Expression data from bovine ovarian theca cells in primary culture
ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are firmly implicated as intra-ovarian regulators of follicle development and steroidogenesis. We carried out a microarray analysis to examine global changes in gene expression in bovine theca cells in response to treatment with BMP6 alone and in combination with LH. There was a major effect of BMP6 treatment on the gene expression profile with a much weaker effect of LH. None of these differences in response to LH treatment was found to be statistically significant after applying Benjamini-Hochberg correction. BMP6 significantly (>2-fold; P<0.01) up- or down-regulated expression of 445 genes. Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) was the most heavily down-regulated gene (-43-fold) with CYP17A1 and other key transcripts involved in TC steroidogenesis including LHCGR, INHA, STAR, CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 also down-regulated. BMP6 also reduced expression of NR5A1 encoding steroidogenic factor-1 known to target the promoter regions of the aforementioned genes. Real-time PCR confirmed these findings and also revealed a marked reduction in expression of INSL3 receptor (RXFP2). Secretion of INSL3 protein and androstenedione were also suppressed suggesting a functional link between BMP and INSL3 pathways in controlling androgen synthesis. Theca interna cells (TC) were isolated from adult bovine ovaries obtained from the slaughterhouse. TC pooled from approximately 50 individual 4-6mm follicles were plated out in in 24-well plates (0.5 x106 viable cells/ml/well) and cultured for 6 days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3-6 inclusive. TC were treated for 4 days with BMP6 (10 ng/ml) under both basal and LH-stimulated conditions (± 160 pg LH/ml). These dose-levels of BMP6 and LH were chosen because they elicited optimal responses in our previous studies. The experiment was replicated four times with TC harvested from different batches of ovaries. Total RNA was isolated using the Ribopure RNA isolation kit (Ambion) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA yield and quality were evaluated by spectrophotometry at 260/280 nm and agarose gel electrophoresis before submitting 5 μg of each RNA sample (n = 16 comprising 4 biological replicates x 4 treatment conditions) to an accredited Affymetrix service provider for microarray analysis using the bovine genome array GeneChip (n=16 arrays).
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that regulate the pivotal transformation processes observed in the follicular wall following the pre-ovulatory LH-surge, are still not established, particularly for cells of the thecal layer. To elucidate thecal and granulosa cell type-specific biological functions and signaling pathways, large dominant bovine follicles were collected before and 21 hrs after an exogenous GnRH induced LH surge. Because LH receptor density varies within the granulosa cell populations, antral granulosa (aGC; those aspirated by follicular puncture) and membrane associated granulosa (mGC; those scraped from the follicular wall) were compared to thecal cell expression profiles determined by mRNA microarrays. Thecal cell gene expression was less affected in the peri-ovulatory follicle when compared to granulosa cells, as evidenced by only 2% versus 25% of the ~11,000 genes expressed changing in response to the LH surge, respectively. The majority of the 203 LH-regulated thecal genes were also LH regulated in granulosa cells, leaving a total of 58 genes as LH-regulated theca cell specific genes. Most of the 58 genes (i.e., 74%) thecal specific genes including several known thecal markers (CYP17A1, NR5A1) were downregulated, while most genes identified are new to theca. Many of the newly identified upregulated thecal genes (e.g., PTX3, RND3, PPP4R4) were also upregulated in granulosa. Minimal expression differences were observed between aGC and mGC, however, transcripts encoding extracellular proteins (NID2) and matrix modulators (ADAMTS1, SASH1) predominated these differences. We also identified large numbers of unknown LH-regulated granulosa cell genes and discuss their putative roles in ovarian function. The single dominant ovarian follicle was collected from each cow before the LH surge or 22 hours after GnRH (used to induce LH surge). RNA was extracted from three independent cells within each follicle and there were hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:The LH surge induces panoply of events that are essential for ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The transcriptional responses to the LH surge of pre-ovulatory granulosa cells are complex and still poorly understood. In the present study, a genome wide bovine oligo array was used to determine how the gene expression profiles of granulosa cells are modulated by the LH surge. Granulosa cells from three different statuses were used (1) 2 h before the induction of the LH surge, (2) 6 h and (3) 22 h after the LH surge to assess the short and long term effects of this hormone on follicle differentiation. The results obtained were a list of differentially expressed transcripts for each granulosa cell group. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the processes at play, biological annotations were used to reveal the different functions of transcripts, confirming that the LH surge acts in a temporal manner. The pre-LH group is involved in typical tasks such as cell division, development and proliferation, while the short response of the LH surge included features such as response to stimulus, vascularisation and lipid synthesis, which are indicative of cells preparing for ovulation. The late response of granulosa cells revealed terms associated with protein localization and intra-cellular transport corresponding to the future secretion task that will be required for the transformation of granulosa cells into corpus luteum. Overall, results described in this study provide new insights into the different transcriptional steps that granulosa cells go through during ovulation and before luteinization. Three biological granulosa cells samples: 2 h pre-LH vs. 6 h post-LH vs. 22 h post-LH. Biological replicates: 3 with a technical dye-swap replicates (Dy 547 and Dy 647) for each biological replicate. Hybridizations were performed in a loop design for a total a 9 hybridizations.
