MRNA profiling in enterovirus type 71-infected SH-SY5Y cells after transfection with miR-1246 inhibitor
ABSTRACT: Today, the pathogenesis of human enterovirus type 71 (HEV71) infection in human central neural system remains unclear. HEV71 is the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), and has been associated with severe neurological disease and even death in infants and young children. We employed the human whole genome microarray analyze the mRNA profiling in human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y infected with HEV71 after transfection. Firstly, SH-SY5Y cells were transfected wtih miR-1246 inhibitor and negtive control respectively using HiPerFect Transfection Reagent according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Then the cells were infected with HEV71 after transfection. After 12 hours infection, the cells were harvested to microarray analysis. The results showed the altered expression of mRNAs including up-regulated genes and down-regulated genes. Overall, this finding will help to understand the functional genes in HEV71-infected human neuroblastoma cells and miR-1246-virus-host interaction. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected wtih miR-1246 inhibitor and negtive control respectively using HiPerFect Transfection Reagent according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Then the cells were infected with HEV71 after transfection. After infection, the cells were harvested to microarray analysis. Total RNA of cells infected with HEV71 was extracted using the TRIZOL Reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions. Gene-expression profiling was performed for each pooling RNA sample separately on the GeneChip_ Porcine Genome Array at CapitalBio Corporation (Beijing, China).
Project description:Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children in most Asian countries. The roles of host miRNAs in the neurological pathogenesis of HEV71 infection remain unknown. In the present study, comprehensive miRNA expression profiling in HEV71-infected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells was performed using the Affymetrix Gene Chip microarray assay and was validated using real-time RT-PCR. Among the 69 differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-1246 was specifically induced by HEV71 infection in human neuroblastoma cells, but inhibition of miR-1246 failed to affect HEV71 replication. Parallel mRNA and microRNA profiling based on the 35 K Human Genome Array identified 182 differentially regulated genes. Target prediction of miR-1246 and network modeling revealed 14 potential target genes involved in cell death and cell signaling. Finally, a combined analysis of the results from mRNA profiling and miR-1246 target predication led to the identification of disc-large homolog 3 (DLG3), which is associated with neurological disorders, for further validation. Sequence alignment and luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-1246 directly bound with the 3'-UTR of DLG3 gene. Down-regulation of miR-1246 induced significant changes in DLG3 expression levels in HEV71-infected SHSY5Y cells. Together, these results suggested that miR-1246 might play a role in neurological pathogenesis of HEV71 by regulating DLG3 gene in infected cells. These findings provide new information on the miRNA and mRNA profiles of HEV71-infected neuroblastoma cells. The biological significance of miR-1246 and DLG3 during the course of HEV71 infection deserves further investigation.
Project description:siRNA technology is a promising tool for gene therapy of vascular disease. Due to the multitude of reagents and cell types, RNAi experiment optimization can be time-consuming. In this study adherent cell cytometry was used to rapidly optimize siRNA transfection in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (AoSMC).AoSMC were seeded at a density of 3000-8000 cells/well of a 96 well plate. 24 hours later AoSMC were transfected with either non-targeting unlabeled siRNA (50 nM), or non-targeting labeled siRNA, siGLO Red (5 or 50 nM) using no transfection reagent, HiPerfect or Lipofectamine RNAiMax. For counting cells, Hoechst nuclei stain or Cell Tracker green were used. For data analysis an adherent cell cytometer, Celigo® was used. Data was normalized to the transfection reagent alone group and expressed as red pixel count/cell.After 24 hours, none of the transfection conditions led to cell loss. Red fluorescence counts were normalized to the AoSMC count. RNAiMax was more potent compared to HiPerfect or no transfection reagent at 5 nM siGLO Red (4.12 +/-1.04 vs. 0.70 +/-0.26 vs. 0.15 +/-0.13 red pixel/cell) and 50 nM siGLO Red (6.49 +/-1.81 vs. 2.52 +/-0.67 vs. 0.34 +/-0.19). Fluorescence expression results supported gene knockdown achieved by using MARCKS targeting siRNA in AoSMCs.This study underscores that RNAi delivery depends heavily on the choice of delivery method. Adherent cell cytometry can be used as a high throughput-screening tool for the optimization of RNAi assays. This technology can accelerate in vitro cell assays and thus save costs.
