Genome-wide transcriptome comparison between primary cultures of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and infantile hemangioma endothelial cells
ABSTRACT: Whole transcriptome comparisons of proliferating pure cultures of neonatal dermal microvacsular endothelial cells to infantile hemangioma endothelial cells. The total RNA was obtained from human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and infantile hemangioma endothelial cells. Illumina microarrays were performed to determine the whole genome expression differences between the cell lines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors primarily found on the skin in 10% of the pediatric population. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown and while large scale genomic studies have examined the transcriptomes of infantile hemangioma tumors as a whole, no study to date has compared the global gene expression profiles of pure infantile hemangioma endothelial cells (HEMECs) to that of normal human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs). METHODS: To shed light on the molecular differences between these normal and aberrant dermal endothelial cell types, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on purified cultures of HEMECs and HDMVECs. We then utilized qPCR and immunohistochemistry to confirm our microarray results. RESULTS: Our array analysis identified 125 genes whose expression was upregulated and 104 genes whose expression was downregulated by greater than two fold in HEMECs compared to HDMVECs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed three major classifications of gene functions that were altered in HEMECs including cell adhesion, cell cycle, and arachidonic acid production. Several of these genes have been reported to be critical regulators and/or mutated in cancer, vascular tumors, and vascular malformations. We confirmed the expression of a subset of these differentially expressed genes (ANGPT2, ANTXR1, SMARCE1, RGS5, CTAG2, LTBP2, CLDN11, and KISS1) using qPCR and utilized immunohistochemistry on a panel of paraffin embedded infantile hemangioma tumor tissues to demonstrate that the cancer/testis antigen CTAG2 is highly abundant in vessel-dense proliferating infantile hemangiomas and with significantly reduced levels during tumor involution as vascular density decreases. CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that the transcriptome of HEMECs is reflective of a pro-proliferative cell type with altered adhesive characteristics. Moveover, HEMECs show altered expression of many genes that are important in the progression and prognosis of metastatic cancers.
Project description:Infantile hemangiomas can cause significant morbidity during proliferation, yet there is no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. They are believed to form from hemangioma stem cells, which differentiate toward a hemangioma endothelial cell phenotype. Recently, propranolol has demonstrated effectiveness in treating complicated infantile hemangiomas. The authors hypothesize that propranolol facilitates their involution by altering cellular behavior in both hemangioma endothelial and stem cells.Hemangioma endothelial and stem cells were isolated from resected infantile hemangioma specimens. Cells were treated with 100 ?M propranolol for 48 hours, and apoptosis was determined by the presence of annexin V antibody. Proliferation of stem and endothelial cells was assessed after treatment with 50 or 100 ?M propranolol or vehicle, for 72 and 96 hours, respectively. Adipogenesis was induced in stem cells with and without propranolol. Pro-adipogenic genes PPAR?, PPAR?, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, C/EBP?, RXR?, and RXR? were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Annexin V levels were increased in propranolol-treated endothelial cells but not in stem cells. Proliferation of stem and endothelial cells was inhibited by propranolol in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol-treated stem cells demonstrated accelerated adipogenesis when compared with untreated controls. Transcript levels of C/EBP? (p < 0.05), RXR? (p < 0.05), and PPAR? (p < 0.02) were significantly increased when treated with 50 or 100 ?M propranolol; and C/EBP? (p < 0.05), RXR? (p < 0.05), and PPAR? (p < 0.01) transcripts were increased when treated with 100 ?M propranolol. C/EBP? transcript levels remained unchanged at either dose.Propranolol increased apoptosis of hemangioma endothelial cells, but not stem cells, and accelerated adipogenesis of hemangioma stem cells. Thus, propranolol likely accelerates involution to fibrofatty residuum.
Project description:Analysis of the effects of cell shape on human coronary artery endothelial cell transcription. The hypothesis is that defined alterations in endothelial cell shape uniquely affect the endothelial transcriptome. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were plated onto spatially defined micropatterns (Cytoo) forcing them to conform to Disc, Crossbow, H, Y, or L shapes. As a control, human coronary artery endothelial cells were plated on non-restrictive areas of the Cytoo growth plate. Cells were serum starved for 48 hours prior to mRNA collection. RNA was collected after 48 hours growth on the restricted or non-restricted growth patterns and subjected to whole genome microarray analysis.
