The inflammatory response of human airway smooth muscle cells
ABSTRACT: Background: Tissue remodeling induced by airway inflammation is a main trigger of pathogenesis in various chronic lung diseases like asthma, COPD, IPF, and pulmonary hypertension. The role of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) in this context is unclear. Hypothesis: HASMCs participate in linking inflammation with remodeling. Methods: The inflammatory responses of ex vivo-cultivated HASMCs to TNFα were investigated by whole-genome-microarray analyses. Diferrential regulation of genes associated with airway inflammation and remodeling were verified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results: TNFa induced the expression of 18 cytokines/chemokines and five tissue remodeling genes involved in (severe/corticosteroid-insensitive) asthma, COPD, IPF and/or pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: HASMCs participate in the interaction of inflammation and tissue remodeling. HASMCs might be considered as targets in therapies of chronic inflammatory lung diseases with regard to attenuating inflammation-induced remodeling processes leading to the development of emphysema or fibrosis. HASMCs of eight donors were left untreated of were stimulated with TNFa at 20 ng/ml. Total RNA was subjected after eight hours of stimulation to whole-human-genome oligo microarray analysis.
Project description:mRNA expression after Ezh2 knock down was analyzed to identify genes regulated by Ezh2. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transfected with 25 nmol/L of control small interfering RNA (siRNA) (Silencer Select Negative Control Ambion, Austin, TX) or siRNA directed against Ezh2 (s4918; Ambion) using Oligofectamine (Invitrogen). Total RNA was harvested 72 hours after transfection.
Project description:Preterm birth is an important unsolved clinical problem. Despite advanced treatments, infants who survive prematurity remain at increased risk for permanent disabilities. In approximately one-third of cases, prematurity is related to infection and/or inflammation, which renders hostile the normally receptive intrauterine environment. Proinflammatory cytokines provoke up-regulation of genes that promote uterine contractions. Using monolayer cultures of human decidual cells as a model, we profiled the global pattern of gene expression in response to cytokine challenge. Decidualized human endometrial stromal cells were treated with 1 ng/ml of interleukin-1-beta for 6 hours, while control cells were treated with 0.1% PBS containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin (vehicle). The cells were subjected to RNA extraction, quantification, and evaluation, followed by hybridization on Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST Arrays (Platform GPL16686). Three biological replicates were used (6 total samples).
Project description:Establishment of an in vitro system to explore molecular mechanisms of mastitis susceptibility in cattle by comparative expression profiling of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated primary cells sampled from cows with different genetic predisposition for somatic cell score Primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (pbMEC) were sampled from the udder parenchyma of cows that were selected for high and low mastitis susceptibility by applying a marker assisted selection strategy considering QTL and molecular marker information of a repetitively confirmed QTL for SCS in the telomeric region on BTA18 The cells were cultivated and subsequently inoculated with heat inactivated mastitis pathogens Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. After 1, 6 and 24 hours the cells were harvested and comparatively analyzed using microarray expression chip technology to identify differences in mRNA expression profiles attributed to cultivation, inoculation or to genetic predisposition. Six heifers inheriting the favorable paternal QTL allele and five heifers inheriting the unfavorable QTL allele were selected by applying a marker assisted selection strategy. All heifers were kept under the same environmental conditions, had no clinical mastitis and did not show any indication of bacterial infection at slaughter. Primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cell cultures were established from cells sampled from the udder parenchyma of each cow. The cells were challenged with heat inactivated Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus or with PBS for control. After 1, 6 and 24 hours the cells were harvested and mRNA expression was comparatively analyzed between time points for each treatment and each paternally inherited SCS-BTA18-QTL allele, respectively. In addition, the differences in gene expression at time points 1, 6 and 24h between inoculated and respective uninoculated control cells were investigated using the short time series expression miner STEM for co-expression profiling and GO cattegory enrichment analyses.
