A whole-blood RNA transcript based prognostic model in castration-resistant prostate cancer
ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood from 62 men with castration resistant prostate cancer was collected between 8/2006 and 6/2008. A panel of 168 inflammation-related and prostate cancer related genes was assessed with quantitative PCR to assess biomarkers predictive of survival. qPCR profiling of whole blood from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 (Gene Symbol: PTP4A1) has been identified as an important oncogene with roles in promoting cell proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and metastasis. However, little is currently known about the signaling pathways through which it mediates its effects. Studies have shown a relationship between PRL-1 and the expression or activity levels of various molecules involved in integrin-mediated cell signaling. These integrin-responsive players can promote re-arrangements in the actin cytoskeleton that are central to cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, to investigate the effects of PRL-1 overexpression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, we used qRT-PCR to examine the expression levels of 184 genes which either were identified by microarray and proteomic analysis to be differentially expressed in response to PRL-1 or have known associations to integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or cell motility. Total RNA was extracted from duplicate cultures of HEK293 cells stably overexpressing PRL-1 (HEK293-PRL-1) and HEK293 cells stably transfected with empty pcDNA4 vector (HEK293-Vector). Samples were analyzed using custom TaqMan Array 96-well Plates to examine the expression of 184 genes with known involvement in or association with signaling pathways related to integrin-mediated cell adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or cell motility.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in children, adolescents, and young adults. In contrast to other childhood malignancies, no biomarkers have been consistently identified as predictors of outcome. This study was conducted to assess the microRNAs (miRs) expression signatures in pre-treatment osteosarcoma specimens and correlate with outcome to identify biomarkers for disease relapse The cohort consisted of 25 patients of 70% Mexican-American ethnicity. High-throughput RT-qPCR approach was used to generate quantitative expression of 754 miRs in the human genome.
Project description:Inflammatory arthritis is associated with bone loss and fractures due to abnormal bone remodelling. Bone remodelling is 'uncoupled' with bone resorption increased and bone formation suppressed. These changes resemble those seen in patients treated with therapeutic glucocorticoids, and in both of these situations, altered wnt signalling is implicated. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the synovial fibroblast in mediating abnormal bone remodelling during inflammation. The wnt antagonist dickkopf-1 (DKK1) is secreted by synovial fibroblasts in response to inflammation, and this protein has been proposed to be a master regulator of bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis. Here we show that DKK1 expression by primary human synovial fibroblasts is more potently regulated by glucocorticoids than pro-inflammatory cytokines. Glucocorticoids, but not TNF-alpha, regulated expression of multiple wnt agonists and antagonists in favour of inhibition of wnt signalling. In vitro TNF-alpha and IL1-beta indirectly regulate DKK1 production through increased expression of the glucocorticoid activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1). These results demonstrate that the links between synovial inflammation, altered wnt signalling and bone remodelling may not be direct but are dependent on local activation of endogenous glucocorticoids. Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with either vehicle, TNF or dexamethasone (dex). Gene arrays for control, TNF and dexamethasone treatments were performed on three separate synovial fibroblast cell lines isolated from three rheumatoid arthritis patients. All fold changes displayed are the combined results of the three separate fibroblast lines.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been recognized as a key element of cell invasion, migration, metastasis, and drug resistance in several types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our aim was to clarify microRNA (miRNA) -related mechanisms underlying EMT followed by acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in NSCLC. MiRNA expression profiles were examined before and after transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) exposure in four human adenocarcinoma cell lines with or without EMT. Correlation between expressions of EMT-related miRNAs and resistance to EGFR-TKI gefitinib was evaluated. MiRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TGF-β1 significantly induced overexpression of miR-134, miR-487b, and miR-655, which belong to the same cluster located on chromosome 14q32, in lung adenocarcinoma cells with EMT. MAGI2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2), a predicted target of these miRNAs and a scaffold protein required for PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), was diminished in A549 cells with EMT after the TGF-β1 stimulation. Overexpression of miR-134 and miR-487b promoted the EMT phenomenon and affected the drug resistance to gefitinib, whereas knockdown of these miRNAs inhibited the EMT process and reversed TGF-β1-induced resistance to gefitinib. Our study demonstrated that the miR-134/487b/655 cluster contributed to the TGF-β1-induced EMT phenomenon and affected the resistance to gefitinib by directly targeting MAGI2, whose suppression subsequently caused loss of PTEN stability in lung cancer cells. The miR-134/miR-487b/miR-655 cluster may be new therapeutic targets in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients, depending on the EMT phenomenon. miRNA expression profiles before and after TGF-β1 exposure were assessed in the four lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549, LC2/ad, PC3, and, PC9 by TaqMan miRNA arrays. Relative ratios of miRNAs in cells after TGF-β1 exposure were calculated when compared with the cells before TGF-β1 exposure.
