Genome-wide maps of CENP-A nucleosomes in three neocentromere-containing cell lines
ABSTRACT: We used native ChIP-seq of CENP-A-containing particles from normal centromeres on alpha-satellite DNA and three naturally-occurring neocentromeres to test the proposed models for the major form of the fundamental repeating unit of centromeric chromatin. We found that the predominant form of the CENP-A particle at the centromere is an octameric nucleosome with loose terminal DNA. Additionally, we found CENP-A nucleosomes are strongly phased on the 171 bp alpha-satellite monomers of normal centromeres, and also display strong positioning and neocentromeres. Comparison of CENP-A and bulk nucleosome DNA lengths and positions in three different human neocentromere-containing cell lines
Project description:We use high-resolution chemical cleavage mapping and both native and cross-linked chromatin immunoprecipitation with paired-end sequencing to elucidate the profile of nuceleosomes containing the centromere-specific variant of H3 (cenH3), known as CENP-A or Cnp1 in fission yeast. We find that in the central domain of fission yeast centromeres H3 nucleosomes are nearly absent and CENP-A nucleosomes are more widely spaced that nucleosomes elsewere. CENP-A (Cnp1), CENP-C (Cnp3), CENP-T (Cnp20) and CENP-I (Mis6) are highly enriched at every position in the central domain except at tRNA genes, with weak enrichment in the flanking heterochromatin where these proteins show no evidence of the positioning that has been seen in point centromeres and in the satellite-rich centromeres of plants and animals. Our findings suggest that classical regional centromeres are distinguished from other centromere classes by the absence of cenH3 nucleosome positioning. Overall design: We have analyzed the chromatin landscape of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome using paired-end ChIP-seq and MNase-seq (chemical cleavage)
Project description:We find that CENP-T acts as a bridge between two well-positioned CENP-A nucleosomes that are present on young alpha-satellite dimers that dominate functional human centromeres. CENP-T is centered over the CENP-B box, where it interacts with the CENP-B/CENP-C complex. Upon cross-linking, the entire CENP-A/CENP-C/CENP-T-containing complex is recovered as a nuclease-protected particle over an alpha-satellite dimer that comprises the fundamental unit of kinetochore chromatin. Our work reveals that CENP-A/CENP-C and CENP-T branches of kinetochore assembly are physically integrated. Overall design: We used chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing (ChIP-seq) in human cells to determine the relative positions of CENP-A and CENP-T particles at functional centromeres.
Project description:CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone 3 variant essential for centromere specification. CENP-A partially replaces canonical histone H3 at the centromeres. How the particular CENP-A/H3 ratio at centromeres is precisely maintained is unknown. It also remains unclear how CENP-A is excluded from non-centromeric chromatin. Here we identify Ccp1, an uncharacterized NAP family protein in fission yeast that antagonizes CENP-A loading at both centromeric and non-centromeric regions. Like the CENP-A loading factor HJURP, Ccp1 interacts with CENP-A, and is recruited to centromeres at the end of mitosis in a Mis16-dependent manner. These data indicate that factors with opposing CENP-A loading activities are recruited to centromeres. Furthermore, Ccp1 also cooperates with H2A.Z to evict CENP-A assembled in euchromatin. Structural analyses indicate that Ccp1 forms a homodimer that is required for its anti-CENP-A loading activity. Our study establishes mechanisms for maintenance of CENP-A homeostasis at centromeres and the prevention of ectopic assembly of centromeres. Examination of cnp1 distribution in one wild type (wt) and two ccp1 mutants.
