Gene expression patterns following unilateral traumatic brain injury reveals a local pro-inflammatory and remote anti-inflammatory response
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in irreversible damage at the site of impact and initiates cellular and molecular processes that lead to secondary neural injury in the surrounding tissue. We used microarray analysis to determine which genes, pathways and networks were significantly altered using a rat model of TBI. Adult rats received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were sacrificed 24h post-injury. The ipsilateral hemi-brain tissue at the site of the injury, the corresponding contralateral hemi-brain tissue, and naïve (control) brain tissue were used for microarray analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to identify molecular pathways and networks that were associated with the altered gene expression in brain tissues following TBI. Results Inspection of the top fifteen biological functions in IPA associated with TBI in the ipsilateral tissues revealed that all had an inflammatory component. IPA analysis also indicated that inflammatory genes were altered on the contralateral side, but many of the genes were inversely expressed compared to the ipsilateral side. The contralateral gene expression pattern suggests a remote anti-inflammatory molecular response. We created a network of the inversely expressed common (i.e., same gene changed on both sides of the brain) inflammatory response (IR) genes and those IR genes included in pathways and networks identified by IPA that changed on only one side. We ranked the genes by the number of direct connections each had in the network, creating a gene interaction hierarchy (GIH). Two well characterized signaling pathways, toll-like receptor/NF-kappaB signaling and JAK/STAT signaling, were prominent in our GIH. Conclusions Bioinformatic analysis of microarray data following TBI identified key molecular pathways and networks associated with neural injury following TBI. The GIH created here provides a starting point for investigating therapeutic targets in a ranked order that is somewhat different than what has been presented previously. In addition to being a vehicle for identifying potential targets for post-TBI therapeutic strategies, our findings can also provide a context for evaluating the potential of therapeutic agents currently in development. The ipsilateral hemi-brain tissue at the site of the injury, the corresponding contralateral hemi-brain tissue, and naïve (control) brain tissue (n=3 for each) were used for RNA isolation. The TBI injured animals were Todd 1, 2 Todd, and Todd 3, each yielding an ispilateral and contralateral sample. The naïve animals were Xu 13 control, Xu 2 control, and Xu 6 control.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in irreversible damage at the site of impact and initiates cellular and molecular processes that lead to secondary neural injury in the surrounding tissue. We used microarray analysis to determine which genes, pathways and networks were significantly altered using a rat model of TBI. Adult rats received a unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) and were sacrificed 24 h post-injury. The ipsilateral hemi-brain tissue at the site of the injury, the corresponding contralateral hemi-brain tissue, and naïve (control) brain tissue were used for microarray analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was used to identify molecular pathways and networks that were associated with the altered gene expression in brain tissues following TBI.Inspection of the top fifteen biological functions in IPA associated with TBI in the ipsilateral tissues revealed that all had an inflammatory component. IPA analysis also indicated that inflammatory genes were altered on the contralateral side, but many of the genes were inversely expressed compared to the ipsilateral side. The contralateral gene expression pattern suggests a remote anti-inflammatory molecular response. We created a network of the inversely expressed common (i.e., same gene changed on both sides of the brain) inflammatory response (IR) genes and those IR genes included in pathways and networks identified by IPA that changed on only one side. We ranked the genes by the number of direct connections each had in the network, creating a gene interaction hierarchy (GIH). Two well characterized signaling pathways, toll-like receptor/NF-kappaB signaling and JAK/STAT signaling, were prominent in our GIH.Bioinformatic analysis of microarray data following TBI identified key molecular pathways and networks associated with neural injury following TBI. The GIH created here provides a starting point for investigating therapeutic targets in a ranked order that is somewhat different than what has been presented previously. In addition to being a vehicle for identifying potential targets for post-TBI therapeutic strategies, our findings can also provide a context for evaluating the potential of therapeutic agents currently in development.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n?=?6/group) underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6?h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28?days after injury. Expressions of several genes important for brain glucose utilization were determined by qRT-PCR. In results, (1) mRNA levels of three key enzymes in glucose metabolism [hexo kinase (HK) 1, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)] were all increased 6?h after injury in the contralateral cortex, followed by decreases at subsequent times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (2) capillary glucose transporter Glut-1 mRNA increased, while neuronal glucose transporter Glut-3 mRNA decreased, at various times in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (3) astrocyte lactate transporter MCT-1 mRNA increased, whereas neuronal lactate transporter MCT-2 mRNA decreased in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus; (4) HK2 (an isoform of hexokinase) expression increased at all time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. GPR81 (lactate receptor) mRNA increased at various time points in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. These temporal alterations in gene expression corresponded closely to the patterns of impaired brain glucose utilization reported in both TBI patients and experimental TBI rodents. The observed changes in hippocampal gene expression were delayed and prolonged, when compared with those in the cortex. The patterns of alterations were specific to different brain regions and exhibited different recovery periods following TBI. Oral administration of telmisartan (1?mg/kg, for 7?days, n?=?10 per group) ameliorated cortical or hippocampal mRNA for Glut-1/3, MCT-1/2 and PDH in CCI mice. These data provide molecular evidence for dynamic alteration of multiple critical factors in brain glucose metabolism post-TBI and can inform further research for treating brain metabolic disorders post-TBI.