Project description:Infantile hemangiomas are benign tumors of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), characterized by three distinct stages: proliferating phase, involuting phase, and involuted phase. The mechanisms that trigger involution of hemangioma into fibro-fatty tissue remain unknown. We report a novel mechanism by which M1-polarized macrophages induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and promote hemangioma regression. M1- but not M2-polarized macrophages induced EndMT in ECs. Tumor necrosis factor-? and, to a lesser extent, IL-1? and interferon-? were the most potent cytokines produced by the M1 macrophages that induce in vitro EndMT. Western blot analysis and gene expression profiling showed that ECs treated with M1 macrophages, tumor necrosis factor-?, or IL-1? decreased the expression of endothelial markers, whereas mesenchymal markers increased concomitantly. Immunohistochemical staining of patient samples revealed that a significant perivascular infiltration of M1, but not M2, macrophages coincides with endothelial expression of the critical EndMT transcription factors Snail/Slug in involuting hemangiomas. Most strikingly, M1 macrophage-treated ECs isolated from patient hemangiomas (HemECs) but not untreated HemECs readily differentiated into adipocytes on adipogenic induction. Thus, in vitro EndMT and adipogenesis of HemECs have, in part, recapitulated the natural history of hemangioma regression. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EndMT induced by M1 macrophages promotes infantile hemangioma regression and may lead to novel therapeutic treatments for this vascular tumor.
Project description:Infantile hemangiomas are localized lesions comprised primarily of aberrant endothelial cells. COSMC plays a crucial role in blood vessel formation and is characterized as a molecular chaperone of T-synthase which catalyzes the synthesis of T antigen (Gal?1,3GalNAc). T antigen expression is associated with tumor malignancy in many cancers. However, roles of COSMC in infantile hemangioma are still unclear. In this study, immunohistochemistry showed that COSMC was upregulated in proliferating hemangiomas compared with involuted hemangiomas. Higher levels of T antigen expression were also observed in the proliferating hemangioma. Overexpression of COSMC significantly enhanced cell growth and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conversely, knockdown of COSMC with siRNA inhibited endothelial cell growth. Mechanistic investigation showed that O-glycans were present on VEGFR2 and these structures were modulated by COSMC. Furthermore, VEGFR2 degradation was delayed by COSMC overexpression and facilitated by COSMC knockdown. We also showed that COSMC was able to regulate VEGF-triggered phosphorylation of VEGFR2. Our results suggest that COSMC is a novel regulator for VEGFR2 signaling in endothelial cells and dysregulation of COSMC expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of hemangioma.
Project description:Analysis of the effects of cell shape on human coronary artery endothelial cell transcription. The hypothesis is that defined alterations in endothelial cell shape uniquely affect the endothelial transcriptome. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were plated onto spatially defined micropatterns (Cytoo) forcing them to conform to Disc, Crossbow, H, Y, or L shapes. As a control, human coronary artery endothelial cells were plated on non-restrictive areas of the Cytoo growth plate. RNA was collected after 24 hours growth on the restricted or non-restricted growth patterns and subjected to whole genome microarray analysis.
Project description:Infantile hemangiomas are endothelial tumors that grow rapidly in the first year of life and regress slowly during early childhood. Although hemangiomas are well-known vascular lesions, little is known about the mechanisms that cause the excessive endothelial cell proliferation in these most common tumors of infancy. To investigate the molecular basis of hemangioma, we isolated endothelial cells from several proliferative-phase lesions and showed that these cells are clonal and exhibit abnormal properties in vitro (E. Boye, Y. Yu, G. Paranya, J. B. Mulliken, B. R. Olsen, J. Bischoff: Clonality and altered behavior of endothelial cells from hemangiomas. J Clin Invest 2001, 107:745-752). Here, we analyzed mRNA expression patterns of genes required for angiogenesis, including members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor family and the angiopoietin/Tie family, in hemangioma-derived and normal endothelial cells. KDR, Flt-1, Tie1, Tie2, and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) were strongly expressed in cultured hemangioma-derived endothelial cells and in hemangioma tissue. In contrast, there was little expression of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) or VEGF. We found Tie2 mRNA and protein up-regulated with a concomitant increase in cellular responsiveness to Ang1 in most hemangioma-derived endothelial cells. Ang2 mRNA was down-regulated in response to serum in hemangioma-derived endothelial cells, but not in normal endothelial cells, suggesting altered regulation. These findings implicate Tie2 and its ligands Ang1 and Ang2 in the pathogenesis of hemangioma.
