U87 cells implanted on a chick CAM (Chorioallantoic Membrane)
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumours have one of the shortest mean survival times (<1 year). In vivo models of GBM in mice and rats have been developed to study aspects of glioma that cannot be observed in cell culture such as angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Gliomas can be induced by implantation of rodent glioma cell lines into the brain or flank of nude mice. The disadvantages of rodent models however include variable growth rate and poor penetrance, which leads to difficulties in collecting clearly graded samples (pre-vascular/vascular). Bikfalvi et al have previously established a human GBM model that addresses these issues based on the chicken egg chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM), a highly vascularised extra-embryonic tissue. We have used DNA microarrays and a CAM model of GBM to study gene expression during the recruitment and development of the tumour vasculature. Over a 5 day period samples were taken every 12 hours from the tumour implantation site consisting of tumour cells and stroma cells, and also from a site distant from the implantation site consisting of just CAM cells. This study will shed light on the dynamic transcriptional signature of pathological angiogenesis. On day 10 of embryonic development 3-5 million U87 cells were deposited onto the surface of the CAM after gentle laceration. The cells were contained within a plastic ring and each tumour was size matched based on its volume. Tumour/stroma and distant CAM samples were cut out at 12 hour intervals post implantation for 5 days, equalling 10 time points. Each time point consisted of three replicates. U87 cells in culture (pre-implantation) were also included in the study in triplicate.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most devastating primary brain tumour characterised by infiltrative growth and resistance to therapies. According to recent research, the sigma-1 receptor (sig1R), an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein, is involved in signaling pathways assumed to control the proliferation of cancer cells and thus could serve as candidate for molecular characterisation of GBM. To test this hypothesis, we used the clinically applied sig1R-ligand (S)-(-)-[18F]fluspidine in imaging studies in an orthotopic mouse model of GBM (U87-MG) as well as in human GBM tissue. A tumour-specific overexpression of sig1R in the U87-MG model was revealed in vitro by autoradiography. The binding parameters demonstrated target-selective binding according to identical KD values in the tumour area and the contralateral side, but a higher density of sig1R in the tumour. Different kinetic profiles were observed in both areas, with a slower washout in the tumour tissue compared to the contralateral side. The translational relevance of sig1R imaging in oncology is reflected by the autoradiographic detection of tumour-specific expression of sig1R in samples obtained from patients with glioblastoma. Thus, the herein presented data support further research on sig1R in neuro-oncology.
Project description:The mutant Type III variant of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) is present in approximately one-third of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. It is never found in normal tissues; therefore, it represents a candidate target for GBM immunotherapy. PEPvIII, a peptide sequence from EGFRvIII, was designed to represent a target of glioma and is presented by MHC I/II complexes. Dendritic cells (DCs) have great potential to sensitize CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells to precisely target and eradicate GBM. Here, we show that PEPvIII could be loaded by DCs and presented to T lymphocytes, especially PEPvIII-specific CTLs, to precisely kill U87-EGFRvIII cells. In addition to inhibiting proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of U87-EGFRvIII cells, miR-326 also reduced the expression of TGF-?1 in the tumour environment, resulting in improved efficacy of T cell activation and killing via suppressing the SMO/Gli2 axis, which at least partially reversed the immunosuppressive environment. Furthermore, combining the EGFRvIII-DC vaccine with miR-326 was more effective in killing U87-EGFRvIII cells compared with the administration of either one alone. This finding suggested that a DC-based vaccine combined with miR-326 may induce more powerful anti-tumour immunity against GBM cells that express a relevant antigen, which provides a promising approach for GBM immunotherapy.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most lethal brain tumour, and these tumours have very limited treatment options. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are considered as candidates for advanced cell therapies, due to their tropism towards GBM, possibly affecting their malignancy, thus also representing a potential therapeutic vector. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of bone-marrow-derived versus adipose-tissue-derived MSC (BM-/AT-MSC) on heterogeneous populations of tumour cells. This cells' interplay was addressed by the in-vitro two-dimensional (monolayer) and three-dimensional (spheroid) co-culture models, using U87 and U373 GBM cell lines, expressing genotypically different mesenchymal transcriptome profiles. U87 cell low mesenchymal profile expressed high levels of kinin receptor 1 (B1R) and their invasion was greatly enhanced by the B1R agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin upon BM-MSC co-culturing in 3D co-cultures. This correlated to significantly higher cell-cell interactions in U87/BM-MSC mixed spheroids. This was not observed with the U373 cells and not in AT-MSC co-cultures. Altogether, these data support the on-going exploration of B1R as target for adjuvant approach in GBM therapy. Secondly, the results emphasize the need for further careful exploration of the selectivity regarding the origin of MSC as potential candidates for cell therapies, particular in cancer, where they may adversely affect heterogeneous tumour cell populations.
