Plasma miRNA Expression Profiling Using Human TaqMan Low Density Array Cards
ABSTRACT: Our study was designed to identify plasma miRNAs specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by a comprehensive array approach. We performed a array-based miRNA analysis on plasma samples from three RA patients and three healthy controls (HCs). TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) using human miRNA version 3.0A and version 2.0B cards (Applied Biosystems) were applied to examine the global change of miRNA expression levels in plasma from patients with RA and healthy controls. A total of 756 mature miRNA updated in the Sanger miRBase v.15.0 were quantified according to the manufacturer's instructions as previously described. Normalization was carried out with the average Ct value of all miRNAs. Relative quantification of miRNA expression was calculated with the 2−ΔΔCt Ct method. The data was presented as log10 of the relative quantity of each miRNA.
Project description:Our study was designed to identify plasma miRNAs specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by a comprehensive array approach. We performed a array-based miRNA analysis on plasma samples from three RA patients and three healthy controls (HCs). Overall design: TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) using human miRNA version 3.0A and version 2.0B cards (Applied Biosystems) were applied to examine the global change of miRNA expression levels in plasma from patients with RA and healthy controls. A total of 756 mature miRNA updated in the Sanger miRBase v.15.0 were quantified according to the manufacturer's instructions as previously described. Normalization was carried out with the average Ct value of all miRNAs. Relative quantification of miRNA expression was calculated with the 2−ΔΔCt Ct method. The data was presented as log10 of the relative quantity of each miRNA.
Project description:miRNA expression profiling was performed on MM.1S MM cells cultured 8 hours in control media or 50nM RGB-286638, with or without BMSCs. The emerging role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) led us to hypothesize that the miRNA network might be among the inducible transcriptional alterations consequent to MM-bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) interactions. Our data suggests that BMSC induced MM transcription led to aberrant miRNA expression. We therefore hypothesized that agents interfering with RNAPII transcription might inhibit aberrant miRNA expression in MM. To test this hypothesis we used RGB-286638, a novel protein kinase inhibitor, which works primarily via RNAPII inhibition followed by transcriptional arrest in MM cells. miRNA profiling of RGB-286638-exposed MM cells resulted in RNAPII arrest associated with reduced miRNA levels. RGB-286638 abrogated BMSCs-induced miRNAs, which correlated with growth arrest in MM cells. Analysis of RGB-286638-induced differentially-expressed miRNAs in MM cells, in the presence or absence of BMSCs, revealed RNAPII regulation of expression of BMSC-inducible miRNAs with established oncogenic functions in MM Our findings demonstrate the role of RNAPII in regulating miRNA network, suggesting a new rationale for using agents interfering with RNAPII transcription in the treatment of MM. TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) using human miRNA version 2.0A and version 3.0B cards (Applied Biosystems) were applied to examine the global change of miRNA expression levels in MM.1S cells when co-cultured with BMSCs, with or without RGB-286638 treatment. A total of 756 mature miRNA updated in the Sanger miRBase v.15.0 were quantified according to the manufacturer's instructions as previously described. miRNAs with Ct values higher than 37 were excluded from the analysis. Normalization was carried out with the mean of RNU44 and RNU48. Relative quantification of miRNA expression was calculated with the 2−ΔΔCt Ct method using the ddCt program (Shannon McCormack Advanced Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory Research Services). The data was presented as log10 of the relative quantity of each miRNA.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play a fundamental role in regulation of gene expression affecting differentiation and development. In particular, miRNAs have been described to regulate genes important for pancreatic development and islet function. The aim of this work was to determine the miRNA expression signature in human pancreatic alpha and beta cells. miRNA stability to fixation allowed the study of microRNA in pure populations of human alpha and beta cells sorted by FACS after intracellular staining with glucagon and insulin, respectively. The determination of the specific group of miRNAs expressed in the human pancreatic alpha and beta cells may further the understanding of gene expression regulation of the islet differentiation process. The alpha and beta cells come from 6 different preparations of human pancreatic islets from donors. In this study we define expression profiles of a total of 665 miRNAs for pancreatic alpha and beta cells. For this purpose, cells were fixed with paraformaldehyde, 7AAD was applied to exclude dead cells. Then, cells were sorted after intracellular staining with C peptide to detect beta cells and glucagon to detect alpha cells. After sorting, we confirmed enriched beta cells have a purity of on average over 98%. Enriched alpha cells have a purity of on average over 98%. To determine the miRNA expression profiles, we used human miRNA TLDAs version 2. For each sample card A and card B were run after cDNA synthesis and 12 cycles of preamplification according to the manufacturer protocol. Each TLDA card A contains 1 probe for the endogenous control RNU48 while each TLDA card B contains 4 replicates of the RNU48 probe. Analysis of these controls allows calculating the intra- and inter-assay variation. Quantitative values (RQ) were calculated measuring the ddCt between the Ct values of each miRNA and the Ct value of the small nucleolar RNU48 RNA comparing the target sample and the control sample.