Project description:Centromeres of most eukaryotes are multi-megabase arrays of satellite DNA that assemble proteinaceous kinetochores to facilitate faithful chromosome segregation. However, the nature of the chromatin landscape at centromeres remains unclear, in part due to the difficulty of isolating intact centromeric chromatin rendered insoluble by megadalton-size kinetochore protein complexes. To address this challenge we combined classical salt fractionation with chromatin immunoprecipitation to recover human centromeric chromatin under native conditions. We found that >85% of the total centromeric chromatin is insoluble under conditions typically used for native chromatin extraction. To map both soluble and insoluble chromatin in situ, we combined CUT&RUN, a targeted nuclease method, with salt fractionation. Using this approach, we found that the strength of Centromere Protein B (CENP-B) binding and the density of CENP-B motifs corresponds to the occupancy of Constitutive Centromere-Assocated Network (CCAN) complexes bound to α-satellite arrays. We also observed unexpected structural variations of CENP-A-containing complexes on different α-satellite dimeric units within highly homogenous arrays. Our results suggest that slight α-satellite sequence differences controls the structure and occupancy of the associated centromeric chromatin complex. Overall design: We used Cleavage under targets and Release using nuclease (Cut-and-Run), a chromatin profiling strategy in which antibody-targeted controlled cleavage by micrococcal nuclease releases specific protein-DNA complexes into the supernatant for paired-end DNA sequencing.
Project description:Centromeres are the regions of eukaryotic chromosomes where kinetochores are assembled and direct the correct segregation of chromosomes. Active centromeres are defined by presence of nucleosomes containing CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, which alone is sufficient to direct kinetochore assembly. Once assembled at a location CENP-A chromatin and the kinetochore is maintained at that location though a positive feedback loop where kinetochore proteins recruited by CENP-A promote deposition of new CENP-A following replication. Although CENP-A chromatin itself is a heritable entity, it is normally associated with specific sequences such as human alpha satellite arrays. Such analyses suggest that properties of centromeric DNA itself may favour assembly of CENP-A rather than H3 nucleosomes. To investigate the innate properties of centromeric DNA we have examined histone dynamics on this DNA assembled in CENP-A chromatin at endogenous centromeres and when assembled only in H3 chromatin at an ectopic location. We demonstrate that H3 occupancy on centromeric DNA is innately low while H3 turnover is high. Moreover, even at an ectopic location centromeric DNA programs H3 deposition in S phase and its eviction during G2 when CENP-A is otherwise deposited. G2 accumulation of RNAPII on centromeric DNA during G2 is consistent with transcription-coupled destabilisation of H3 nucleosomes to favour CENP-A deposition. Overall design: ChIP-Nexus samples were preprared for histone H3 and H4 from wild type strain and strain bearing an ectopically inserted central core DNA.
Project description:CENP-A chromatin the foundation for kinetochore assembly in all eukaryotes. CENP-A is incorporated outside of S phase and depends on its chaperone HJURPScm3, and Mis18 in vertebrates and fission yeast. The recruitment of Mis18 and HJURPScm3 to centromeres is cell cycle regulated. Vertebrate Mis18 associates with Mis18BP1KNL2 and RbAp46/48Mis16/Hat2. Mis18BP1KNL2 is critical for the recruitment of Mis18 and HJURPScm3 to vertebrate centromeres. However, no ortholog of Mis18BP1KNL2 has been identified in fission yeast, consequently it remains unknown how the key Cnp1CENP-A loading factor Mis18 is recruited. We identify two novel Mis18-interacting proteins (Eic1 and Eic2) in fission yeast. Our analyses show that Eic1 and Eic2 are components of a Mis18 complex. Eic1 is essential to maintain normal Cnp1CENP-A levels at centromeres and therefore is crucial for kinetochore integrity whereas Eic2 is dispensable. Eic1 also associates with components of the large constitutive CCAN/Sim4/Ctf19 complex. Our findings suggest that Eic1 is the functional counterpart of Mis18BP1KNL2 and acts as a link with constitutive kinetochore components to allow the temporally regulated recruitment of the Mis18 Cnp1CENP-A loader. 100bp paired end ChIP-Seq analysis of GFP tagged Eic1, Eic2, Scm3, and Mis18 with sonicated whole cell extract input DNA in asynchornous Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.