Project description:Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat infantile hemangioma, but the mechanism of action of this therapy is unknown. We investigated the effect of corticosteroids in a previously described in vivo model of infantile hemangioma and in cultured hemangioma-derived cells.We tested hemangioma-derived stem cells for vasculogenic activity in vivo after implantation into immune-deficient (nude) mice. We studied dexamethasone treatment of both the cells before implantation and the mice after implantation. We also tested hemangioma-derived stem cells for expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in vitro and studied the inhibition of VEGF-A expression, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vivo and in vitro.Systemic treatment with dexamethasone led to dose-dependent inhibition of tumor vasculogenesis in the murine model. Pretreatment of hemangioma-derived stem cells in vitro before implantation also inhibited vasculogenesis. Dexamethasone suppressed VEGF-A production by hemangioma-derived stem cells in vitro but not by hemangioma-derived endothelial cells or human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. Silencing VEGF-A in hemangioma-derived stem cells reduced vasculogenesis in vivo. VEGF-A was detected in hemangioma specimens in the proliferating phase but not in the involuting phase and was shown by immunostaining to reside outside of vessels. Corticosteroid treatment suppressed other proangiogenic factors in hemangioma-derived stem cells, including urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 1.In a murine model, dexamethasone inhibited the vasculogenic potential of stem cells derived from human infantile hemangioma. The corticosteroid also inhibited the expression of VEGF-A by hemangioma-derived stem cells, and silencing of VEGF-A expression in these cells inhibited vasculogenesis in vivo.
Project description:Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are non-malignant, largely cutaneous vascular tumors affecting approximately 5-10% of children to varying degrees. During the first year of life, these tumors are strongly proliferative, reaching an average size ranging from 2 to 20 cm. These lesions subsequently stabilize, undergo a spontaneous slow involution and are fully regressed by 5 to 10 years of age. Systemic treatment of infants with the non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor blocker, propranolol, has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in reducing the size and appearance of IHs. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of ? blocker treatment in IHs. Our data reveal that propranolol treatment of IH endothelial cells, as well as a panel of normal primary endothelial cells, blocks endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and formation of the actin cytoskeleton coincident with alterations in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), p38 and cofilin signaling. Moreover, propranolol induces major alterations in the protein levels of key cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and modulates global gene expression patterns with a particular affect on genes involved in lipid/sterol metabolism, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis and ubiquitination. Interestingly, the effects of propranolol were endothelial cell-type independent, affecting the properties of IH endothelial cells at similar levels to that observed in neonatal dermal microvascular and coronary artery endothelial cells. This data suggests that while propranolol markedly inhibits hemangioma and normal endothelial cell function, its lack of endothelial cell specificity hints that the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of IHs may be more complex than simply blockage of endothelial function as previously believed.
Project description:Infantile hemangioma is a benign endothelial tumor composed of disorganized blood vessels. It exhibits a unique life cycle of rapid postnatal growth followed by slow regression to a fibrofatty residuum. Here, we have reported the isolation of multipotential stem cells from hemangioma tissue that give rise to hemangioma-like lesions in immunodeficient mice. Cells were isolated based on expression of the stem cell marker CD133 and expanded from single cells as clonal populations. The CD133-selected cells generated human blood vessels 7 days after implantation in immunodeficient mice. Cell retrieval experiments showed the cells could again form vessels when transplanted into secondary recipients. The human vessels expressed GLUT-1 and merosin, immunodiagnostic markers for infantile hemangioma. Two months after implantation, the number of blood vessels diminished and human adipocytes became evident. Lentiviral expression of GFP was used to confirm that the hemangioma-derived cells formed the blood vessels and adipocytes in the immunodeficient mice. Thus, when transplanted into immunodeficient mice, hemangioma-derived cells recapitulated the unique evolution of infantile hemangioma--the formation of blood vessels followed by involution to fatty tissue. In summary, this study identifies a stem cell as the cellular origin of infantile hemangioma and describes for what we believe is the first time an animal model for this common tumor of infancy.