have imbalances in Th1/Treg, Th2/Treg and Th17/Treg lymphocytes at the level of the transcription factors, deviating towards Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Correction of these imbalances may therefore be therapeutic.
Project description:Adaptive immune responses are tailored to different types of pathogens through differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into functionally distinct subsets of effector T cells (T helper 1 (TH1), TH2, and TH17) defined by expression of the key transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, and ROR?t, respectively. Regulatory T (Treg) cells comprise a distinct anti-inflammatory lineage specified by the X-linked transcription factor Foxp3 (refs 2, 3). Paradoxically, some activated Treg cells express the aforementioned effector CD4 T cell transcription factors, which have been suggested to provide Treg cells with enhanced suppressive capacity. Whether expression of these factors in Treg cells-as in effector T cells-is indicative of heterogeneity of functionally discrete and stable differentiation states, or conversely may be readily reversible, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that expression of the TH1-associated transcription factor T-bet in mouse Treg cells, induced at steady state and following infection, gradually becomes highly stable even under non-permissive conditions. Loss of function or elimination of T-bet-expressing Treg cells-but not of T-bet expression in Treg cells-resulted in severe TH1 autoimmunity. Conversely, following depletion of T-bet- Treg cells, the remaining T-bet+ cells specifically inhibited TH1 and CD8 T cell activation consistent with their co-localization with T-bet+ effector T cells. These results suggest that T-bet+ Treg cells have an essential immunosuppressive function and indicate that Treg cell functional heterogeneity is a critical feature of immunological tolerance.
Project description:Expression of T1ST2, the IL-33R, by Th2 cells requires GATA3. Resting Th2 cells express little GATA3, which is increased by IL-33 and a STAT5 activator, in turn increasing T1ST2 from its low-level expression on resting Th2 cells. Th2 cells that have upregulated T1ST2 produce IL-13, but not IL-4, in response to IL-33 plus a STAT5 activator in an antigen-independent, NF-kappaB-dependent, cyclosporin A (CsA)-resistant manner. Similarly, Th17 cells produce IL-17A in response to IL-1beta and a STAT3 activator and Th1 cells produce IFNgamma in response to IL-18 and a STAT4 inducer. Thus, each effector Th cell produces cytokines without antigenic stimulation in response to an IL-1 family member and a specific STAT activator, implying an innate mechanism through which memory CD4 T cells are recruited by an induced cytokine environment.