Gene Expression Analysis of Fat Body of Drosophila melanogaster Subjected to Sir2 Overexpression or Dietary Restriction
ABSTRACT: Sir2 is the most intensively discussed longevity gene in current aging research. Although the gene encoding for a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase initially was found to extend lifespan of various organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, serious doubts regarding its role in longevity have been expressed recently. In this study, we tested whether tissue-specific overexpression of Sir2 in the adult fat body can extend lifespan when compared to genetically identical controls. We also wanted to elucidate the mechanisms by which fat body Sir2 promotes longevity by studying the phenotypic and transcriptional changes in the fat body. We found that moderate (3-fold) Sir2 overexpression in the fat body during adulthood only can promote longevity in both sexes by roughly 13 %. In addition, we obtained transcriptional profiles elicited by this overexpression and propose a role for Sir2 in lipid droplet biology especially under conditions of starvation. Furthermore, our data do not support the idea of Sir2 mediating the response to dietary restriction (DR) because transcriptional profiles of fat bodies after DR or Sir2 overexpression do not match. This study provides additional independent evidence for the concept of Sir2 as a longevity gene and as a promising pharmacological target to cure age-related diseases. 6 groups of sample types were included in the experiment: a) females overexpressing Sir2 in the fat body b) female controls c) males overexpressing Sir2 in the fat body d) male controls e) wildtype females subjected to DR f) wildtype females feeding on a normal diet. 3 biological replicates were included per group.
Project description:Although airway epithelia are primarily devoted to gas exchange, they have to fulfil a number of different tasks including organ maintenance and the epithelial immune response to fight airborne pathogens. These different tasks are at least partially accomplished by specialized cell types in the epithelium. In addition, a proximal to distal gradient mirroring the transition from airflow conduction to real gas exchange, is also operative. We analysed the airway system of larval Drosophila melanogaster with respect to region-specific expression in the proximal to distal axis. The larval airway system is made of epithelial cells only. Previously, it had been anticipated that these cells are very similar in their functional and transcript properties. We found differential expression between primary trunks of the airways and more distal ones comprising secondary and tertiary ones. Among these genes are especially those involved in signal transduction. A more detailed analysis was performed using DNA-microarray analyses to identify cohorts of genes that are either predominantly expressed in the primary or in the secondary/tertiary parts of the airways. Genes, including a putative mucin and the neuropeptide FMRFamide are predominantly found in primary branches, whereas the wnt- and the TGF-beta signalling pathways appear to be overrepresented in the secondary/tertiary ones. This differential expression is indicative for a proximal to distal transcriptional regionalization presumably reflecting functional differences in these parts of the fly’s airway system. Trachea of wildtype L3 larvae were dissected and primary branches were processed seperately from secondary and tertiary branches. 3 biological replicates were included per group.
Project description:Hand proteins belong to the highly conserved family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors and are critical for distinct developmental processes, including cardiogenesis and neurogenesis in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster a single orthologous hand gene is expressed with absence of the respective protein causing semilethality during early larval instars. Surviving adult animals suffer from shortened lifespan associated with a disorganized myofibrillar structure being apparent in the dorsal vessel, the wing hearts and in midgut tissue. Based on these data, the major biological significance of Hand seems to be related to muscle development, maintenance or function; however, up to now the physiological basis for Hand functionality remained elusive. Thus, the identification of genes whose expression is, directly or indirectly, regulated by Hand has considerable relevance with respect to understanding its biological functionality in flies and vertebrates. Beneficially, hand mutants are viable and exhibit affected tissues which renders Drosophila an ideal model to investigate up- or downregulated target genes by a comparative microarray approach focusing on the respective tissues from mutant specimens. Our present work reveals for the first time that Drosophila melanogaster Hand regulates the expression of numerous genes of diverse physiological relevancy including distinct factors required for proper muscle development and function, such as Zasp52 or Msp-300. These results relate Hand activity to muscle integrity and functionality and may thus be highly beneficial in order to understand hand phenotypes described earlier. For hand null mutants and w heart tissues of wandering 3d instar larvae were dissected, RNA was isolated and samples were subjected to microarray analysis.