Project description:Adult human ependymal and ventral horn regions were obtained from postmortem frozen samples by Laser Capture Microdissection. Briefly, Cryostat 25 micron sections from were stained with toluidin blue and both regions microdissected and collected on eppendorf (n=4 for each region). Samples mRNA concentration and purity was assessed by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion HighSensitivity kit, USA). RQI values were lower than 6,5 in every case, so that purification was followed by 2 cycle amplification with a kit designed for highly degraded samples (ExpressArt® TRinucleotide mRNA Amplification Kit; #6299-A15, AmpTec, AMSBIO, UK). After amplification, mRNA concentration and purity was assessed both by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion StSens kit, USA) and by spectrophotometry (Nanodrop, Thermo Scientific, USA). We amplified 3.7-37 ng of total RNA, obtaining between 6 and 21 µg of mRNA after 2 rounds. After collecting samples and studying the RNA integrity and quantity, cDNA of samples was selected for gene expression assays using 384 wells Custom Taqman Low Density Arrays. We built arrays with genes belonging to a profile of stemness or ependymoma (see Garcia-Ovejero et al., 2015, BRAIN). Taqman based qPCR gene expression profiling. Ependymal and ventral horn regions obtained by LCMD from four different individuals each were used to establish genes involved in stem cell niches or in ependymoma phenotype that are enriched in control human ependyma using ventral horn as a non-ependymary, non-neurogenic region. Samples were treated as stated in the summary. Equal amount of amplified RNA (aRNA; 25ng, corresponding approximately to 500ng total RNA) from each donor was used in Custom Designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Every value is the resultant of duplicates at least, but most of them have been assayed 4 times.
Project description:Endogenous damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) released from necrotic, damaged or stressed cells are associated with an inflammatory response. Whether the microRNA expression signature of this response is different from that of a PAMP-stimulated inflammatory response is unknown. We report here that miR-34c and miR-214 are significantly expressed in fresh human PBMCs exposed to DAMPcontaining freeze-thaw lysates, or to conditioned media from serum-starved and glucose-deprived cells (p<6x10-4 and p<3.7x10-3), respectively. Interestingly, only miR-34c expression was differentially expressed in PBMCs exposed to freeze-thaw lysates or conditioned media from HMGB1+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, when compared to cultures exposed to lysates or conditioned media from HMGB1-/- MEFs. miR-155 expression in these cultures was negligible, but was significantly higher in PBMCs stimulated with LPS or most other TLR ligands, making it the prototypic PAMPmiR. Exposure to a damaged human colorectal carcinoma cell line lysate (HCT116) similarly resulted in increased miR-34c and miR-214 levels. When PBMCs were pre-transfected with anti-miR-34c and then exposed to lysate, expression levels of IKKgamma mRNA, a putative target of miR-34c, increased, while protein levels of IKKgamma in cultures transfected with a pre-miR-34c were abrogated. Levels of miR-34c expression (as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta and TNFalpha) decreased when PBMC cultures were briefly pre-incubated with the K+ channel (inflammasome) inhibitor, glybenclamide, suggesting that miR-34c is involved in the inflammasome pathway in response to DAMPs. Our findings suggest that a specific microRNA expression signature is associated with the inflammatory response to damaged/injured cells and carries implications for many acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. Human PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were exposed to 4 conditions for 48 hours. In the first condition, PBMCs were exposed to conditioned media from serum-starved and glucose-deprived and heat shocked HMGB1-/- MEF cells (mouse embryonic fibroblast cells). In the second condition, PBMCs were exposed to conditioned media from serum-starved and glucose-deprived and heat shocked HMGB1+/+ MEF cells (mouse embryonic fibroblast cells). In the third condition, PBMCs were exposed to LPS (Lipopolysaccharide). In the fourth condition, the PBMCs where left untreated. Four biological repeats were done for each condition for a total of 16 samples.
Project description:To discover a panel of mi(cro)RNAs that accurately differentiate between high-risk IPMN tissue (from pathologically-confirmed invasive or high-grade IPMN cases) and low-risk IPMN tissue (from pathologically-confirmed low-or moderate-grade IPMN cases). In a discovery phase, genome-wide miRNA expression profiling was performed on 28 surgically-resected, pathologically-confirmed IPMNs (19 high-risk, 9 low-risk) using Taqman Low Density Arrays. A validation phase was performed in 21 independent IPMNs (13 high-risk, 8 low-risk). We also explored genes regulated by the identified miRNAs by integrating microarray expression data from 23 IPMNs.
Project description:We examined the transcriptional responses in kidney infiltrating T cells 6 hrs after IRI CD3 (+) T cells were purified applying magnetic beads to mononuclear cells extracted from kidney by percoll gradient methods. The total T-cell RNA was isolated, and trabscript abundance measured with array-based PCR