Project description:The deposition of amyloid-like filaments in the brain is the central event in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report cellular models of intracytoplasmic inclusions of α-synuclein, generated by introducing nucleation seeds into SH-SY5Y cells with a transfection reagent. Upon introduction of preformed seeds into cells overexpressing α-synuclein, abundant, highly filamentous α-synuclein-positive inclusions, which are extensively phosphorylated and ubiquitinated and partially thioflavin-positive, were formed within the cells. SH-SY5Y cells that formed such inclusions underwent cell death, which was blocked by small molecular compounds that inhibit β-sheet formation. Similar seed-dependent aggregation was observed in cells expressing four-repeat Tau by introducing four-repeat Tau fibrils but not three-repeat Tau fibrils or α-synuclein fibrils. No aggregate formation was observed in cells overexpressing three-repeat Tau upon treatment with four-repeat Tau fibrils. Our cellular models thus provide evidence of nucleation-dependent and protein-specific polymerization of intracellular amyloid-like proteins in cultured cells.
Project description:RNAi technology is a promising tool for gene therapy of vascular disease. However, the biological heterogeneity between endothelial (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and within different vascular beds make them differentially susceptible to siRNA. This is further complicated by the task of choosing the right transfection reagent that leads to consistent gene silencing across all cell types with minimal toxicity. The goal of this study was to investigate the intrinsic RNAi susceptibility of primary human aortic and coronary artery endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (AoEC, CoEC, AoSMC and CoSMC) using adherent cell cytometry.Cells were seeded at a density of 5000cells/well of a 96well plate. Twenty four hours later cells were transfected with either non-targeting unlabeled control siRNA (50nM), or non-targeting red fluorescence labeled siRNA (siGLO Red, 5 or 50nM) using no transfection reagent, HiPerFect or Lipofectamine RNAiMAX. Hoechst nuclei stain was used to label cells for counting. For data analysis an adherent cell cytometer, Celigo was used.Red fluorescence counts were normalized to the cell count. EC displayed a higher susceptibility towards siRNA delivery than SMC from the corresponding artery. CoSMC were more susceptible than AoSMC. In all cell types RNAiMAX was more potent compared to HiPerFect or no transfection reagent. However, after 24h, RNAiMAX led to a significant cell loss in both AoEC and CoEC. None of the other transfection conditions led to a significant cell loss.This study confirms our prior observation that EC are more susceptible to siRNA than SMC based on intracellular siRNA delivery. RNAiMax treatment led to significant cell loss in AoEC and CoEC, but not in the SMC populations. Additionally, this study is the first to demonstrate that coronary SMC are more susceptible to siRNA than aortic SMC.
Project description:We recently developed a polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) dual-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (GO) (PEG-nrGO-PEI, RGPP) for high-efficient gene delivery in HepG2 and Hela cell lines. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of RGPP as a gene delivery carrier, we here assessed the transfection efficiency of RGPP on gene plasmids and siRNA in 11 different cell lines. Commercial polyalkyleneimine cation transfection reagent (TR) was used as comparison. In HepG2 cells, RGPP exhibited much stronger delivery ability for siRNA and large size plasmids than TR. For green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid, RGPP showed about 47.1% of transfection efficiency in primary rabbit articular chondrocytes, and about 27% of transfection efficiency in both SH-SY5Y and A549 cell lines. RGPP exhibited about 37.2% of GFP plasmid transfection efficiency in EMT6 cells and about 26.0% of GFP plasmid transfection efficiency in LO2 cells, but induced about 33% of cytotoxicity in both cell lines. In 4T1 and H9C2 cell lines, RGPP had less than 10% of GFP plasmid transfection efficiency. Collectively, RGPP is a potential nano-carrier for high-efficiency gene delivery, and needs to be further optimized for different cell lines.
