A whole-blood RNA transcript based prognostic model in castration-resistant prostate cancer
ABSTRACT: Peripheral blood from 62 men with castration resistant prostate cancer was collected between 8/2006 and 6/2008. A panel of 168 inflammation-related and prostate cancer related genes was assessed with quantitative PCR to assess biomarkers predictive of survival. qPCR profiling of whole blood from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 (Gene Symbol: PTP4A1) has been identified as an important oncogene with roles in promoting cell proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and metastasis. However, little is currently known about the signaling pathways through which it mediates its effects. Studies have shown a relationship between PRL-1 and the expression or activity levels of various molecules involved in integrin-mediated cell signaling. These integrin-responsive players can promote re-arrangements in the actin cytoskeleton that are central to cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, to investigate the effects of PRL-1 overexpression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, we used qRT-PCR to examine the expression levels of 184 genes which either were identified by microarray and proteomic analysis to be differentially expressed in response to PRL-1 or have known associations to integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or cell motility. Total RNA was extracted from duplicate cultures of HEK293 cells stably overexpressing PRL-1 (HEK293-PRL-1) and HEK293 cells stably transfected with empty pcDNA4 vector (HEK293-Vector). Samples were analyzed using custom TaqMan Array 96-well Plates to examine the expression of 184 genes with known involvement in or association with signaling pathways related to integrin-mediated cell adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or cell motility.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been recognized as a key element of cell invasion, migration, metastasis, and drug resistance in several types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our aim was to clarify microRNA (miRNA) -related mechanisms underlying EMT followed by acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in NSCLC. MiRNA expression profiles were examined before and after transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) exposure in four human adenocarcinoma cell lines with or without EMT. Correlation between expressions of EMT-related miRNAs and resistance to EGFR-TKI gefitinib was evaluated. MiRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TGF-β1 significantly induced overexpression of miR-134, miR-487b, and miR-655, which belong to the same cluster located on chromosome 14q32, in lung adenocarcinoma cells with EMT. MAGI2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2), a predicted target of these miRNAs and a scaffold protein required for PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), was diminished in A549 cells with EMT after the TGF-β1 stimulation. Overexpression of miR-134 and miR-487b promoted the EMT phenomenon and affected the drug resistance to gefitinib, whereas knockdown of these miRNAs inhibited the EMT process and reversed TGF-β1-induced resistance to gefitinib. Our study demonstrated that the miR-134/487b/655 cluster contributed to the TGF-β1-induced EMT phenomenon and affected the resistance to gefitinib by directly targeting MAGI2, whose suppression subsequently caused loss of PTEN stability in lung cancer cells. The miR-134/miR-487b/miR-655 cluster may be new therapeutic targets in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients, depending on the EMT phenomenon. miRNA expression profiles before and after TGF-β1 exposure were assessed in the four lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549, LC2/ad, PC3, and, PC9 by TaqMan miRNA arrays. Relative ratios of miRNAs in cells after TGF-β1 exposure were calculated when compared with the cells before TGF-β1 exposure.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in children, adolescents, and young adults. In contrast to other childhood malignancies, no biomarkers have been consistently identified as predictors of outcome. This study was conducted to assess the microRNAs (miRs) expression signatures in pre-treatment osteosarcoma specimens and correlate with outcome to identify biomarkers for disease relapse The cohort consisted of 25 patients of 70% Mexican-American ethnicity. High-throughput RT-qPCR approach was used to generate quantitative expression of 754 miRs in the human genome.
Project description:Adult human ependymal and ventral horn regions were obtained from postmortem frozen samples by Laser Capture Microdissection. Briefly, Cryostat 25 micron sections from were stained with toluidin blue and both regions microdissected and collected on eppendorf (n=4 for each region). Samples mRNA concentration and purity was assessed by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion HighSensitivity kit, USA). RQI values were lower than 6,5 in every case, so that purification was followed by 2 cycle amplification with a kit designed for highly degraded samples (ExpressArt® TRinucleotide mRNA Amplification Kit; #6299-A15, AmpTec, AMSBIO, UK). After amplification, mRNA concentration and purity was assessed both by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion StSens kit, USA) and by spectrophotometry (Nanodrop, Thermo Scientific, USA). We amplified 3.7-37 ng of total RNA, obtaining between 6 and 21 µg of mRNA after 2 rounds. After collecting samples and studying the RNA integrity and quantity, cDNA of samples was selected for gene expression assays using 384 wells Custom Taqman Low Density Arrays. We built arrays with genes belonging to a profile of stemness or ependymoma (see Garcia-Ovejero et al., 2015, BRAIN). Taqman based qPCR gene expression profiling. Ependymal and ventral horn regions obtained by LCMD from four different individuals each were used to establish genes involved in stem cell niches or in ependymoma phenotype that are enriched in control human ependyma using ventral horn as a non-ependymary, non-neurogenic region. Samples were treated as stated in the summary. Equal amount of amplified RNA (aRNA; 25ng, corresponding approximately to 500ng total RNA) from each donor was used in Custom Designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Every value is the resultant of duplicates at least, but most of them have been assayed 4 times.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to identify target microRNAs of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice that overexpressed PPARalpha or PPARbeta. We have recently demonstrated that skeletal muscle-specific PPARb transgenic (MCK-PPARb) mice exhibit increased exercise endurance, whereas MCK-PPARa mice have reduced exercise performance. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether PPARb and PPARa drive distinct programs involved in muscle fiber type determination. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) immunohistochemical staining of soleus muscle revealed a marked increase in type 1 fibers in the MCK-PPARb muscle compared to non-transgenic (NTG) littermates but a profound reduction in MCK-PPARa muscle. miRNA profiling revealed that levels of miR-208b and miR-499 were increased in MCK-PPARb muscle but reduced in MCK-PPARa muscle. miR-208b and miR-499, which are embedded in the Myh7 and Myh7b genes, respectively, have been shown previously to regulate slow-twitch muscle genes. Lastly, combined inhibition of miR-208b and miR-499 abolished the enhancing effects of PPARb on MHC1 expression in skeletal myotubes, while forced expression of miR-499 in MCK-PPARa muscle completely reversed the type 1 fiber program and exercise capacity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-208b and miR-499 are necessary to mediate the effects of PPARb and PPARa on muscle fiber type determination. Comparison of microRNA expression from soleus muscles isolated from wild-type (non-transgenic (NTG)) and PPARalpha-overexpressing (MCK-PPARa) mice, and comparison of microRNA expression from soleus muscles isolated from wild-type (NTG) and PPARbeta-overexpressing (MCK-PPARb) mice. Three replicates of each are analyzed.