Project description:MicroRNA expression profiling during muscle stem cell activation. Quiescent muscle stem cells from uninjured muscles and activated muscle stem cells from injured muscles at indicated time points were isolated by FACS. MicroRNA expression profiling during muscle stem cell activation using real-time PCR based miRNA arrays. Muscle stem cells were harvested at indicated time points (0hr, 36hr, 60hr and 72hr) after injury. 3 technical replicates were performed. Supplementary files: Raw data (Ct) and complete processed data (dCt, ddCt, fold-change) by platform.
Project description:Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a critical transcription factor in cancer. However, while the protein-coding target genes of STAT3 have been extensively studied, the microRNA target genes of STAT3 are less understood. MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate messenger RNAs through translational inhibition and transcript degradation. They have been found to be involved in all aspects of cancer biology. Given the roles of both STAT3 and miRNAs in cancer, the function of STAT3 as a transcription factor, and the dearth of known STAT3 miRNA targets, our goal was to identify novel STAT3 miRNA targets relevant to cancer. To do so, we engineered MCF-10A cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of STAT3C. STAT3C is a constitutively-active mutant version of STAT3. Although STAT3 can be activated by various growth factors and kinases, other pathways can be activated as well, which would confound analysis of the results. Thus, the advantage of STAT3C is that it allowed specific and focused activation of STAT3 alone, and this screen represents the first genome-wide survey of miRNA expression changes associated specifically with STAT3 activity. MCF-10A, a non-transformed breast epithelial cell line, was chosen because STAT3C has been reported to be sufficient to cause their neoplastic transformation. Therefore, we reasoned that analysis of STAT3C’s effects in MCF-10A cells would be especially informative for STAT3-regulated miRNAs relevant to cancer. As a result of our study, we identified previously-known as well as novel miRNA targets of STAT3. Doxycycline-inducible MCF-10A cells were seeded, and then untreated (grown in standard growth media alone) or treated with 2μg/ml doxycycline for 48hr. Each condition was performed in biological triplicate (labeled A, B, and C), for a total of 6 samples. Total RNA was harvested and submitted to the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory. MicroRNA expression profiling was performed using TaqMan Low-Density Arrays (TLDA), human miRNA version 2.0A and version 3.0B cards (Applied Biosystems).
Project description:Human milk (breastmilk) is much more than nutrition for the infant, containing an array of regulatory agents with immunoprotective and developmental functions. Amongst those, microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified, with their properties, roles, origin and distribution in breastmilk as well as in the mammary gland being still undetermined. In this study, we examined the miRNA profile of different fractions of human milk (cells and lipids) using the OpenArray system (Applied Biosystems, 770 miRNA species measured per sample) and compared it with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma. Although PBMCs were the richest group in miRNA species, plasma showed very low expression pattern. Thus, the human milk fractions (cells, lipid) and skim milk (not being investigated in this study) were found to conserve higher levels of miRNAs than blood in general. Specifically, human milk cell miRNA quantity was found relatively close to PBMCs, and higher than milk lipids. Correlation and clustering analyses indicated that miRNA expression and types of milk cells were highly similar to those in lipids. Milk miRNAs showed a slight correlation to PBMCs, so PBMCs potentially are not contributing to milk miRNAs. Plasma was different to all other three groups in miRNA content and expression pattern. Further, two infant formulae (a plant-based and a cow milk-based) were compared to human milk and found to contain significantly fewer miRNA species than human milk cells and lipids (p>0.001). Taken together with previous studies on miRNAs, our findings demonstrate that human milk is one of the richest sources of miRNAs among human body fluids. As a non-invasive and plentiful source of miRNAs, human milk could be used as a disease biomarker for the mammary gland, with potential in assessing lactation performance. Finally, gene target and pathways analyses identified several target mRNAs regulated by miRNAs found to be abundant in breastmilk. Given the recently identified stability and function of food-derived miRNAs in regulating mammalian genes, we propose that breastmilk is a rich source of miRNA ingested by the infant during the first months of life, and which potentially contribute to early infant development. 10 exclusively breastfeeding dyads were recruited. 10 whole milk and 10 whole blood samples were collected and fractionated to obtain 10 milk cells, 10 milk lipid, 10 mononeucleoted blood cells (PBMCs), and 10 plasma. In addition to the above 40 samples, 2 infant formula were profiled. 4 different extraction kits were used, miRNeasy mini Kit for human milk cell and PBMC samples. miRCURY RNA Isolation-Biofluids Kit for human milk lipid samples and both infant formulae. mirVana PARIS Kit for plasma samples. NanoDrop 2000 and Bioanalyzer 2100 were used to determine concentration and purity of the extracted miRNA from all samples (n=42). miRNA OpenArray panel system (Life Technologies, CA, USA) was used to profile 754 human mature miRNAs in samples. RNU48, RNU44 and U6 rRNA were used as housekeeping controls for normalisation. ath-miR159a was used as a negative control for human samples. GeneGO and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used to determine biological pathways. Please note that normalization of miRNAs was done in R but without generating deltaCT values, thus  only the list of normalized miRNA with Ct vlaue between 8 and 29 and that detected in at least 4 samples out of 10 analysed in each group is provided ('normalized_miRNAs_list.txt')  the sample data tables contain raw data.