Project description:Loss of olfactory function is an early indicator of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The regenerative capacity and well-defined neural maps of the mammalian olfactory system enable investigations into the degeneration and recovery of neural circuits after injury. Here, we introduce a unique olfactory-based model of TBI that reproduces many hallmarks associated with human brain trauma. We performed a unilateral penetrating impact to the mouse olfactory bulb and observed a significant loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the olfactory epithelium (OE) ipsilateral to the injury, but not contralateral. By comparison, we detected the injury markers p75(NTR), ?-APP, and activated caspase-3 in both the ipsi- and contralateral OE. In the olfactory bulb (OB), we observed a graded cell loss, with ipsilateral showing a greater reduction than contralateral and both significantly less than sham. Similar to OE, injury markers in the OB were primarily detected on the ipsilateral side, but also observed contralaterally. Behavioral experiments measured 4 days after impact also demonstrated loss of olfactory function, yet following a 30-day recovery period, we observed a significant improvement in olfactory function and partial recovery of olfactory circuitry, despite the persistence of TBI markers. Interestingly, by using the M71-IRES-tauLacZ reporter line to track OSN organization, we further determined that inducing neural activity during the recovery period with intense odor conditioning did not enhance the recovery process. Together, these data establish the mouse olfactory system as a new model to study TBI, serving as a platform to understand neural disruption and the potential for circuit restoration.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a cerebral metabolic crisis that contributes to poor neurologic outcome. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in oxidative glucose metabolism in early periods after injury in the brains of immature animals. At 5 h after controlled cortical impact TBI or sham surgery to the left cortex, 21-22 day old rats were injected intraperitoneally with [1,6-13C]glucose and brains removed 15, 30 and 60 min later and studied by ex vivo 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Oxidative metabolism, determined by incorporation of 13C into glutamate, glutamine and GABA over 15-60 min, was significantly delayed in both hemispheres of brain from TBI rats. The most striking delay was in labeling of the C4 position of glutamate from neuronal metabolism of glucose in the injured, ipsilateral hemisphere which peaked at 60 min, compared with the contralateral and sham-operated brains, where metabolism peaked at 30 and 15 min, respectively. Our findings indicate that (i) neuronal-specific oxidative metabolism of glucose at 5-6 h after TBI is delayed in both injured and contralateral sides compared with sham brain; (ii) labeling from metabolism of glucose via the pyruvate carboxylase pathway in astrocytes was also initially delayed in both sides of TBI brain compared with sham brain; (iii) despite this delayed incorporation, at 6 h after TBI, both sides of the brain showed apparent increased neuronal and glial metabolism, reflecting accumulation of labeled metabolites, suggesting impaired malate aspartate shuttle activity. The presence of delayed metabolism, followed by accumulation of labeled compounds is evidence of severe alterations in homeostasis that could impair mitochondrial metabolism in both ipsilateral and contralateral sides of brain after TBI. However, ongoing oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in injured brain suggests that there is a window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention up to at least 6 h after injury.
