Expression data from OsEBS-transgenic rice B10201 and B10301 and control Guichao2
ABSTRACT: In rice (Oryza sativa L.), the number of panicles, spikelets per panicle and grain weight are important components of grain yield. These characteristics are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and are derived from variation inherent in crops.The identification of different yield related QTLs facilitates an understanding of the mechanisms involved in cereal crop yield, and may have utility in improving grain yield in cereal crops. an understanding of the mechanisms involved in cereal crop yield, and may have utility in improving grain yield in cereal crops. In the present study, We cloned and characterized a large-panicle QTL, and confirmed that the newly identified gene OsEBS (enhancing biomass and spikelet number) increased plant height, leaf size and spikelet number per panicle, leading to an average of 37.62% increase in total grain yield per plant. trait loci (QTLs) and are derived from variation inherent in crops. OsEBS-transgenic rice B10201 and B10301 and control Guichao2
Project description:As in other cereal crops, the panicles of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) comprise two types of floral spikelets (grass flowers). Only sessile spikelets (SSs) are capable of producing viable grains, whereas pedicellate spikelets (PSs) cease development after initiation and eventually abort. Consequently, grain number per panicle (GNP) is lower than the total number of flowers produced per panicle. The mechanism underlying this differential fertility is not well understood. To investigate this issue, we isolated a series of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced multiseeded (msd) mutants that result in full spikelet fertility, effectively doubling GNP. Previously, we showed that MSD1 is a TCP (Teosinte branched/Cycloidea/PCF) transcription factor that regulates jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, and ultimately floral sex organ development. Here, we show that MSD2 encodes a lipoxygenase (LOX) that catalyzes the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. Further, we demonstrate that MSD1 binds to the promoters of MSD2 and other JA pathway genes. Together, these results show that a JA-induced module regulates sorghum panicle development and spikelet fertility. The findings advance our understanding of inflorescence development and could lead to new strategies for increasing GNP and grain yield in sorghum and other cereal crops.
Project description:We constructed 128 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) 9311 and japonica rice Nipponbare, to investigate the genetic mechanism of heterosis. Three photo-thermo-sensitive-genic male sterile lines (Guangzhan63-4s, 036s, and Lian99s) were selected to cross with each CSSL to produce testcross populations (TCs). Field experiments were carried out in 2009, 2011, and 2015 to evaluate yield and yield-related traits in the CSSLs and TCs. Four traits (plant height, spikelet per panicle, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield per plant) were significantly related between CSSLs and TCs. In the TCs, plant height, panicle length, seed setting rate, thousand-grain weight, and grain yield per plant showed partial dominance, indicating that dominance largely contributes to heterosis of these five traits. While overdominance may be more important for heterosis of panicles per plant and spikelet per panicle. Based on the bin-maps of CSSLs and TCs, we detected 62 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 97 heterotic loci (HLs) using multiple linear regression analyses. Some of these loci were clustered together. The identification of QTLs and HLs for yield and yield-related traits provide useful information for hybrid rice breeding, and help to uncover the genetic basis of rice heterosis.
Project description:In cereal crops, the grain number per panicle and the grain yield are greatly affected by the number of florets in a spikelet. In wild-type rice, a spikelet only produces one fertile floret and beneath the floret are a pair of sterile lemmas and a pair of rudimentary glumes. This study characterized a rice spikelet mutant nonstop glumes 2 (nsg2). In the nsg2 mutant, both the sterile lemmas and rudimentary glumes were elongated, and part of sterile lemma looked like a lemma in appearance, shape and size. Detailed histological analysis and qPCR analysis revealed that the sterile lemmas in the nsg2 mutant had homeotically transformed into lemma-like organs. This phenotype indicates that NSG2 is involved in the regulation of spikelet development and supports the long-held view that sterile lemmas were derived from the lemmas of the two lateral florets. This implies that the rice spikelet has the potential to be restored to the "three florets spikelet", which may have existed in its ancestors. Genetic analysis reveals that the nsg2 trait is controlled by a single recessive gene. The NSG2 gene was finally mapped between markers R-20 and R-39 on chromosome 7 with a physical region of 180?kb. The two MYB family factors LOC_Os07g44030 and LOC_Os07g44090 might be involved in the development of the spikelet and floral organ, and they were considered as candidate genes of NSG2. These results provide a foundation for map-based cloning and function analysis of NSG2, as well as evidence to support "three-florets spikelet" breeding in rice.