Project description:Dysregulated miRNA in human colorectal cancer (CRC) were identified through comparison between 4 CRC tumors and their adjacent normal tissues by miRNA array. Histologically-confirmed CRC were included in this study. CRC tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues were obtained from the resected surgical specimens. The adjacent normal tissue is composed of normal colonic mucosa located at approximately 10 cm away from the cancer tissue. miRNA profiling of 754 human miRNAs was performed using TaqMan Human MiRNA Array Set v3.0. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) was performed using Applied Biosystems 7900HT Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Results were analyzed by the SDS RQ Manager 1.2 software (Applied Biosystems). 4 CRC tissues and 4 adjacent normal tissues were subjucted to qPCR based miRNA expression profiling. Equal amount of total RNA were used for analysis.
Project description:To investigate the regulatory mechanisms governing the malignant signature of different gliomas we analyzed microRNA expression profiles in human tumor samples of world health organization (WHO) grade I (benign tumors), II (low grade tumors) and IV (high grade tumors) and from primary cultures obtained from tumor samples of grade II and IV. Patients This study included tumor samples histologically verified as astrocytic gliomas obtained from patients who had undergone craniotomy for microsurgical tumor removal. According to the revised WHO classification, tumors were diagnosed as: grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas; grade II or diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas; grade IV or glioblastoma multiforme. Primary cell cultures from grade II and grade IV gliomas were also obtained and miRNA expression in these cultures were analyzed RNA extraction Total RNA, including small RNA, was isolated from tissue samples using the mirVanaTM miRNA Isolation Kit (Ambion) following the standard protocol. The quantity and quality of the purified RNA was evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis and electrophoresis on denaturing gel of acrylamide. Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) The miRNAs were first converted to cDNA using Multiplex RT for TaqMan Array Human MicroRNA Panel. The RT Master mix included 100 mM each of dNTPs , 50 U/ml MultiScrabe reverse transcriptase (Applied Biosystems), 20 U/µl RNase inhibitor (Applied Biosystems) and 10X RT Buffer. The 10 µl reactions, including 7 µl of RT master mix, 2 µl of purified microRNA and 1 µl of Multiplex RT Human primer pool (Applied Biosystem), were incubated in ice for 5 min and then in a thermal cycler for 30 min at 16°C, 30 min at 42°C, 5 min at 85°C, and then hold at 4°C. miRNA levels were normalized to the expression of small nucleolar RNAs, RNU44, RNU48 and RNU6B. All reverse transcriptase reactions, including no-template controls and RT controls, were run in duplicate. Real-time PCR was performed using a standard TaqMan PCR kit procedure on an “Real Time Fast 7900 HT” PCR System (Applied Biosystems). The 100 µl PCR included 50 µl RT product (before diluited 1:60) and 50 µl TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix (2X) (Applied Biosystems). The total volume were loaded into Card TaqMan Low Density Array Human MicroRNA Panel (Applied Biosystem) including a total of 384 human microRNAs publicated on databases www.sanger.ac.uk. The reaction cards was runned at 50°C for 2 min and 95°C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 97°C for 30s and 59,7°C for 1 min. All reactions were run in triplicate. Analysis of data was performed using the SDS 2.3 software using the 2-∆∆Ct (relative quantitative) method . The ∆Ct of every miRNA was determined in relation to the endogenous control RNA U6 that was invariably expressed in all samples. The ∆∆Ct value was determined in relation to the calibrator, namely the normal brain tissue. Resulting data were grouped according to the tumor grading e selectioned using a cut-off value of 3. Results were expressed as “fold change” over normal brain tissue. We analyzed two samples of grade I, two samples of grade II, two samples of grade IV gliomas. Four samples form norma brain were used as norma control. Primary cell cultures form grade II and grade IV samples were used for the analysis. All reverse transcriptase reactions, including no-template controls and RT controls, were run in triplicate.