Project description:All established protocols for differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells into specific neural subpopulations generate a considerable cellular heterogeneity that hampers experimental and clinical progress. In order to obtain a homogenous population of neuronal precursor cells and to streamline the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we assessed PSA-NCAM, a surface glycoprotein that is specifically expressed on immature neurons. We developed an optimized strategy for magnetic isolation of PSA-NCAM positive neuronal precursors from differentiated ESC cultures and characterized their neuronal differentiation potential in vitro. PSA-NCAM enrichment at an early step of neural differentiation increased the number of ES cell derived neurons and reduced cellular diversity. Gene expression analysis revealed that mainly genes involved in neuronal activity were over-represented after purification. The in vivo potential of in vitro derived PSA-NCAM+ enriched precursors was functionally characterized by grafting into the forebrain of adult mice. Analysis for several neuronal and glia markers at 10 or 40 days post graft showed a distinct differentiation pattern. While unsorted control cells gave rise to a mixed population composed of immature precursors, early postmitotic neurons or glial cells, the majority of PSA-NCAM+ enriched cells differentiated into NeuN positive neurons. Furthermore, when in contact with the rostral migratory stream, higher numbers of cells integrated into the stream and migrated towards the olfactory bulb when the PSA-NCAM enriched population was grafted. Thus, enrichment of neuronal precursors based on PSA-NCAM expression represents a general and straightforward approach to narrow cellular heterogeneity during neuronal differentiation of pluripotent cells. Two conditions (step 4, step 5), each represented by three biological replicates of control and enriched cells (Cy5); mESC was used as common reference (Cy3)
Project description:The endometrium plays a crucial role in the reproductive organs in the aspect of embryo-maternal communication and pregnancy. This study investigated transcriptome profiles of endometrial cells stimulated with PBS, LPA and LPA in combination with IFNt. LPA, one of the signaling molecule, is locally produced and released from the bovine endometrium during estrous cycle and early pregnancy. The highest concentration of LPA and expression of its active receptor (LPAR1) were detected in bovine endometrium at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy, when the conceptus announces its presence by increased IFNt production. Using transcriptomic approach we compared the influence of LPA and LPA together with IFNt on the gene expression profiles in bovine endometrial cells. A total of nine normally cycling Holstein/Polish Black and White (75/25% respectively) cows were used in this study. Global transcriptional profiling was performed using co-cultured stromal and epithelial cells (ratio - 3:1) isolated from bovine endometrium. Three experimental conditions (control (PBS), LPA and LPA plus IFNt) with three replicates per condition were prepared. Total RNAs were extracted from 9 pooled samples (n=3 for each sample) amplified and hybridized onto Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:To understand the age-related retinal gene changes, gene transcription profiles of neural retinal tissues from young adult (3-month) mice and old (20-month) mice were investigated by microarray. With age, 632 genes were up-regulated and 429 genes were down-regulated in the retina. Functional annotation showed that genes linked to immune responses and to tissue stress/injury responses were most modified by old age. Significant numbers of gene involved in the innate immune response including leukocyte activation, chemotaxis, endocytosis, complement activation, phagocytosis and myeloid cell differentiation were up-regulated and only a few were down-regulated. Increased microglial and complement activation in the aging retina was further confirmed by confocal microscopy of retinal tissues. The results suggest that retinal aging is accompanied with activation of a number of local inflammatory responses. A modified form of low-grade chronic inflammation (para-inflammation) characterizes these aging changes and involves mainly the innate immune system. Para-inflammation per se may be beneficial to normal retinal physiology in aging by promoting retinal homeostasis; conversely, dysreulation of the para-inflammation response may contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related retinal degeneration. Six young (3-month) and six old (20-month) mice were used for microarray study. Total RNA from each sample were extracted and undergone quality control analysis. RNA from 3 mice of the same group were then pooled together for gene array experiment.
Project description:Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here, we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson’s disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone, and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. 405 total samples, consisting of 297 unique chemicals and vehicle controls.
Project description:To identify the gene signature induced by MCMV that modulates innate immune function Microarray comparison of gene expression in the lungs of 4 individual naive and 4 eMCMV infected mice two weeks after infection.
Project description:Macrophages are key cell types of the innate immune system regulating host defense, inflammation, tissue homeostasis and cancer. Within this functional spectrum diverse and often opposing phenotypes are displayed which are dictated by environmental clues and depend on highly plastic transcriptional programs. Among these the ‘classical’ (M1) and ‘alternative’ (M2) macrophage polarization phenotypes are the best characterized. Understanding macrophage polarization in humans may reveal novel therapeutic intervention possibilities for chronic inflammation, wound healing and cancer. Systematic loss of function screening in human primary macrophages is limited due to lack of robust gene delivery methods and limited sample availability. To overcome these hurdles we developed cell-autonomous assays using the THP-1 cell line allowing genetic screens for human macrophage phenotypes. To confirm the relevance of the THP1-based system we performed microarray studies on THP1 cells and primary human cells subjected to various conditions. THP1 cells were treated with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) to derive macrophages which were then cultured 1, 3 or 6 days with different stimuli.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of calpain-6-deficient murine bone marrow-derived macrophages comparing with calpain-6 wild-type macrophages. Total RNA was extracted from the pooled cells. Two-condition experiment, wild-type macrophages vs. calpain-6-deficiennt macrophages. The cells were derived from four mice, and were pooled for analysis.