Hippocampal gene expression profiling of a model of Alzheimer`s Disease upon treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril
ABSTRACT: Extracellular senile plaques of amyloid beta (Abeta) are a pathological hallmark in brain of patients with Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). Abeta is generated by the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Concomitant to Abeta load, AD brain is characterized by an increase in protein level and activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are a widely used class of drugs with established benefits for patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the role of ACE and ACE inhibition in the development of Abeta plaques and the process of AD-related neurodegeneration is not clear since ACE was reported to degrade Abeta. To investigate the effect of ACE inhibition on AD-related pathomechanisms, we used Tg2576 mice with neuron-specific expression of APPSwe as AD model. From 12 months of age, substantial Abeta plaque load accumulates in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice as a brain region, which is highly vulnerable to AD-related neurodegeneration. The effect of central ACE inhibition was studied by treatment of 12 month-old Tg2576 mice for six months with the brain penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril. At an age of 18 months, hippocampal gene expression profiling was performed of captopril-treated Tg2576 mice relative to untreated 18 month-old Tg2576 controls with high Abeta plaque load. As an additional control, we used 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load. Whole genome microarray gene expression profiling revealed gene expression changes induced by the brain-penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril, which could reflect the neuro-regenerative potential of central ACE inhibition. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of hippocampi isolated from aged, 18 month-old Tg2576 (APPSwe-transgenic) AD mice with high Abeta plaque load relative to age-matched Tg2576 mice, which were treated for 6 months with the centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril. Another study group consisted of 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load. In total, three study groups were analyzed, i.e. (i) 18 month-old untreated Tg2576 mice with high Abeta plaque load, (ii) age-matched Tg2576 mice treated for 6 months with the brain-penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril (20 mg/kg body weight/day in drinking water), and (iii) untreated 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load reflecting the time point when captopril treatment was initiated. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total hippocampal RNA of four mice was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant pathological feature in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental evidence indicates that inhibition of brain ROS could be beneficial in slowing the neurodegenerative process triggered by amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregates. The angiotensin II AT1 receptor is a significant source of brain ROS, and AD patients have an increased brain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level, which could account for an excessive angiotensin-dependent AT1-induced ROS generation. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of ACE inhibition on signs of neurodegeneration of aged Tg2576 mice as a transgenic animal model of AD. Whole genome microarray gene expression profiling and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril normalized the excessive hippocampal ACE activity of AD mice. Concomitantly, the development of signs of neurodegeneration was retarded by six months of captopril treatment. The neuroprotective profile triggered by captopril was accompanied by reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and decreased hippocampal ROS, which is known to enhance Abeta generation by increased activation of beta- and gamma-secretases. Taken together, our data present strong evidence that ACE inhibition with a widely used cardiovascular drug could interfere with Abeta-dependent neurodegeneration.
Project description:beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1), the rate-limiting enzyme for beta-amyloid (Abeta) production, is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that energy deprivation induces phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha (eIF2alpha-P), which increases the translation of BACE1. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2alpha-P phosphatase PP1c, directly increases BACE1 and elevates Abeta production in primary neurons. Preventing eIF2alpha phosphorylation by transfection with constitutively active PP1c regulatory subunit, dominant-negative eIF2alpha kinase PERK, or PERK inhibitor P58(IPK) blocks the energy-deprivation-induced BACE1 increase. Furthermore, chronic treatment of aged Tg2576 mice with energy inhibitors increases levels of eIF2alpha-P, BACE1, Abeta, and amyloid plaques. Importantly, eIF2alpha-P and BACE1 are elevated in aggressive plaque-forming 5XFAD transgenic mice, and BACE1, eIF2alpha-P, and amyloid load are correlated in humans with AD. These results strongly suggest that eIF2alpha phosphorylation increases BACE1 levels and causes Abeta overproduction, which could be an early, initiating molecular mechanism in sporadic AD.