Project description:In experimental models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), irradiation (IR) induces local expression of the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1, which promotes tumour recurrence. The role of CXCR7, the high-affinity receptor for CXCL12, in the tumour's response to IR has not been addressed.We tested CXCR7 inhibitors for their effects on tumour growth and/or animal survival post IR in three rodent GBM models. We used immunohistochemistry to determine where CXCR7 protein is expressed in the tumours and in human GBM samples. We used neurosphere formation assays with human GBM xenografts to determine whether CXCR7 is required for cancer stem cell (CSC) activity in vitro.CXCR7 was detected on tumour cells and/or tumour-associated vasculature in the rodent models and in human GBM. In human GBM, CXCR7 expression increased with glioma grade and was spatially associated with CXCL12 and CXCL11/I-TAC. In the rodent GBM models, pharmacological inhibition of CXCR7 post IR caused tumour regression, blocked tumour recurrence, and/or substantially prolonged survival. CXCR7 expression levels on human GBM xenograft cells correlated with neurosphere-forming activity, and a CXCR7 inhibitor blocked sphere formation by sorted CSCs.These results indicate that CXCR7 inhibitors could block GBM tumour recurrence after IR, perhaps by interfering with CSCs.
Project description:Previously we reported that Stat3 is persistently activated in GBM tumours and derived cell lines. Hypoxia, necrosis and neo-angiogenesis are hallmarks of GBM. To unfold the contribution of activated Stat3 to the growth of GBM, we generated human GBM cell line (U87)-derived stable clones expressing a dominant negative mutant (DN)-Stat3 in a hypoxia-inducible manner, and examined their tumour-forming potentials in immune-compromised mice. We found that the parental and vector control cell-derived tumours grew steadily, whereas DN-Stat3-expressing clone-derived tumours failed to grow beyond 2mm of thickness in mouse flanks. This blockade of tumour growth was associated with induction of tumour cell apoptosis and suppression of tumour angiogenesis. Consistent with this, mice bearing orthotopically implanted DN-Stat3-expressing clones survived significantly longer than the control mice. These data suggest that activated Stat3 is required for the growth of GBM, and that targeting Stat3 may intervene with the growth of GBM.
Project description:Rodent models have contributed significantly to the understanding of haematological malignancies. One important model system in this context are patient-derived xenografts (PDX). In the current study, we examined 20 acute leukaemia PDX models for growth behaviour, infiltration in haemopoietic organs and sensitivity towards cytarabine. PDX were injected intratibially (i.t.), intrasplenicaly (i.s.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) into immune compromised mice. For 18/20 models the engraftment capacity was independent of the implantation site. Two models could exclusively be propagated in one or two specific settings. The implantation site did influence tumour growth kinetics as median overall survival differed within one model depending on the injection route. The infiltration pattern was similar in i.t. and i.s. models. In contrast to the s.c. implantation, only one model displayed circulating leukaemic cells outside of the locally growing tumour mass. Cytarabine was active in all four tested models. Nevertheless, the degree of sensitivity was specific for an individual model and implantation site. In summary, all three application routes turned out to be feasible for the propagation of PDX. Nevertheless, the distinct differences between the settings highlight the need for well characterized platforms to ensure the meaningful interpretation of data generated using those powerful tools.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour in humans and is highly resistant to current treatment modalities. We have explored the combined treatment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agent 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL WT) or the DR5-specific TRAIL D269H/E195R variant as a potential new strategy to eradicate GBM cells using TRAIL-resistant and -sensitive GBM cells. GBM cell lines were investigated for their sensitivity to TRAIL, DMC and combination of both agents. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay and apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V/PI and acridine orange staining. Caspase activation and protein expression levels were analysed with Western blotting. Death Receptor (DR) cell surface expression levels were quantified by flow cytometry. DR5 expression was increased in U87 cells by ectopic expression using a retroviral plasmid and survivin expression was silenced using specific siRNAs. We demonstrate that A172 expresses mainly DR5 on the cell surface and that these cells show increased sensitivity for the DR5-specific rhTRAIL D269H/E195R variant. In contrast, U87 cells show low DR cell surface levels and is insensitive via both DR4 and DR5. We determined that DMC treatment displays a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability against a number of GBM cells, associated with ER stress induction, as shown by the up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in A172 and U87 cells. The dramatic decrease in cell viability is not accompanied by a correspondent increase in Annexin V/PI or caspase activation typically seen in apoptotic or/and necrotic cells within 24h of treatment. Although DMC did not affect DR5 expression in the GBM cells, it increased TRAIL-induced caspase-8 activation in both TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cells, indicating that DMC potentiates initiator caspase activation in these cells. In A172 cells, sub-toxic concentrations of DMC greatly potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, DMC strongly reduced survivin expression in A172 and U87 cells and silencing of this anti-apoptotic protein partially sensitized cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our findings corroborate that DMC is a promising agent against GBM, and uncovers a potential synergistic cooperation with TRAIL in this highly malignant cancer.