Project description:Granulosa cells from three different stages were used to assess the short- and long-term effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) on follicle differentiation: 1) 2 h before induction of the LH surge, 2) 6 h and 3) 22 h after the LH surge. Three time points experiment: 2h pre-LH, 6h post-LH and 22h post-LH. Granulosa cells from the 6h post-LH and 22h post-LH were compared to the 2h pre-LH. Biological replicates: 4 from each time point. One replicate per array. Dye-swaps were performed.
Project description:Cellular mechanisms that contribute to low estradiol concentrations produced by the preovulatory ovarian follicle in cattle with a compromised metabolic status (such as lactatino) are largely unknown. To gain insight into the main metabolic mechanisms affecting preovulatory follicle function RNAseq profiling was conducted on non-lactating Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=16) and lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (n=17) at three stages of preovulatory follicle development: A) newly selected dominant follicle in the luteal phase (Selection); B) follicular phase before the LH surge (Differentiation) and C) pre-ovulatory phase after the LH surge (Luteinization). Based on a combination of RNA sequencing, ingenuity pathway analysis and Q-RT-PCR validation several important molecular markers involved in steroid biosynthesis, such as the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) within developing dominant follicles, were identified to be affected (downregulated) by the catabolic state. We propose that the adverse metabolic environment caused by lactation decreases preovulatory follicle function by affecting cholesterol transport into the mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis. Granulosa and Theca samples from the dominant follicle were taken from cows and heifers at stages: selection, differentiation and luteinization.
Project description:Coordinated interactions between ovarian granulosa and theca cells are required for female endocrine function and fertility. To elucidate these interactions the regulation of the granulosa and theca cell transcriptomes during bovine antral follicle development were investigated. Granulosa cells and theca cells were isolated from small (<5 mm), medium (5-10 mm), and large (>10 mm) antral bovine follicles. A microarray analysis of 24,000 bovine genes revealed that granulosa cells and theca cells each had gene sets specific to small, medium and large follicle cells. Transcripts regulated (i.e., minimally changed 1.5-fold) during antral follicle development for the granulosa cells involved 446 genes and for theca cells 248 genes. Only 28 regulated genes were common to both granulosa and theca cells. Regulated genes were functionally categorized with a focus on growth factors and cytokines expressed and regulated by the two cell types. Candidate regulatory growth factor proteins mediating both paracrine and autocrine cell-cell interactions include macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1 beta), teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), stromal derived growth factor 1 (SDF1; i.e., CXCL12), growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG), osteopontin (SPP1), angiopoietin 4 (ANGPT4), and chemokine ligands (CCL 2, 3, 5, and 8). The current study examined granulosa cell and theca cell regulated genes associated with bovine antral follicle development and identified candidate growth factors potentially involved in the regulation of cell-cell interactions required for ovarian function. Keywords: expression analysis, follicle assembly, ovary granulosa cell Overall design: Granulosacell RNA samples from three groups of follicles different in size - small, medium, and large (pooled untreated ovaries) are compared between each other. Each group has 2 separate biological replicas; each replica contained pooled RNA from 20-40 ovaries from 6-10 different animals.
Project description:Coordinated interactions between ovarian granulosa and theca cells are required for female endocrine function and fertility. To elucidate these interactions the regulation of the granulosa and theca cell transcriptomes during bovine antral follicle development were investigated. Granulosa cells and theca cells were isolated from small (<5 mm), medium (5-10 mm), and large (>10 mm) antral bovine follicles. A microarray analysis of 24,000 bovine genes revealed that granulosa cells and theca cells each had gene sets specific to small, medium and large follicle cells. Transcripts regulated (i.e., minimally changed 1.5-fold) during antral follicle development for the granulosa cells involved 446 genes and for theca cells 248 genes. Only 28 regulated genes were common to both granulosa and theca cells. Regulated genes were functionally categorized with a focus on growth factors and cytokines expressed and regulated by the two cell types. Candidate regulatory growth factor proteins mediating both paracrine and autocrine cell-cell interactions include macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP1 beta), teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), stromal derived growth factor 1 (SDF1; i.e., CXCL12), growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG), osteopontin (SPP1), angiopoietin 4 (ANGPT4), and chemokine ligands (CCL 2, 3, 5, and 8). The current study examined granulosa cell and theca cell regulated genes associated with bovine antral follicle development and identified candidate growth factors potentially involved in the regulation of cell-cell interactions required for ovarian function. Experiment Overall Design: Granulosacell RNA samples from three groups of follicles different in size - small, medium, and large (pooled untreated ovaries) are compared between each other. Each group has 2 separate biological replicas; each replica contained pooled RNA from 20-40 ovaries from 6-10 different animals.