Project description:Inflammation, insoluble protein deposition and neuronal cell loss are important features in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. To investigate the regulatory genes responsible for the neuropathology in AD, we performed microarray analysis with APP(V717I)-CT100 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD, and isolated the S100a9 gene, which encodes an inflammation-associated calcium binding protein. In another AD animal model, Tg2576 mouse brain, and in human AD brain, induction of S100a9 was confirmed. The endogenous expression of S100a9 was induced by treatment with Abeta or CT peptides in a microglia cell line, BV2 cells. In these cells, silencing study of S100a9 showed that the induction of S100a9 increased the intracellular calcium level and up-regulated the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNFalpha) and iNOS. S100a9 lentiviral short hairpin RNA (sh-S100a9) was injected into the hippocampus region of the brains of 13-month-old Tg2576 mice. At two months after injection, we found that knockdown of S100a9 expression had improved the cognition decline of Tg2576 mice in the water maze task, and had reduced amyloid plaque burden. These results suggest that S100a9 induced by Abeta or CT contributes to cause inflammation, which then affects the neuropathology including amyloid plaques burden and impairs cognitive function. Thus, the inhibition of S100a9 is a possible target for AD therapy.
Project description:Microarray gene expression profiling of aorta genes of APOE-deficient mice receiving atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Hypercholesterolemic APOE-deficient mice were used as a standard model of atherosclerosis to study gene expression changes during atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Microarray analysis was performed of whole aortas isolated from captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice relative to untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, and nontransgenic control mice. Microarray gene expression profiling revealed that captopril-mediated atherosclerosis prevention involved inhibition of aorta-infiltrating immune cells such as pro-atherogenic T lymphocytes and macrophages. Experiment Overall Design: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of whole aortas isolated from APOE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis relative to captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice, and nontransgenic control mice. Three study groups were analyzed, i.e. 8-months-old untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, age-matched APOE-deficient mice treated for 7 months with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril (20 mg/kg in drinking water), and nontransgenic control C57BL/6J mice. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total RNA of three aortas was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:Imaging agents targeting beta-amyloid (Abeta) may be useful for diagnosis and treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compounds 3e and 4e are fluorinated stilbene derivatives displaying high binding affinities for Abeta plaques in AD brain homogenates (Ki = 15 +/- 6 and 5.0 +/- 1.2 nM, respectively). In vivo biodistributions of [18F]3e and [18F]4e in normal mice exhibited excellent brain penetrations (5.55 and 9.75% dose/g at 2 min), and rapid brain washouts were observed, especially for [18F]4e (0.72% dose/g at 60 min). They also showed in vivo plaque labeling in APP/PS1 or Tg2576 transgenic mice, animal models for AD. Autoradiography of postmortem AD brain sections and AD homogenate binding studies confirmed the selective and specific binding properties to Abeta plaques. In conclusion, the preliminary results strongly suggest that these fluorinated stilbene derivatives, [18F]3e and [18F]4e, are suitable candidates as Abeta plaque imaging agents for studying patients with AD.
Project description:The brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are characterized by deposits of Abeta peptides and by accompanying chronic inflammation. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme isoglutaminyl cyclase (isoQC) is a novel factor contributing to both aspects of AD pathology. Two putative substrates of isoQC, N-truncated Abeta peptides and the monocyte chemoattractant chemokine CCL2, undergo isoQC-catalyzed pyroglutamate (pGlu) modification. This triggers Abeta aggregation and facilitates the biological activity of CCL2, which collectively results in the formation of high molecular weight Abeta aggregates, glial cell activation, neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. In mouse brain, we found isoQC to be neuron-specifically expressed in neocortical, hippocampal and subcortical structures, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus as well as co-expressed with its substrate CCL2. In aged APP transgenic Tg2576 mice, both isoQC and CCL2 mRNA levels are up-regulated and isoQC and CCL2 proteins were found to be co-induced in Abeta plaque-associated reactive astrocytes. Also, in mouse primary astrocyte culture, a simultaneous up-regulation of isoQC and CCL2 expression was revealed upon Abeta and pGlu-Abeta stimulation. In brains of AD patients, the expression of isoQC and CCL2 mRNA and protein is up-regulated compared to controls and correlates with pGlu-Abeta load and with the decline in mini-mental state examination. Our observations provide evidence for a dual involvement of isoQC in AD pathogenesis by catalysis of pGlu-Abeta and pGlu-CCL2 formation which mutually stimulate inflammatory events and affect cognition. We conclude that isoQC inhibition may target both major pathological events in the development of AD.