Project description:Both hydrostatic and osmotic pressures are altered in the tumour microenvironment. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumour with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. We hypothesized that physical and osmotic forces regulate glioblastoma (GBM) invasiveness. The osmotic pressure of GBM cell culture medium was adjusted using sodium chloride or water. Alternatively, cells were subjected to increased hydrostatic force. The proteolytic profile and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated using zymography and real-time qPCR. The EMT markers assessed were Snail-1, Snail-2, N-cadherin, Twist and vimentin. Invasion was investigated in vitro using extracellular matrix-coated Transwell inserts. In response to osmotic and mechanical pressure, GBM cell lines U87 and U251 and patient-derived neural oncospheres upregulated the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and/or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as some of the EMT markers tested. The adherent cell lines invaded more when placed in media of increased osmolality. Therefore, GBM respond to osmotic or mechanical pressure by increasing matrix degrading enzyme production, and adopting a phenotype reminiscent of EMT. Better understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which increased pressure promotes GBM invasiveness may help to develop innovative therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) continues to show a poor prognosis despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The discovery of reliable prognostic indicators may significantly improve treatment outcome of GBM. In this study, we aimed to explore the function of verbascoside (VB) in GBM and its effects on GBM cell biological processes via let-7g-5p and HMGA2. Differentially expressed GBM-related microRNAs (miRNAs) were initially screened. Different concentrations of VB were applied to U87 and U251 GBM cells, and 50 µmol/L of VB was selected for subsequent experiments. Cells were transfected with let-7g-5p inhibitor or mimic, and overexpression of HMGA2 or siRNA against HMGA2 was induced, followed by treatment with VB. The regulatory relationships between VB, let-7g-5p, HMGA2 and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway were determined. The results showed that HMGA2 was a direct target gene of let-7g-5p. VB treatment or let-7g-5p overexpression inhibited HMGA2 expression and the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway, which further inhibited cell viability, invasion, migration, tumour growth and promoted GBM cell apoptosis and autophagy. On the contrary, HMGA2 overexpression promoted cell viability, invasion, migration, tumour growth while inhibiting GBM cell apoptosis and autophagy. We demonstrated that VB inhibits cell viability and promotes cell autophagy in GBM cells by up-regulating let-7g-5p and down-regulating HMGA2 via Wnt/?-catenin signalling blockade.
Project description:Intense infiltration of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) facilitates malignant growth of glioblastoma (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Herein, we report that TAMs secrete abundant pleiotrophin (PTN) to stimulate glioma stem cells (GSCs) through its receptor PTPRZ1 thus promoting GBM malignant growth through PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling. PTN expression correlates with infiltration of CD11b+/CD163+ TAMs and poor prognosis of GBM patients. Co-implantation of M2-like macrophages (MLCs) promoted GSC-driven tumour growth, but silencing PTN expression in MLCs mitigated their pro-tumorigenic activity. The PTN receptor PTPRZ1 is preferentially expressed in GSCs and also predicts GBM poor prognosis. Disrupting PTPRZ1 abrogated GSC maintenance and tumorigenic potential. Moreover, blocking the PTN-PTPRZ1 signalling by shRNA or anti-PTPRZ1 antibody potently suppressed GBM tumour growth and prolonged animal survival. Our study uncovered a critical molecular crosstalk between TAMs and GSCs through the PTN-PTPRZ1 paracrine signalling to support GBM malignant growth, indicating that targeting this signalling axis may have therapeutic potential.