Project description:Ischemic tolerance in the brain can be induced by transient limb ischemia, and this phenomenon is termed remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). It still remains elusive how this transfer of tolerance occurs. Exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier, and some molecules may transfer neuroprotective signals from the periphery to the brain. Serum miRNA-126 is associated with ischemic stroke, and exosomal miRNA-126 has shown protective effects against acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether exosomal miRNA-126 from RIPC serum can play a similar neuroprotective role. Exosomes were isolated from the venous serum of four healthy young male subjects, both before and after RIPC. Exosomal miRNA-126 was measured by real-time PCR. The miRNA-126 target sequence was predicted by bioinformatics software. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were incubated with exosomes, and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression and activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B, a potential target gene of miRNA-126, were examined in SH-SY5Y cells. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was also investigated. To confirm the association between miRNA-126 and DNMT3B, we overexpressed miRNA-126 in SH-SY5Y cells using lentiviral transfection. miRNA-126 expression was upregulated in RIPC exosomes, and bioinformatics prediction showed that miRNA-126 could bind with DNMT3B. DNMT levels and DNMT3B activity were downregulated in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with RIPC exosomes. After overexpression of miRNA-126 in SH-SY5Y cells, global methylation levels and DNMT3B gene expression were downregulated in these cells, consistent with the bioinformatics predictions. RIPC exosomes can affect the cell cycle and increase OGD tolerance in SH-SY5Y cells. RIPC seems to have neuroprotective effects by downregulating the expression of DNMTs in neural cells through the upregulation of serum exosomal miRNA-126.
Project description:SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with an siRNA against T-UC.300A (final concentration 50nM) or negative control siRNA (Dharmacon Negative Control #1, final concentration 50 nM) using the transfection reagent Lipofectamine (Invitrogen). Media was changed after 24hrs. RNA was extracted 120hrs after transfection. Gene expression microarray analysis was carried out using Roche NimbleGens 4x72K Homo Sapiens gene expression array.
Project description:Dysfunction of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 genes have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia has proposed that increased DAO activity leads to decreased D-serine, which subsequently may lead to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction. It has been shown that DAOA binds to DAO and increases its activity. However, there are also studies showing DAOA decreases DAO activity. Thus, the effect of DAOA on DAO is controversial. We aimed to understand the effect of DAOA on DAO activity in neuron-like (SH-SY5Y), astrocyte-like (1321N1) and kidney-like (HEK293) human cell lines. DAO activity was measured based on the release of hydrogen peroxide and its interaction with Amplex Red reagent. We found that DAOA increases DAO activity only in HEK293 cells, but has no effect on DAO activity in SH-SY5Y and 1321N1 cells. This might be because of different signaling pathways, or due to lower DAO and DAOA expression in SH-SY5Y and 1321N1 cells compared to HEK293 cells, but also due to different compartmentalization of the proteins. The lower DAO and DAOA expression in neuron-like SH-SY5Y and astrocyte-like 1321N1 cells might be due to tightly regulated expression, as previously reported in the human post-mortem brain. Our simulation experiments to demonstrate the interaction between DAOA and human DAO (hDAO) showed that hDAO holoenzyme [hDAO with flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD)] becomes more flexible and misfolded in the presence of DAOA, whereas DAOA had no effect on hDAO apoprotein (hDAO without FAD), which indicate that DAOA inactivates hDAO holoenzyme. Furthermore, patch-clamp analysis demonstrated no effect of DAOA on NMDA receptor activity in NR1/NR2A HEK293 cells. In summary, the interaction between DAO and DAOA seems to be cell type and its biochemical characteristics dependent which still needs to be elucidated.
Project description:Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells. Most importantly, the pro-autophagy factor AMBRA1 is sufficient to restore mitophagy in fibroblasts of PD patients carrying PINK1 and PARKIN mutations. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of AMBRA1-induced mitophagy against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)- and rotenone-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We demonstrated that AMBRA1ActA overexpression was sufficient to induce mitochondrial clearance in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that apoptosis induced by 6-OHDA and rotenone was reversed by AMBRA1-induced mitophagy. Finally, transfection of SH-SY5Y cells with a vector encoding AMBRA1ActA significantly reduced 6-OHDA and rotenone-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, our results indicate that AMBRA1ActA is able to induce mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells in order to suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by both 6-OHDA and rotenone. These results strongly suggest that AMBRA1 may have promising neuroprotective properties with an important role in limiting ROS-induced dopaminergic cell death, and the utmost potential to prevent PD or other neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress.