Characterization of MicroRNA Expression Profiles and the Discovery of Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Cancer during Human Embryonic Development
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), approximately 22-nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules, regulate a variety of pivotal physiological or pathological processes, including embryonic development and tumorigenesis. To obtain comprehensive expression profiles of miRNAs in human embryos, we characterized miRNA expression in weeks 4-6 of human embryonic development using miRNA microarrays and identified 50 human-embryo-specific miRNAs (HES-miRNAs). Furthermore, we selected three non-conserved or primate-specific miRNAs, hsa-miR-638, -720, and -1280, and examined their expression levels in various normal and tumor tissues. The results show that expression of most miRNAs is extremely low during early human embryonic development. In addition, the expression of some non-conserved or primate-specific miRNAs is significantly different between tumor and the corresponding normal tissue samples, suggesting that the miRNAs are closely related to the pathological processes of various tumors. This study presents the first comprehensive overview of miRNA expression during human embryonic development and offers immediate evidence of the relationship between human early embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Total 10 samples were used microRNAs microarrays hybridization, then the original data from 8 of 10 samples was used final data analysis. The samples ZN18, ZN46/47 and ZN75 were designated as Week 4 of human embryonic development; the samples ZN38, ZN43 and ZN63-1 were designated as Week 5 of human embryonic development; the samples ZN61 and ZN70 were designated as Week 6 of human embryonic development.
Project description:by use of the model of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurogenesis, miRNAs involved in the differentiation from neural stem cells (hNSC) to neurons were profiled and identified. HNSC were differentiated into the neural lineage, out of which the neuronal subset was enriched through cell sorting based on select combinatorial biomarkers: CD15-/CD29Low/CD24High. This relatively pure and viable subpopulation expressed the neuronal marker alpha III-tubulin. The miRNA array demonstrated that a number of miRNAs were simultaneously induced or suppressed in neurons, as compared to hNSC. Real-time PCR further validated the decrease in levels of miR214, but increase in brain-specific miR7 and miR9 in the derived neurons. This experiment includes a total of 6 samples which are divided in to 2 groups, each with 3 biological repeats: 3 untreated normal samples as controls and 3 differentiated samples as the treated condition
Project description:We determined pattern of miRNAs of mild-to-severe human pulmonary arterial hypertension and compared the with health controls using microarray and subsequently validated by QPCRs Manuscript Title: Circulating miRNAs as novel marker for pulmonary hypertension. (Under Revision Plos One Manuscript ID: PONE-D-12-38535) Performed microRNA microarray from one healthy and one severe PH patient and compared the results using additional samples by qPCR for other miRNAs
Project description:Differential expression of microRNAs was studied in maize leaves after an 8-h-exposure under UV-B light. As a control, plants were kept in the greenhouse in the absence of UV-B 4-week maize plants were grown in the greenhouse in the absence of UV-B. Then, they were divided in two groups. One group was treated with UV-B lights provided once for 8 h, starting 3 h after the beginning of the light period, using fixtures mounted 30 cm above the plants (Phillips, F40UVB 40 W and TL 20 W/12) at a UV-B intensity of 2 W m-2, UV-A: 0.65 W m-2. The bulbs were covered with cellulose acetate to exclude wavelengths <280 nm. For the second control group, plants were exposed for 8 h under the same lamps covered with polyester film (no UV-B treatment, UV-B: 0.04 W m-2, UV-A: 0.4 W m-2). Lamp output was recorded using a UV-B/UV-A radiometer (UV203 A+B radiometer, Macam Photometrics, Ltd, Livingston, UK) to insure that both the bulbs and filters provided the designated UV dosage in all treatments. Leaf samples were collected immediately after irradiation. RNA was extracted immediately after the treatments, and used for the microRNA microarray experiments.
Project description:Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates cell survival and proliferation by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(PKB/Akt) signaling. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of PTEN, reduced expression of PTEN and overexpression of phosphorylated Akt are frequently found in human gastric cancer, and their changes correlate with tumor progression and prognosis. Previous studies have shown that the deregulated miRNAs in human gastric cancer play important roles in gastric cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, miRNAs downstream PTEN/Akt signaling is poorly investigated. To clarify whether PTEN is involved in gastric tumorigenesis, we have generated a gastric epithelium specific PTEN knockout mouse which exhibited gastric tumor formation with enhanced cell proliferation.So the objectives of the microarray experiment were to, a) screen miRNAs which might be regulated by PTEN/Akt signaling by comparing the miRNA expression profiles between PTEN deficient and control gastric epithelia. 2) explore the microRNA mechanism involved in gastric cell proliferation and gastric tumorigenesis. miRNA profiling of mouse gastric epithelium,comparing Pten mutant mouse with controls. 4 samples. Experiments in 2 different time point, 20 days and 60 days after birth, 2 Biological replicates. Mutant tissue vs. controls from mixture of 3-4 mouse.
Project description:In this study, we examined if the composition of plasma miRNAs is altered in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and if these changes can be used as diagnostic markers. A microarray containing 875 human miRNAs was used to compare the miRNA profile of plasma collected from severe TBI patients (GCS ≤ 8) to that of age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy volunteers. This screen identified 108 miRNAs in the plasma of healthy volunteers. Of these, 52 were found to be altered in plasma samples from persons with severe TBI, and an additional 8 miRNAs were detected only in the plasma of TBI patients. Plasma samples from 10 patients from either severe TBI (experimental group) or healthy volunteers (reference group; age-, gender-, and race-matched ) were pooled, the total RNA extracted in parallel, eluted in 100ul, and dried to 30 ul. Equal volumes of extracted plasma RNAs were assayed for global miRNA content using a service provider (LC Sciences, Houston, TX). There were no replicates performed for this screen. Healthy volunteer group served as the reference.