Project description:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). In cancers, tumour suppressive microRNAs may be silenced by DNA hypermethylation. By microRNA profiling, miR-155-3p was significantly upregulated upon demethylation treatment of MCL cell lines with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-azadC). Methylation-specific PCR, verified by pyrosequencing, showed complete methylation of miR-155-3p in one MCL cell line (REC-1). 5-azadC treatment of REC-1 led to demethylation and re-expression of miR-155-3p. Over-expression of miR-155-3p led to increased sub-G1 apoptotic cells and reduced cellular viability, demonstrating its tumour suppressive properties. By luciferase assay, lymphotoxin-beta (LT-β) was validated as a miR-155-3p target. In 31 primary MCL, miR-155-3p was found hypermethylated in 6(19%) cases. To test if methylation of miR-155-3p was MCL-specific, miR-155-3p methylation was tested in an additional 191 B-cell, T-cell and NK-cell NHLs, yielding miR-155-3p methylation in 66(34.6%) including 36(27%) non-MCL B-cell, 24(53%) T-cell and 6(46%) of NK-cell lymphoma. Moreover, in 72 primary NHL samples with RNA, miR-155-3p methylation correlated with miR-155-3p downregulation (p=0.030), and LT-β upregulation (p=0.004). Collectively, miR-155-3p is tumour suppressive microRNA hypermethylated in MCL and other NHL subtypes. As miR-155-3p targets LT-β, which is an upstream activator of the non-canonical NF-kB signalling, miR-155-3p methylation is potentially important in lymphomagenesis Total RNA isolated from MINO and JEKO-1 before and after 5-azadC treatment were converted into cDNA by MegaplexTM RT Primers and TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit. cDNA was pre-amplified using MegaplexTM PreAmp Primer and loaded onto 384-well format Taqman® human microRNA array A V2.0 & B V3.0. Real-time PCR was performed on 7900HT Real-Time PCR system and raw data were analyzed normalizing to mean of three endogenous controls (U6snRNA, RNU44 and RNU48). Relative microRNA levels were determined by ΔΔCt using endogenous controls and untreated controls using SDS 2.4 and RQ manager 1.2. All experimental procedures and analyses were performed according to manufacturer’s instruction, using reagents, system and softwares acquired from Applied Biosystems (Foster City, USA).
Project description:We investigated whether biomarker analysis in endobronchial epithelial lining fluid (ELF) collected by bronchoscopic microsampling may be useful for a definitive preoperative diagnosis. Therefore we compared ELF samples close to nodule and from the contralateral site from patients with malignant or benign diagnosis. ELF samples have been derived from early stage NSCLC patients and controls. Wilcox Test was performed to identify differentially expressed genes associated to a malignant diagnosis. key words: disease subtype analysis
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can regenerate the entire hematopoietic system in vivo, providing the most relevant criteria to measure candidate HSCs derived from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) sources. Here, we show that unlike primitive hematopoietic cells derived from hESCs, phenotypically identical cells derived from hiPSC are more permissive to graft the bone marrow of xenotransplantation recipients. Despite establishment of bone marrow graft, hiPSC-derived cells fail to demonstrate hematopoietic differentiation in vivo. However, once removed from recipient bone marrow, hiPSC-derived grafts were capable of in vitro multilineage hematopoietic differentiation, indicating that xenograft imparts a restriction to in vivo hematopoietic progression. This failure to regenerate multilineage hematopoiesis in vivo was attributed to the inability to downregulate key microRNAs involved in hematopoiesis. Based on these analyses, our study indicates that hiPSCs provide a beneficial source of pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoietic cells for transplantation compared with hESCs. Since use of the human-mouse xenograft models prevents detection of putative hiPSC-derived HSCs, we suggest that new preclinical models should be explored to fully evaluate cells generated from hiPSC sources. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoietic cells were isolated and qPCR-based microRNA profiling was performed.
Project description:Global miRNA expression profiling of human malignancies is gaining popularity in both basic and clinically driven research. But to date, the majority of such analyses have used microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. With the introduction of digital count technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the NanoString nCounter System, we have at our disposal, many more options. To make effective use of these different platforms, the strengths and pitfalls of several miRNA profiling technologies were assessed, including a microarray platform, NGS technologies and the NanoString nCounter System. These results were compared to gold-standard quantitative real-time PCR. Comparison of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines grown in vitro (n = 5) and in vivo (n = 5) as xenograft models.