Project description:To initially determine changes on the transcriptome level that might account for the phenotypic observations in an unbiased fashion, we performed large-scale mRNA expression profiling 8 weeks after treatment with an AAV harboring a control or GAbpa-specific miRNA under the LP1 promoter. Mice were subjected to 16 h fasting or a 16 h fasting + 6 h refeeding cycle before termination of the experiment. All 8 AAV-injected experimental groups as NC and GAbpα knockdown samples for the different conditions (wt or db/db; fasting or refeeding) were included.
Project description:We prepared small RNA libraries from 29 tumor/normal pairs of human cervical tissue samples. Analysis of the resulting sequences (42 million in total) defined 64 new human microRNA (miRNA) genes. Both arms of the hairpin precursor were observed in twenty-three of the newly identified miRNA candidates. We tested several computational approaches for analysis of class differences between high throughput sequencing datasets, and describe a novel application of log linear model that has provided the most datasets, and describe a novel application of log linear model that has provided the most effective analysis for this data. This method resulted in the identification of 67 miRNAs that were differentially-expressed between the tumor and normal samples at a false discovery rate less than 0.001. A total of 29 tumor/normal pairs of human cervical tissue samples were analyzed. Two samples (G699N_2 and G761T_2) were performed in duplicates. No Fastq files for GSM532871 to GSM532889, GSM532929, and GSM532930. Sequence files are provided as text files for these 22 Sample records in GSE20592_RAW.tar. 38 samples with quality scores are available from SRA as SRP002/SRP002326 (see Supplementary file below).
Project description:Targeted genomic enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing dramatically increased the efficiency of mutation discovery in human genomes. Here we demonstrate that these techniques also revolutionize traditional genetic approaches in model systems. We developed a two-step protocol utilizing a traditional bulk-segregant analysis (BSA) approach for positional cloning mutants in phenotype-driven forward genetic screens. First, BSA pools are 'light' sequenced for rough mapping, followed by targeted enrichment and deep-sequencing of the mutant BSA pool for the linked genomic region to fine-map and discover candidate mutations. We applied this method successfully to three Arabidopsis mutants and show that it can be scaled by multiplexing. Similarly, we applied these techniques to a gene-driven reverse genetics method (chemical driven target-selected mutagenesis or TILLING) that is used for generating gene knockouts in a wide range of organisms, including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. We developed an efficient multiplexed genomic enrichment protocol for pre-barcoded samples. As a proof-of-principle, 770 genes were screened for induced mutations in 30 rats, which identified all but one known variants (30) as well as a large series of novel knockout and missense alleles. Mutations were retrieved at the expected frequency with a the false-positive rate of less than 1 in 6 million basepairs, which is much lower as compared to traditional mutation discovery approaches. Both methods are largely independent of the genome size due to the targeted enrichment and can thus be applied to any genetic model system of interest. Targeted genomic enrichment followed by next-generation sequencing dramatically increased the efficiency of mutation discovery in human genomes. Here we demonstrate that these techniques also revolutionize traditional genetic approaches in model systems. We developed a two-step protocol utilizing a traditional bulk-segregant analysis (BSA) approach for positional cloning mutants in phenotype-driven forward genetic screens. First, BSA pools are 'light' sequenced for rough mapping, followed by targeted enrichment and deep-sequencing of the mutant BSA pool for the linked genomic region to fine-map and discover candidate mutations. We applied this method successfully to three Arabidopsis mutants and show that it can be scaled by multiplexing. Similarly, we applied these techniques to a gene-driven reverse genetics method (chemical driven target-selected mutagenesis or TILLING) that is used for generating gene knockouts in a wide range of organisms, including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. We developed an efficient multiplexed genomic enrichment protocol for pre-barcoded samples. As a proof-of-principle, 770 genes were screened for induced mutations in 30 rats, which identified all but one known variants (30) as well as a large series of novel knockout and missense alleles. Mutations were retrieved at the expected frequency with a the false-positive rate of less than 1 in 6 million basepairs, which is much lower as compared to traditional mutation discovery approaches. Both methods are largely independent of the genome size due to the targeted enrichment and can thus be applied to any genetic model system of interest.