Project description:The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of muscles that are anatomically and physiologically distinct from other skeletal muscles. Previously, we and others have shown that EOMs have a unique transcriptome and proteome. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EOM, as they may play a role in generating the unique EOM allotype. We screened LC Sciences miRNA microarrays covering the sequences of miRBase 10.0 to define the microRNAome of normal mouse EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscle. 74 miRNAs were found to be differentially regulated (p-value < 0.05) and 31 miRNAs (14 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated) were found to be differentially regulated at a signal strength > 500 including the muscle-specific miR-206, miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-499. qPCR analysis was used to validate the differential expression. Bioinformatic tools were used to identify potential miRNA-mRNA-protein interactions and integrate data with previous transcriptome and proteomic profiling data. Luciferase assays using co-transfection of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) along with reporter constructs containing the 3’-untranslated region (3’UTR) of their predicted target genes were used to validate targeting by identified miRNAs. The definition of the EOM microRNAome complements existing transcriptome and proteome data about the molecular make-up of EOM and provides further insight into regulation of muscle genes. These data will also help to further explain the unique EOM muscle allotype and its differential sensitivity to diseases such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) and may assist in development of therapeutic strategies. Total RNA from four EOM and four TA tissue samples dissected from four adult male C57/Bl10 mice were used (TA served as control) to screen four LC Sciences microRNA Microarray chips. The chips contained microRNA sequences based on miRBase content 10.0 totalling 568 different miRNAs. Samples were labelled with Cy3 and Cy5 using dye-swap. Relative differences of miRNA expression was expressed as fold-changes EOM/TA, which were calculated after normalization across all four arrays.
Project description:To assess changes in the miRNA-ome during the early stages of endothelial differentiation, the expression of mature human miRNAs at days 2, 4 and 10 of endothelial differentiation (vs pluripotent time-matched samples) in SA461 hESC cell line was analysed in a two-channel microarray. Expression of the pluripotency-associated miRNAs miR-302a – d and miR-372 and miR-373 was significantly suppressed with progression of differentiation. The expression of miR-99b, miR-181a and miR-181b was, in contrast, increased in a time- and differentiation-dependent manner compared to time-matched pluripotent samples. The expression profiles were validated and good concordance was observed between microarray, Q-PCR and Northern blot analysis. This experiment includes a total of 28 samples which are divided in to 3 groups, each with 4 biological repeats: group 1, Parental pluripotent hESC control sample. group 2, time-matched pluripotent hESC control samples. Group 3, hESC cells directed toward endothelial differentiation at time points 2 days, 4 days and 10 days.
Project description:Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the small RNA library from the cold treatment of tea leaves. Subsequently, aligning these sequencing date with plant known miRNAs, we characterized 112 C. sinensis conserved miRNAs. In addition, 215 potential candidate miRNAs were found; among them, 131 candidates with star sequence were chosen as novel miRNAs. There are both congruously and differently regulated miRNAs, and line-specific miRNAs were identified by microarray-based hybridization in response to cold stress. The miRNA chip included 3228 miRNA probes corresponding to miRNA transcripts listed in Sanger miRBase release 19.0 and 283 novel miRNAs probes founding in tea plant. In the study presented here, two tea plant cultivars, ‘Yingshuang’ (YS, a cold-tolerant tea plant cultivar) and ‘Baiye 1’ (BY, a cold-sensitive tea plant cultivar), were kept at 4°C for 4,12, 24 h, respectively, and 28°C for as control. These samples were used to acquire expression profiles of a total of 3,511 unique genes, leading to the successful construction of supervised
Project description:Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.), is susceptible to infection by the biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot. To understand the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the post-transcriptional regulation of disease initiation and progression, we have characterized the changes in miRNA expression profiles in canola roots during clubroot disease development and have compared these to uninfected roots. Two different stages of clubroot development were targeted in this miRNA profiling study: an early time of 10-dpi for disease initiation and a later 20-dpi, by which time the pathogen had colonized the roots (as evident by visible gall formation and histological observations). P. brassicae responsive miRNAs were identified and validated by qRT-PCR of miRNAs and the subsequent validation of the target mRNAs through starBase degradome analysis, and through 5’ RLM-RACE. This study identifies putative miRNA-regulated genes with roles during clubroot disease initiation and development. Putative target genes identified in this study included: transcription factors (TFs), hormone-related genes, as well as genes associated with plant stress response regulation such as cytokinin, auxin/ethylene response elements. The results of our study may assist in elucidating the role of miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes during disease development and may contribute to the development of strategies to engineer durable resistance to this important phytopathogen. In this miRNA-microarray experiment a total of 4 samples were analyzed with their 3 biological replicates. In which 2 samples C 10 DAY and C 20 DAY was used as referrence contols.
Project description:In this study, the viral miRNAs from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were characterized in shrimp in vivo. On the basis of our previous study and small RNA sequencing in this study, a total of 89 putative WSSV miRNAs were identified. As revealed by miRNA microarray analysis, the expressions of viral miRNAs were tissue-specific in vivo. In this study, the viral miRNAs from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were characterized in shrimp in vivo. On the basis of our previous study and small RNA sequencing in this study, a total of 89 putative WSSV miRNAs were identified. As revealed by miRNA microarray analysis and Northern blots, the expressions of viral miRNAs were tissue-specific in vivo. Therefore, our study presented the first report on the in vivo molecular events of viral miRNA in the antiviral apoptosis.