Project description:A significant proportion (estimates range from 16 to 74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI+TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI+ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI+contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the contralateral hemisphere in all tests, but forepaw placements were relatively increased by an ipsilateral TBI relative to SCI alone, perhaps due to the dual competing injuries influencing the use of both forelimbs. These findings emphasize the complexity of recovery from combined CNS injuries, and the possible role of plasticity and laterality in rehabilitation, and provide a start towards a useful preclinical model for evaluating effective therapies for combine SCI and TBI.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased brain concentrations of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) are shared pathologic features of TBI and AD and promising therapeutic targets. We used arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging to examine if CBF changes after TBI are influenced by human Aβ and amenable to simvastatin therapy. CBF was measured 3 days and 3 weeks after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in transgenic human Aβ-expressing APP(NLh/NLh) mice compared to murine Aβ-expressing C57Bl/6J wild types. Compared to uninjured littermates, CBF was reduced in the cortex of the injured hemisphere in both Aβ transgenics and wild types; deficits were more pronounced in the transgenic group, which exhibited injury-induced increased concentrations of human Aβ. In the hemisphere contralateral to CCI, CBF levels were stable in Aβ transgenic mice but increased in wild-type mice, both relative to uninjured littermates. Post-injury treatment of Aβ transgenic mice with simvastatin lowered brain Aβ concentrations, attenuated deficits in CBF ipsilateral to injury, restored hyperemia contralateral to injury, and reduced brain tissue loss. Future studies examining long-term effects of simvastatin therapy on CBF and chronic neurodegenerative changes after TBI are warranted.
Project description:Polytraumatic injuries, specifically long bone fracture and traumatic brain injury (TBI), frequently occur together. Clinical observation has long held that TBI can accelerate fracture healing, yet the complexity and heterogeneity of these injuries has produced conflicting data with limited information on underlying mechanisms. We developed a murine polytrauma model with TBI and fracture to evaluate healing in a controlled system. Fractures were created both contralateral and ipsilateral to the TBI to test whether differential responses of humoral and/or neuronal systems drove altered healing patterns. Our results show increased bone formation after TBI when injuries occur contralateral to each other, rather than ipsilateral, suggesting a role of the nervous system based on the crossed neuroanatomy of motor and sensory systems. Analysis of the humoral system shows that blood cell counts and inflammatory markers are differentially modulated by polytrauma. A data-driven multivariate analysis integrating all outcome measures showed a distinct pathological state of polytrauma and co-variations between fracture, TBI and systemic markers. Taken together, our results suggest that a contralateral bone fracture and TBI alter the local neuroinflammatory state to accelerate early fracture healing. We believe applying a similar data-driven approach to clinical polytrauma may help to better understand the complicated pathophysiological mechanisms of healing.
Project description:Cerebral edema is critical to morbidity/mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is worsened by hypotension. Glibenclamide may reduce cerebral edema by inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 (Sur1); its effect on diffuse cerebral edema exacerbated by hypotension/resuscitation is unknown. We aimed to determine if glibenclamide improves pericontusional and/or diffuse edema in controlled cortical impact (CCI) (5m/sec, 1 mm depth) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS) (35 min), and compare its effects in CCI alone. C57BL/6 mice were divided into five groups (n = 10/group): naïve, CCI+vehicle, CCI+glibenclamide, CCI+HS+vehicle, and CCI+HS+glibenclamide. Intravenous glibenclamide (10 min post-injury) was followed by a subcutaneous infusion for 24 h. Brain edema in injured and contralateral hemispheres was subsequently quantified (wet-dry weight). This protocol brain water (BW) = 80.4% vehicle vs. 78.3% naïve, p < 0.01) but was not reduced by glibenclamide (I%BW = 80.4%). Ipsilateral edema also developed in CCI alone (I%BW = 80.2% vehicle vs. 78.3% naïve, p < 0.01); again unaffected by glibenclamide (I%BW = 80.5%). Contralateral (C) %BW in CCI+HS was increased in vehicle (78.6%) versus naive (78.3%, p = 0.02) but unchanged in CCI (78.3%). At 24 h, glibenclamide treatment in CCI+HS eliminated contralateral cerebral edema (C%BW = 78.3%) with no difference versus naïve. By 