Expression profile of CXCR6 Hi T cells or CXCR6 Lo helper T cells in CD45Rb Hi tranfer model mice
ABSTRACT: To identify the role of chemokine receptor in inflammation of colon, we isolated CD3+CD4+ helper T cells harboring CXCR6 from colonic lamina propria of mice We used microarrays to identify the differentially expressed genes between CXCR6Hi Tcells and CXCR6Lo Tcells CXCR6 Hi or CXCR6 Lo T cells were isolated from colonic lamina propria for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:CD4(+) T cells play a central role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) via high-level production of effector cytokines such as IFN-? and TNF-?. To better characterize the colitogenic CD4(+) T cells, we examined their expression of CXCR6, a chemokine receptor that is expressed by T cells upon activation and is upregulated in several inflammatory diseases. We found that 80% of colonic lamina propria CD4(+) T cells expressed CXCR6 in the CD45RB(high) T cell-transferred colitis model. CXCR6 expression was similarly upregulated in inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Although surface marker analysis demonstrated that both CXCR6(+) and CXCR6(-) CD4(+) T-cell subsets consist of the cells with effector and effector-memory cells, the more cells in the CXCR6(+) subset produced IFN-? and TNF-? compared to CXCR6(-) subset, and only the CXCR6(+) subset produced IL-17A. Nevertheless, adoptive retransfer of lamina propria CXCR6(+) T cells into Rag1 (-/-) recipients failed to induce the disease due to limited expansion of the transferred cells. By contrast, retransfer of CXCR6(-) cells evoked colitis similar to that observed in CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell-transferred mice, and resulted in their conversion into CXCR6(+) cells. Collectively, these observations suggest that the CXCR6(+)CD4(+) T-cell subset consists of terminally differentiated effector cells that serve as the major source of effector cytokines in the inflamed tissue, whereas CXCR6(-)CD4(+) T-cell subset serves as a colitogenic memory compartment that retains the ability to proliferate and differentiate into CXCR6(+)CD4(+) T cells.
Project description:We have recently discovered a unique CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cell population in the human fetal liver (FL) that gives rise to cells in the hepatic lineage. In this study, we further characterized the biological functions of FL CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells. Our findings show that these CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express markers of both endodermal and mesodermal lineages and have the capability to differentiate into hepatocyte and mesenchymal lineage cells by ex vivo differentiation assays. Furthermore, we show that CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express growth factors that are important for human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion: stem cell factor (SCF), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), and factors in the angiopoietin-like protein family. Co-culture of autologous FL HSCs and allogenic HSCs derived from cord blood with CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells supports and expands both types of HSCs.These findings are not only essential for extending our understanding of the HSC niche during the development of embryonic and fetal hematopoiesis but will also potentially benefit adult stem cell transplantations in clinics because expanded HSCs demonstrate the same capacity as primary cells to reconstitute the human immune system and mediate long-term hematopoiesis in vivo. Together, CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells not only serve as stem/progenitor cells for liver development but are also an essential component of the HSC niche in the human FL.
Project description:To further development of our gene expression approach to CD300a deficiency on dendritic cells (DCs) in colonic lamina propria, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to distinguish CD300a deficiency on DCs in colonic lamina propria from those of WT mice. Colonic lamina propria DCs were obtained by cell sorter from WT and CD300a deficient mice raised under SPF and GF condition. Expression of Ifnb1 was significantly higher in CD300a deficient DCs, quantified in the same RNA samples by real-time PCR. Gene expression in WT and CD300a colonic lamina propria DCs raised under SPF and GF conditions were measured. Colonic lamina propria cells were obtained from 5 mice in each conditions. Takara-Bio
Project description:The IL-33 receptor ST2 is differentially expressed by colonic lamina propria Treg cells Microarray of sort-purified Foxp3+ Treg cells from colonic lamina propria over mesenteric lymph node
Project description:The myofibroblast is an important stromal cell of the gastrointestinal tract. Current in vitro and in vivo models either do not accurately recreate stromal-epithelial interactions or are not specific to myofibroblasts. We sought to create an animal model that would allow the study of myofibroblast-epithelial interactions. We isolated and cultured colonic myofibroblasts from FVB mice. Cells were ?-SMA and vimentin positive but desmin negative on immunoblot analysis. We injected the myofibroblasts into the colonic submucosa of syngeneic adult mice (n = 8) via a miniendoscopic system. We then isolated green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive colonic myofibroblasts from C57BL/6-Tg(CAG-EGFP)1Osb/J mice and injected them into the colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6J mice at 1x10(5) (n = 14), 1x10(6) (n = 9), or 5x10(6) cells/mL (n = 4). A subset of mice were injected with serum-free media and ink without cells (n = 3). Mice underwent repeat endoscopy and euthanasia one or 7 days after injection. Colons were isolated and either fixed in 10% formalin or the inked sites were individually excised and lysed for DNA. We assessed the injection sites via histology and immunohistochemical stains for ?-SMA and GFP. We used qPCR to quantify GFP DNA transcripts at the lamina propria injection sites. Submucosal injection of myofibroblasts resulted in the formation of a subepithelial wheal on endoscopy, which persisted to day 7. Myofibroblasts injected either into the submucosa or lamina propria maintained viability on post-injection day 7 as evidenced by positive ?-SMA staining. qPCR of lamina propria injections showed a dose-dependent increase in GFP DNA transcripts on post-injection day 1, whereas the number of transcripts on day 7 was equivalent for the concentrations injected. We demonstrate short-term survival of primary cultured colonic myofibroblasts in syngeneic mice. This may prove to be a valuable model for studying the role of myofibroblasts in states of health and disease.