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate activity of protein-coding genes including those involved in hematopoietic cancers. The goal of the current study was to explore which miRNAs are unique for seven different subtypes of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Therefore, the expression levels of 397 miRNAs (including novel miRNAs) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR in 81 pediatric leukemia cases and 17 normal hematopoietic control cases. Except for BCR-ABL-positive and B-other ALL, all major subtypes i.e. T-ALL, MLL-rearranged, TEL-AML1-positive, E2A-PBX1-positive and hyperdiploid ALL have unique miRNA-signatures that differ from each other and from those in healthy hematopoietic cells. Strikingly, the miRNA signature between TEL-AML1-positive and hyperdiploid cases partly overlapped, which suggests a common underlying biology. Moreover, aberrant downregulation of let-7b (~70-fold) in MLL-rearranged ALL was linked to upregulation of oncoprotein c-Myc (P<0.0001). Besides genetic aberrations, in vitro drug resistance predicts clinical outcome. Resistance to vincristine and daunorubicin was characterized by ~20-fold upregulation of miR-125b, miR-99a and miR-100 (P≤0.002). No discriminative miRNAs were found for prednisolone and only one miRNA was linked to L-asparaginase resistance. Finally we show that the expression levels of 14 miRNAs were --independently of subtype-- associated with clinical outcome in pediatric ALL. We conclude that genetic subtypes and drug resistant leukemic cells display characteristic miRNA signatures in pediatric ALL. Functional studies of discriminative and prognostic important miRNAs may provide new insights into the biology of disease. Experiment type: stem-loop real-time (RT) quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were collected from children at newly diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). CD34+ -cells were sorted from G-CSF-stimulated blood cell samples of children with a brain tumor or Wilm’s tumor. Thymocytes were isolated from thymic lobes that were resected from children during surgery for congenital heart disease. RNA from the cell samples was extracted using TRIzol reagents (firma). Only RNA with an RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of ≥ 7.5 as measured by the 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent, Amstelveen, the Netherlands) was used as input for the RT-qPCR reactions. All miRNAs were validated with the stem-loop real-time (RT) quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) technique by using either TaqMan MicroRNA Array MicroRNA arrays (v 1.0, Early Access) or Custom TaqMan MicroRNA Array arrays (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA). Values represent ∆Ct in each individual patient for whom the specific subtype, identification number and cellular drug-resistance is shown on top of each column. Drug-resistance was based on median LC50 values (concentration of a drug lethal to 50% of the leukemic cells) that have reported prognostic impact in children with newly diagnosed ALL. Median LC50 values were used to assign patients as sensitive (≤ median LC50) or resistant (> median LC50) to the drug in question. The ∆Ct value was calculated according to the following equation: Ct value of the specific miRNA minus the Ct value of the internal reference. In case of the TaqMan MicroRNA Array MicroRNA arrays the mean Ct values for snoR-13 and snoR-14 were used as reference whereas in case of the Custom TaqMan MicroRNA Array arrays snoR-1 was used. MiRNAs validated by the TaqMan MicroRNA Array MicroRNA arrays are listed together with the part numbers of the corresponding (stem-loop) primers as available by Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA. Primers for the remaining miRNAs were custom designed by Applied Biosystems. Abbreviations: MLL: MLL-rearranged precursor B-ALL, B-other: precursor B-ALL negative for MLL-rearrangements, TEL-AML1, BCR-ABL, E2A-PBX and hyperdiploidy (> 50 chromosomes). CD34+: normal CD34+-sorted blood progenitor cells, nBM: normal bone marrow.
Project description:Eosinophlic esophagitis (EoE) is increasely recognized as an antigen-drived disorder. The goal of this study is to reveal the miRNA expression changes in EoE before and after a successful glucocorticoid steroid treatment. Total RNA was extracted from the esophageal epithelial layers of 5 paired paraffin-embedded biopsies before and after treatment with glucocorticosteroids using RecoverAll Total Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit for FFPE tissues (Ambion, Austin, TX). Five nanograms of total RNA was reverse-transcribed using the Taqman MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit and the Megaplex RT primer Human Pool A (Applied Biosystems). The reverse-transcribed cDNA was then pre-amplified in 12 cycles of PCR using Taqman PreAmp Master Mix and the Megaplex PreAmp primers, Human Pool A (Applied Biosystems). The cDNA’s were then diluted and loaded on to a Taqman Human miRNA Array card A (Platform GPL9731 ; Applied Biosystems), which contains probes for 377 distinct miRNAs. The Array cards were run on an ABI HT7900 qPCR instrument. Ct values were obtained for all miRNAs represented on the cards and fold changes in expression were calculated using the delta delta Ct (ddCt) method.