Project description:Improving drought resistance in crops is imperative under the prevailing erratic rainfall patterns. Drought affects the growth and yield of most modern rice varieties. Recent breeding efforts aim to incorporate drought resistance traits in rice varieties that can be suitable under alternative irrigation schemes, such as in a (semi)aerobic system, as row (furrow-irrigated) rice. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain yield, the most important trait with high selection efficiency, can lead to the identification of markers to facilitate marker-assisted breeding of drought-resistant rice. Here, we report grain yield QTLs under greenhouse drought using an F2:3 population derived from Cocodrie (drought sensitive) × Nagina 22 (N22) (drought tolerant). Eight QTLs were identified for yield traits under drought. Grain yield QTL under drought on chromosome 1 (phenotypic variance explained (PVE) = 11.15%) co-localized with the only QTL for panicle number (PVE = 37.7%). The drought-tolerant parent N22 contributed the favorable alleles for all QTLs except qGN3.2 and qGN5.1 for grain number per panicle. Stress-responsive transcription factors, such as ethylene response factor, WD40 domain protein, zinc finger protein, and genes involved in lipid/sugar metabolism were linked to the QTLs, suggesting their possible role in drought tolerance mechanism of N22 in the background of Cocodrie, contributing to higher yield under drought.
Project description:Total spikelet number per panicle (TSN) is one of the determinants of grain productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for TSN in the introgression lines with high TSN, derived from the cross of Indica Group variety IR 64 with new plant type lines. Two QTLs were detected on the long arm of chromosome 12: qTSN12.1 in the BC4F2 population of YTH63/IR 64 and qTSN12.2 in the BC4F3 population of YTH83/IR 64. TSN of the main tiller was significantly higher in near-isogenic lines (NILs) for qTSN12.1 (IR 64-NIL1; 188.6) and for qTSN12.2 (IR 64-NIL12; 199.4) than in IR 64 (141.2), owing to a significant increase in both primary and secondary branch numbers. These results suggest the critical function of these QTLs in the promotion of rachis branching at the panicle formation stage. Fine mapping of qTSN12.2 revealed six candidate genes in a 92-kb region of the Nipponbare reference genome sequence between flanking markers RM28746 and RM28753. Detailed phenotyping of agronomic traits of IR 64-NIL12 carrying qTSN12.2 showed drastic changes in plant architecture: this line had lower panicle number, longer culm, and longer and wider leaves compared with IR 64. Percentage of fertility and 1000-grain weight tended to be greater, and grain yield per square meter was also greater in IR 64-NIL12 than in IR 64. The newly identified QTLs will be useful for genetic improvement of the yield potential of Indica Group varieties. The markers tightly linked to qTSN12.2 are available for marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:With an increasing world population and a gradual decline in the amount of arable land, food security remains a global challenge. Continued increases in rice yield will be required to break through the barriers to grain output. In order to transition from hybrid rice to super-hybrid rice, breeding demands cannot be addressed through traditional heterosis. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate high yield loci from other rice genetic groups and to scientifically utilize intersubspecific heterosis in breeding lines. In this study, 781 lines from a segregating F2 population constructed by crossing the indica variety, "Giant Spike Rice" R1128 as trait donor with the japonica cultivar 'Nipponbare', were re-sequenced using high-throughout multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) technology. In combination with high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genetic effect analysis were performed for five yield factors (spikelet number per panicle, primary branches per panicle, secondary branches per panicle, plant height, and panicle length) to explore the genetic mechanisms underlying the formation of the giant panicle of R1128. Also, they were preformed to locate new high-yielding rice genetic intervals, providing data for super-high-yielding rice breeding.QTL mapping and genetic effect analysis for five yield factors in the population gave the following results: 49 QTLs for the five yield factors were distributed on 11 of 12 chromosomes. The super-hybrid line R1128 carries multiple major genes for good traits, including Sd1 for plant height, Hd1 and Ehd1 for heading date, Gn1a for spikelet number and IPA1 for ideal plant shape. These genes accounted for 44.3%, 21.9%, 6.2%, 12.9% and 10.6% of the phenotypic variation in the individual traits. Six novel QTLs, qph1-2, qph9-1, qpl12-1, qgn3-1, qgn11-1and qsbn11-1 are reported here for the first time.High-throughout sequencing technology makes it convenient to study rice genomics and makes the QTL/gene mapping direct, efficient, and more reliable. The genetic regions discovered in this study will be valuable for breeding in rice varieties because of the diverse genetic backgrounds of the rice.
Project description:Grain number per panicle is an important component of grain yield in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) and other cereal crops. Previously, we reported that mutations in multi-seeded 1 (MSD1) and MSD2 genes result in a two-fold increase in grain number per panicle due to the restoration of the fertility of the pedicellate spikelets, which invariably abort in natural sorghum accessions. Here, we report the identification of another gene, MSD3, which is also involved in the regulation of grain numbers in sorghum. Four bulked F2 populations from crosses between BTx623 and each of the independent msd mutants p6, p14, p21, and p24 were sequenced to 20× coverage of the whole genome on a HiSeq 2000 system. Bioinformatic analyses of the sequence data showed that one gene, Sorbi_3001G407600, harbored homozygous mutations in all four populations. This gene encodes a plastidial ?-3 fatty acid desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of linoleic acid (18:2) to linolenic acid (18:3), a substrate for jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis. The msd3 mutants had reduced levels of linolenic acid in both leaves and developing panicles that in turn decreased the levels of JA. Furthermore, the msd3 panicle phenotype was reversed by treatment with methyl-JA (MeJA). Our characterization of MSD1, MSD2, and now MSD3 demonstrates that JA-regulated processes are critical to the msd phenotype. The identification of the MSD3 gene reveals a new target that could be manipulated to increase grain number per panicle in sorghum, and potentially other cereal crops, through the genomic editing of MSD3 functional orthologs.