Project description:RNA interference is involved in silencing of transposable and repetitive elements. How these elements are initially recognized by RNAi is a fundamental and unanswered question. We previously identified a class of Dicer-independent small RNAs, called primal small RNAs (priRNAs), in fission yeast. The mechanism by which Dicer-independent small RNAs are generated is not clear for any species. Here we reconstitute priRNA biogenesis in vitro and demonstrate that priRNAs can nucleate RNAi in vivo. We identify 3'-5' exonuclease Trimmer and show that Argonaute, loaded with longer RNA precursors, recruits Trimmer to generate the new 3' end. Next, we show that antisense priRNAs accumulate in rrp6Δ cells and nucleate RNAi at subset of protein coding genes in a Trimmer- and priRNA-dependent manner. Thus, Rrp6-mediated degradation of antisense transcripts and priRNA precursors protects the genome from spurious RNAi. Our results suggest that Argonaute association with random RNA degradation products triggers RNAi in a process of transcriptome surveillance. small RNA profiling in wild type S. pombe cells and in mutant cells
Project description:The earliest recognizable stages of breast neoplasia are lesions that represent a heterogeneous collection of epithelial proliferations currently classified based on morphology. Their role in the development of breast cancer is not well understood but insight into the critical events at this early stage will improve efforts in breast cancer detection and prevention. These microscopic lesions are technically difficult to study so very little is known about their molecular alterations. To characterize the transcriptional changes of early breast neoplasia, we sequenced 3'- end enriched RNAseq libraries from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of early neoplasia samples and matched normal breast and carcinoma samples from 25 patients. We find that gene expression patterns within early neoplasias are distinct from both normal and breast cancer patterns and identify a pattern of pro-oncogenic changes, including elevated transcription of ERBB2, FOXA1, and GATA3 at this early stage. We validate these findings on a second independent gene expression profile data set generated by whole transcriptome sequencing. Measurements of protein expression by immunohistochemistry on an independent set of early neoplasias confirms that ER pathway regulators FOXA1 and GATA3, as well as ER itself, are consistently upregulated at this early stage. The early neoplasia samples also demonstrate coordinated changes in long non-coding RNA expression and microenvironment stromal gene expression patterns. This study is the first examination of global gene expression in early breast neoplasia, and the genes identified here represent candidate participants in the earliest molecular events in the development of breast cancer. 3SEQ was performed on 72 FFPE human breast samples from 25 patients: 24 normal, 25 early neoplasia, 9 carcinoma in situ, and 14 invasive cancer
Project description:The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5' end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5' uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3' terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo. We compared Twi1p-loaded scnRNAs to scnRNAs before they have been loaded into Twi1p by deep sequencing to understand how the two processes, the production of siRNAs by Dicer and the loading of siRNAs into Argonaute, shape the population of siRNAs in vivo.
Project description:The assembly of fission yeast pericentromeric heterochromatin and generation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from noncoding centromeric transcripts are mutually dependent processes. How this interdependent positive feedback loop is first triggered is a fundamental unanswered question. Here we show that two distinct Argonaute (Ago1)-dependent pathways mediate small RNA generation. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RDRC) and Dicer act on specific noncoding RNAs to generate siRNAs by a mechanism that requires the slicer activity of Ago1 but is independent of pre-existing heterochromatin. In the absence of RDRC or Dicer, a distinct class of small RNAs, called primal small RNAs (priRNAs), associate with Ago1. priRNAs are degradation products of abundant transcripts, which bind to Ago1 and target antisense transcripts that result from bidirectional transcription of DNA repeats. Our results suggest that a transcriptome surveillance mechanism based on the random association of RNA degradation products with Argonaute triggers siRNA amplification and heterochromatin assembly within DNA repeats. small RNA profiling in wild type S. pombe cells and in 12 mutant cells
Project description:The pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is produced by active transcription of cell identity genes and repression of genes encoding lineage-specifying developmental regulators. Here we use large ESC cohesin ChIA-PET datasets and other genomic data to identify the local chromosomal structures at both active and repressed genes across the genome. The results show that super-enhancer driven cell identity genes generally occur within large loops that are connected through CTCF-CTCF interaction sites occupied by cohesin. Smc1 ChIA-PET data from wild type murine embryonic stem cells V6.5 were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina Hi-Seq 2000.