Project description:After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these four cell types. Analysis of the RNA present in each bovine cell type using Affymetrix microarrays yielded new cell-specific genetic markers, functional insight into the behavior of each cell type via Gene Ontology Annotations and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and evidence of small and large luteal cell lineages using Principle Component Analysis. Enriched expression of select genes for each cell type was validated by qPCR. This expression analysis offers insight into the lineage and differentiation process that transforms somatic follicular cells into luteal cells. The orignal Affymetrix .CEL files and the normalized linear expression data are included in this submission. Overall design: There are four cell types analyzed including granulosa cells (GC, n = 4), theca cells (TC, n = 3), large luteal cells (LLC, n = 3), and small luteal cells (SLC, n = 3). Each replicate is from tissue from a separate cow. There are no treatments or controls, as all the cells are collected from healthy animals at specific stages of the estrous cycle (pre-ovulation dominant follicle versus mid-luteal phase corpus luteum).
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder that affects 5-10% of reproductive aged women. The hallmark characteristic of PCOS is increased ovarian androgen synthesis. Previous studies by our laboratory demonstrated that increased androgen synthesis is a stable biochemical phenotype of PCOS theca cells which are the primary source of ovarian androgen production. The increase in theca cell steroidogenesis was due to an increase in expression of several steroidogenic enzymes including CYP17 and CYP11A but not StAR. Interestingly, the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid induces increased theca cell androgen synthesis and increased CYP17 and CYP11A mRNA levels. In this study we have characterized the gene expression profiles of theca cells obtained from normal or polycystic ovaries which were maintained in the absence (UNT) or presence (VPA) of valproic acid. The data identifed new candidate genes and novel signaling pathways which may contribute to the manifestation of PCOS phenotypes including increased androgen production. The experiments in this study were carried using the Affymetrix U133A and U133B oligonucleotide chips.
Project description:We are studying signaling pathways and growth properties of cultured human ovarian cancer cells that are expressing the G protein-coupled receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR),particularly interested in the changes that occur when the receptor is activated by its cognate ligand, gonadotropin (LH). To investigate these questions, we have employed the SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell line that has been stably transfected with LHR, and can then test the response of these cells in culture following exposure to LH. The parent SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line was chosen as a control in this study since it does not express LHR, and, following transfection, the LHR+ cells serve to determine the alterations in gene expression elicited by LH. The LHR+ cells bound human chorionic gonadotropin with a Kd of 0.3 nM (human chorionic gonadotropin and LH utilize the same G protein-coupled receptor, LHR), consistent with the binding affinity using ovarian reproductive cells, and responded to LH with increased intracellular levels of cAMP and inositol phosphates. In total, six groups of SKOV-3 cells (LHR-, LHR+, and LHR+ incubated with LH for various times: 1, 4, 8, and 20 h), each with three independent replicates, were used for examining the cell response.
Project description:The molecular and cellular processes required for development, function, and regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are poorly defined. We hypothesized that there are dynamic changes in gene expression occurring during the CL lifespan, which represent proteins and pathways critical to its regulation. Therefore, a genomic approach was utilized to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during the luteal phase of natural menstrual cycles. CL were collected between days 3-5 (early stage), 7-8 (mid), 10-12 (mid-late), 14-16 (late), or 18-19 (very-late) after the midcycle LH surge. From the early through very-late stages, 3234 transcripts were differentially expressed, with 879 occurring from the early through late stages that encompass the processes of luteinization, maintenance, and functional regression. To characterize gene changes most relevant to these processes, ontology analysis was performed using the list of 879 differentially expressed transcripts. Four main groups of related genes were identified with relevance to luteal physiology including: 1) immune function; 2) hormone and growth factor signaling; 3) steroidogenesis; and 4) prostaglandin biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling. A subset of genes representing each of the four major categories was selected for validation of microarray results by quantitative real-time PCR. Results in mRNA levels were similar between the two methodologies for 17 of 18 genes. Additionally, protein levels for 3 genes were determined by Western blot analysis to parallel mRNA levels. This database will facilitate the identification of many novel or previously underappreciated pathways that regulate the structure and function of the primate CL. Keywords: time course The sole experimental factor is the stage of the luteal phase when the CL was collected. There were five stages: 1) between days 3-5 post LH-surge (early stage), 2) 7-8 (mid stage), 3) 10-12 (mid-late stage), 4) 14-16 (late stage), and 5) 18-19 (very-late stage). The early CL are undergoing luteinization, the mid are fully functional CL that are at their peak progesterone producing capacity, the mid-late stage is a transitionary period where CL are still producing significant quantities of progesterone but are nearing the time when luteolysis initiates in non-conception cycles, the late stage corresponds to CL undergoing functional regression (cessation of progesterone secretion), and the very-late stage (menses) is when the structural remodeling and apoptosis associated with luteolysis is occurring. Measuring mRNA levels in CL collected during these periods provides a comprehensive analysis of the primate transcriptome throughout CL lifespan. There were 20 biological replicates: n = 4 per stage, 5 stages in total. The early CL were used as the baseline reference for gene expression.