72 h, contralateral cerebral edema had resolved (C%BW = 78.5 ± 0.09% vehicle vs. 78.3 ± 0.05% naïve). Glibenclamide decreased 24 h contralateral cerebral edema in CCI+HS. This beneficial effect merits additional exploration in the important setting of TBI with polytrauma, shock, and resuscitation. Contralateral edema did not develop in CCI alone. Surprisingly, 24 h of glibenclamide treatment failed to decrease ipsilateral edema in either model. Interspecies dosing differences versus prior studies may play an important role in these findings. Mechanisms underlying brain edema may differ regionally, with pericontusional/osmolar swelling refractory to glibenclamide but diffuse edema (via Sur1) from combined injury and/or resuscitation responsive to this therapy. TBI phenotype may mandate precision medicine approaches to treat brain edema.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to impaired cognition and memory consolidation. The acute phase (24-48 h) after TBI is often characterized by neural dysfunction in the vicinity of the lesion, but also in remote areas like the contralateral hemisphere. Protein homeostasis is crucial for synaptic long-term plasticity including the protein degradation systems, proteasome and autophagy. Still, little is known about the acute effects of TBI on synaptic long-term plasticity and protein degradation. Thus, we investigated TBI in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in the motor and somatosensory cortex of mice ex vivo-in vitro. Late long-term potentiation (l-LTP) was induced by theta-burst stimulation in acute brain slices after survival times of 1-2 days. Protein levels for the plasticity related protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was quantified by Western blots, and the protein degradation activity by enzymatical assays. We observed missing maintenance of l-LTP in the ipsilateral hemisphere, however not in the contralateral hemisphere after TBI. Protein levels of CaMKII were not changed but, interestingly, the protein degradation revealed bidirectional changes with a reduced proteasome activity and an increased autophagic flux in the ipsilateral hemisphere. Finally, LTP recordings in the presence of pharmacologically modified protein degradation systems also led to an impaired synaptic plasticity: bath-applied MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, or rapamycin, an activator of autophagy, both administered during theta burst stimulation, blocked the induction of LTP. These data indicate that alterations in protein degradation pathways likely contribute to cognitive deficits in the acute phase after TBI, which could be interesting for future approaches towards neuroprotective treatments early after traumatic brain injury.
Project description:Polyamines spermine and spermidine are highly regulated, ubiquitous aliphatic cations that maintain DNA structure and function as immunomodulators and as antioxidants. Polyamine homeostasis is disrupted after brain injuries, with concomitant generation of toxic metabolites that may contribute to secondary injuries. To test the hypothesis of increased brain polyamine catabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we determined changes in catabolic enzymes and polyamine levels in the rat brain after lateral controlled cortical impact TBI. Spermine oxidase (SMO) catalyzes the degradation of spermine to spermidine, generating H2O2 and aminoaldehydes. Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) catalyzes acetylation of these polyamines, and both are further oxidized in a reaction that generates putrescine, H2O2, and aminoaldehydes. In a rat cortical impact model of TBI, SSAT mRNA increased subacutely (6-24 h) after TBI in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. SMO mRNA levels were elevated late, from 3 to 7 days post-injury. Polyamine catabolism increased as well. Spermine levels were normal at 6 h and decreased slightly at 24 h, but were normal again by 72 h post-injury. Spermidine levels also decreased slightly (6-24 h), then increased by approximately 50% at 72 h post-injury. By contrast, normally low putrescine levels increased up to sixfold (6-72 h) after TBI. Moreover, N-acetylspermidine (but not N-acetylspermine) was detectable (24-72 h) near the site of injury, consistent with increased SSAT activity. None of these changes were seen in the contralateral hemisphere. Immunohistochemical confirmation indicated that SSAT and SMO were expressed throughout the brain. SSAT-immunoreactivity (SSAT-ir) increased in both neuronal and nonneuronal (likely glial) populations ipsilateral to injury. Interestingly, bilateral increases in cortical SSAT-ir neurons occurred at 72 h post-injury, whereas hippocampal changes occurred only ipsilaterally. Prolonged increases in brain polyamine catabolism are the likely cause of loss of homeostasis in this pathway. The potential for simple therapeutic interventions (e.g., polyamine supplementation or inhibition of polyamine oxidation) is an exciting implication of these studies.