Project description:Centromeres, the sites of spindle attachment during mitosis and meiosis, are located in specific positions in the human genome, normally coincident with diverse subsets of alpha satellite DNA. While there is strong evidence supporting the association of some subfamilies of alpha satellite with centromere function, the basis for establishing whether a given alpha satellite sequence is or is not designated a functional centromere is unknown, and attempts to understand the role of particular sequence features in establishing centromere identity have been limited by the near identity and repetitive nature of satellite sequences. Utilizing a broadly applicable experimental approach to test sequence competency for centromere specification, we have carried out a genomic and epigenetic functional analysis of endogenous human centromere sequences available in the current human genome assembly. The data support a model in which functionally competent sequences confer an opportunity for centromere specification, integrating genomic and epigenetic signals and promoting the concept of context-dependent centromere inheritance. Sequences bound to CENP-A in HuRef cell line
Project description:The CENP-T/-W histone fold complex, as an integral part of the inner kinetochore, is essential for building a proper kinetochore at the centromere in order to direct chromosome segregation during mitosis. Notably, CENP-T/-W is not inherited at centromeres and new deposition is absolutely required at each cell cycle for kinetochore function. However, the mechanisms underlying this new deposition of CENP-T/-W at centromeres are unclear. Here, we find that CENP-T deposition at centromeres is uncoupled from DNA synthesis. We identify Spt16 and SSRP1, subunits of the H2A-H2B histone chaperone FACT, as CENP-W binding partners through a proteomic screen. We find that the C-terminal region of Spt16 binds specifically to the histone fold region of CENP-T/-W. Furthermore, depletion of Spt16 impairs CENP-T and CENP-W deposition at endogenous centromeres and site directed targeting of Spt16 alone is sufficient to ensure local de novo CENP-T accumulation. We propose a model in which the FACT chaperone stabilizes the soluble CENP-T/-W complex in the cell and promotes dynamics of exchange, enabling CENP-T/-W deposition at centromeres.
Project description:We employ the well-studied fission yeast centromere to investigate the function of the CENP-A (Cnp1) N-tail. We show that alteration of the N-tail did not affect Cnp1 loading at centromeres, outer kinetochore formation, or spindle checkpoint signaling, but nevertheless elevated chromosome loss. N-Tail mutants exhibited synthetic lethality with an altered centromeric DNA sequence, with rare survivors harboring chromosomal fusions in which the altered centromere was epigenetically inactivated. Elevated centromere inactivation was also observed for N-tail mutants with unaltered centromeric DNA sequences. N-tail mutants specifically reduced localization of the CCAN proteins Cnp20/CENP-T and Mis6/CENP-I, but not Cnp3/CENP-C. Overexpression of Cnp20/CENP-T suppressed defects in an N-tail mutant, suggesting a causal link between reduced CENP-T recruitment and the observed centromere inactivation phenotype. Thus, the Cnp1 N-tail promotes epigenetic stability of centromeres via recruitment of the CENP-T branch of the CCAN. Genome-wide localization of GFP-tagged N-tail Cnp1 variant tailswap versus wt control in cnp1 deletion background
Project description:A key element for defining the centromere identity is the incorporation of a specific histone H3, CENP-A, known as Cnp1p in S. pombe. Previous studies have suggested that functional S. pombe centromeres lack nucleosome arrays and may involve chromatin remodeling as a key step of kinetochore assembly. We used tiling microarrays to show that nucleosomes are in fact positioned in regular intervals in the core of centromere 2, providing the first high resolution map of regional centromere chromatin. Nucleosome locations are not disrupted by mutations in kinetochore proteins cnp1, mis18, mis12, nuf2, mal2, overexpression of Cnp1p, or deletion of ams2. Bioinformatic analysis of the centromere sequence indicates certain enriched motifs in linker regions between nucleosomes and reveals a sequence-bias in nucleosome positioning. We conclude that centromeric nucleosome positions are stable and may be derived from the underlying DNA sequence. In addition, sequence analysis of nucleosome-free regions identifies novel binding sites for the GATA-like protein Ams2p, which participates in CENP-A incorporation. Keywords: Nucleosome Mapping Study Overall design: Entire cnt regions and histone-related genes were tiled at 1-5 bp spacing using 60-mer probes.