Project description:IL-10 is an immunoregulatory cytokine expressed by numerous cell types. Studies in mice confirm that different IL-10-expressing cell subsets contribute differentially to disease phenotypes. However, little is known about the relationship between cell- or tissue-specific IL-10 expression and disease susceptibility in humans. In this study, we used the previously described human (h)IL10BAC transgenic model to examine the role of hIL-10 in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Genomically controlled hIL-10 expression rescued Il10(-/-) mice from Helicobacter-induced colitis and was associated with control of proinflammatory cytokine expression and Th17 cell accumulation in gut tissues. Resistance to colitis was associated with an accumulation of hIL-10-expressing CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells specifically within the lamina propria but not other secondary lymphoid tissues. Cotransfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(lo) cells from Il10(-/-)/hIL10BAC mice rescued Rag1(-/-) mice from colitis, further suggesting that CD4(+) T cells represent a protective source of hIL-10 in the colon. In concordance with an enhanced capacity to express IL-10, CD4(+)CD44(+) T cells isolated from the lamina propria exhibited lower levels of the repressive histone mark H3K27Me3 and higher levels of the permissive histone mark acetylated histone H3 in both the human and mouse IL10 locus compared with the spleen. These results provide experimental evidence verifying the importance of T cell-derived hIL-10 expression in controlling inflammation within the colonic mucosa. We also provide molecular evidence suggesting the tissue microenvironment influences IL-10 expression patterns and chromatin structure in the human (and mouse) IL10 locus.
Project description:Although IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine reportedly involved in various autoimmune inflammatory disorders, its role remains unclear in murine models of colitis. Acute colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 5 days. A novel sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist W-061, a prototype of ONO-4641, was orally administered daily, and histopathological analysis was performed on the colon. The number of lymphocytes and their cytokine production were also evaluated in spleen, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patch and lamina propria of the colon. Daily administration of W-061 resulted in improvement of DSS-induced colitis, and significantly reduced the number of CD4+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by W-061 treatment. W-061, however, had no influence on the number of Treg cells in lamina propria. Thus, Th17 and Th1 cells in lamina propria were thought to be the key subsets in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, W-061 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to ameliorate acute aggravation of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:Naïve CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells from C3H.SW mice were compared to CD44-hi/CD82L-lo/CD8+ effector memory T cells and CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ postmitotic T cells, using 3 biological replicates of each type of sample. The later two cells types were highly purified at day 14 after transplantation from GVHD B6/SJL mice receiving donor C3H.SW mouse-derived naive CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells and T cell-depleted bone marrow. Recipient mice had first been lethally irradiated at a dose of 10Gy in two fractions. This is a MHC-identical minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched mouse GVHD model of human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Naive T cell samples were from pools of 2 mice each, while effector memory and postmitotic T cell samples were purified from pools of T cells from 4 mice each. After RNA extraction and cleanup, biotin labeled cRNA was prepared from 600 ng total RNA, using two rounds of in vitro transcription, and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays using standard techniques. Keywords: Cell type comparison 9 samples were analyzed on 9 Affymetrix microarrays to assay mRNA levels. There were 3 biological replicates of each of 3 different cell types.
Project description:Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most commonly used tumor marker in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. Recent studies have shown that colonic crypt cells expressing little or no CEA may enrich for stem cells. Numerous studies have clearly shown that there exist CRC patients with normal serum CEA levels during tumor progression or even tumor relapse, although CEA itself is considered to promote metastasis and block cell differentiation. These seemingly contradictory observations prompted us to investigate, herein, the biological properties as well as tumorigenic and metastatic capacity of CRC cells that express high (CEA+) versus low CEA (CEA-/lo) levels of CEA. Our findings show that the abundance of CEA-/lo cells correlate with poor differentiation and poor prognosis, and moreover, CEA-/lo cells form more spheres in vitro, generate more tumors and exhibit a higher potential in developing liver and lung metastases than corresponding CEA+ cells. Applying RNAi-mediated approach, we found that IGF1R mediated tumorigenic and capacity of CEA-/lo cells but did not mediate those of CEA+ cells. Notably, our data demonstrated that CEA molecule was capable of protecting CEA-/lo cells from anoikis, implying that CEA+ cells, although themselves possessing less tumorigenic and metastatic capacity, may promote metastasis of CEA-/lo cells via secreting CEA molecule. Our observations suggest that, besides targeting CEA molecule, CEA-/lo cells may represent a critical source of tumor progression and metastasis, and should therefore be the target of future therapies.
Project description:The commensal microbiota is believed to have an important role in regulating immune responsiveness and preventing intestinal inflammation. Intestinal microbes produce signals that regulate inflammation via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, but the mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in this signaling pathway using a mouse model of colitis.Clinical, histopathologic, and functional parameters of intestinal inflammation were evaluated in TLR4(-/-), IL-10(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice that were free of specific pathogens and in TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice following eradication and reintroduction of Helicobacter hepaticus. Regulatory T-cell (Treg) function was evaluated by crossing each of the lines with transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous regulatory elements of Foxp3. Apoptotic cells in the colonic lamina propria were detected by a TUNEL assay.TLR4-mediated signals have 2 interrelated roles in promoting inflammation in TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice. In the absence of TLR4-mediated signals, secretion of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines is dysregulated. Tregs (Foxp3(+)) that secrete interferon-gamma and IL-17 accumulate in the colonic lamina propria of TLR4(-/-) x IL-10(-/-) mice and do not prevent inflammation. Aberrant control of epithelial cell turnover results in the persistence of antigen-presenting cells that contain apoptotic epithelial fragments in the colonic lamina propria of Helicobacter-infected TLR4(-/-) mice.In mice that lack both IL-10- and TLR4-mediated signals, aberrant regulatory T-cell function and dysregulated control of epithelial homeostasis combine to exacerbate intestinal inflammation.