Project description:Due to severe water resource shortage, genetics of and breeding for DT (drought tolerance) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) have become one of the hot research topics. Identification of grain yield QTLs (quantitative trait loci) directly related to the DT trait of rice can provide useful information for breeding new drought-resistant and water-saving rice varieties via marker-assisted selection. A population of 105 advanced BILs (backcross introgression lines) derived from a cross between Zhenshan97B and IRAT109 in Zhenshan97B background were grown under drought stress in a field experiment and phenotypic traits were investigated. The results showed that in the target interval of RM273-RM255 on chromosome 4, three main-effect QTLs related to panicle length, panicle number, and spikelet number per panicle were identified (LOD [logarithm of the odds] > 2.0). The panicle length-related QTL had two loci located in the neighboring intervals of RM17308-RM17305 and RM17349-RM17190, which explained 18.80% and 20.42%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation, while the panicle number-related QTL was identified in the interval of RM1354-RM17308, explaining 11.47% of the phenotypic variation. As far as the spikelet number per panicle-related QTL was concerned, it was found to be located in the interval of RM17308-RM17305, which explained 28.08% of the phenotypic variation. Using the online Plant-GE query system, a total of 13 matched ESTs (expressed sequence tags) were found in the target region, and of the 13 ESTs, 12 had corresponding predicted genes. For instance, the two ESTs CB096766 and CA765747 were corresponded to the same predicted gene LOC_Os04g46370, while the other four ESTs, CA754286, CB000011, CX056247, and CX056240, were corresponded to the same predicted gene LOC_Os04g46390.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The improvement of rice yield is a crucial global issue, but evaluating yield requires substantial efforts. Rice yield comprises the following indices: panicle number (PN), grain number per panicle (GN), 1000-grain weight, and percentage of ripened grain. To simplify measurements, we analyzed one panicle weight (OPW) as a simplified yield index that integrates GN, grain weight, and percentage of ripened grain, and verified its suitability as a proxy for GN and grain weight in particular. RESULTS:Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using 190 recombinant inbred lines derived from Koshihikari (large panicle and small grain) and Yamadanishiki (small panicle and large grain), japonica cultivars detected three QTLs on chromosomes 5 (qOPW5), 7 (qOPW7) and 11 (qOPW11). Of these, qOPW5 and qOPW11 were detected over two years. qOPW5 and qOPW7 increased OPW, and qOPW11 decreased it at Yamadanishiki alleles. A chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) with a genomic segment from Yamadanishiki substituted in the Koshihikari genetic background harboring qOPW5 increased grain weight. qOPW11 had the largest genetic effect of QTLs, which was validated using a CSSL. Substitution mapping using four CSSLs revealed that qOPW11 was located in the range of 1.46 Mb on chromosome 11. The CSSL harboring qOPW11 decreased primary and secondary branch numbers, culm length, and panicle length, and increased PN. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, three QTLs associated with OPW were detected. The CSSL with the novel and largest QTL, qOPW11, differed in some traits associated with both panicle and plant architecture, indicating different functions for the meristem in the vegetative versus the reproductive stages. qOPW5 coincided with an identified QTL for grain width and grain weight, suggesting that qOPW5 was affected by rice grain size. OPW can be considered a useful trait for efficient detection of QTLs associated with rice yield.
Project description:CONTEXT:Yield improvement is an important issue for rice breeding. Panicle architecture is one of the key components of rice yield and exhibits a large diversity. To identify the morphological and genetic determinants of panicle architecture, we performed a detailed phenotypic analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using an original panel of Vietnamese landraces. RESULTS:Using a newly developed image analysis tool, morphological traits of the panicles were scored over two years: rachis length; primary, secondary and tertiary branch number; average length of primary and secondary branches; average length of internode on rachis and primary branch. We observed a high contribution of spikelet number and secondary branch number per panicle to the overall phenotypic diversity in the dataset. Twenty-nine stable QTLs associated with seven traits were detected through GWAS over the two years. Some of these QTLs were associated with genes already implicated in panicle development. Importantly, the present study revealed the existence of new QTLs associated with the spikelet number, secondary branch number and primary branch number traits. CONCLUSIONS:Our phenotypic analysis of panicle architecture variation suggests that with the panel of samples used, morphological diversity depends largely on the balance between indeterminate vs. determinate axillary meristem fate on primary branches, supporting the notion of differences in axillary meristem fate between rachis and primary branches. Our genome-wide association study led to the identification of numerous genomic sites covering all the traits studied and will be of interest for breeding programs aimed at improving yield. The new QTLs detected in this study provide a basis for the identification of new genes controlling panicle development and yield in rice.