Project description:Evolution of glomerulonephritis (GN) to tubulointerstitial disease is a universal antecedent to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is also evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may attenuate the development of CKD in some forms of glomerulonephritis. We tested the role of ACE inhibition in a model of GN in which complement-dependent tubulointerstitial disease develops. GN was induced in C57BL/6 mice with intraperitoneal injections of horse spleen apoferritin (HSA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of six animals were studied: saline-injected control mice treated with captopril or water, and GN mice treated with captopril or water. GN developed in all HSA-treated animals. In those receiving captopril, however, proteinuria (albumin/creatinine ratio) was significantly reduced by captopril treatment. Array screening was used to examined the expression of collagen-related genes and determine if these effects could be mediated by regulation of collagen genes. Six genes were identified for further analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. This model demonstrates that tubulointerstitial disease can be attenuated by ACE inhibition, with clinical, histologic, and gene expression measures. All protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at SUNY Upstate Medical University. We employed four groups of six mice each: saline-injected control mice with and without captopril, and GN with and without captopril. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Glomerulonephritis (GN) was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10 mg of apoferritin from horse spleen (HSA, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) five days per week, with i.p. injection of 100 micrograms lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from Salmonella minnesota; EMD Biosciences, La Jolla, CA), as adjuvant, three times per week. Control animals received equal volumes of 0.15 M NaCl by i.p. injection. Injections were begun when the mice were approximately eight weeks of age and were continued for six weeks. Captopril, at 100 mg/kg/day was given in the drinking water. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized and kidneys were removed for RNA purification and analysis.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a terminal age-associated dementia characterized by early synaptic dysfunction and late neurodegeneration. Although the presence of plaques of fibrillar aggregates of the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) is a signature of AD, evidence suggests that the preplaque small oligomeric Abeta promotes both synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. We found that young Tg2576 transgenic mice, which accumulate Abeta and develop cognitive impairments prior to plaque deposition, have high central nervous system (CNS) activity of calcineurin (CaN), a phosphatase involved in negative regulation of memory function via inactivation of the transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding proteins (CREB), and display CaN-dependent memory deficits. These results thus suggested the involvement of prefibrillary forms of Abeta. To investigate this issue, we compared the effect of monomeric, oligomeric, and fibrillar Abeta on CaN activity, CaN-dependent pCREB and phosphorylated Bcl-2 Associated death Protein (pBAD) levels, and cell death in SY5Y cells and in rat brain slices, and determined the role of CaN on CREB phosphorylation in the CNS of Tg2576 mice. Our results show that oligomeric Abeta specifically induces CaN activity and promotes CaN-dependent CREB and Bcl-2 Asociated death Protein (BAD) dephosphorylation and cell death. Furthermore, Tg2576 mice display Abeta oligomers and reduced pCREB in the CNS, which is normalized by CaN inhibition. These findings suggest a role for CaN in mediating effects of oligomeric Abeta on neural cells. Because elevated CaN levels have been reported in the CNS of cognitively impaired aged rodents, our results further suggest that abnormal CaN hyperactivity may be a common event exacerbating the cognitive and neurodegenerative impact of oligomeric Abeta in the aging CNS.
Project description:Proinflammatory stimuli, after amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition, have been hypothesized to create a self-reinforcing positive feedback loop that increases amyloidogenic processing of the Abeta precursor protein (APP), promoting further Abeta accumulation and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to be increased in AD patients implying a pathological interaction. To assess the effects of IL-6 on Abeta deposition and APP processing in vivo, we overexpressed murine IL-6 (mIL-6) in the brains of APP transgenic TgCRND8 and TG2576 mice. mIL-6 expression resulted in extensive gliosis and concurrently attenuated Abeta deposition in TgCRND8 mouse brains. This was accompanied by up-regulation of glial phagocytic markers in vivo and resulted in enhanced microglia-mediated phagocytosis of Abeta aggregates in vitro. Further, mIL-6-induced neuroinflammation had no effect on APP processing in TgCRND8 and had no effect on APP processing or steady-state levels of Abeta in young Tg2576 mice. These results indicate that mIL-6-mediated reactive gliosis may be beneficial early in the disease process by potentially enhancing Abeta plaque clearance rather than mediating a neurotoxic feedback loop that exacerbates amyloid pathology. This is the first study that methodically dissects the contribution of mIL-6 with regard to its potential role in modulating Abeta deposition in vivo.
Project description:The linkages between neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis are well established. What is not, however, is how specific immune pathways and proteins affect the disease. To this end, we previously demonstrated that transgenic over-expression of CCL2 enhanced microgliosis and induced diffuse amyloid plaque deposition in Tg2576 mice. This rodent model of AD expresses a Swedish beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein mutant.We now report that CCL2 transgene expression accelerates deficits in spatial and working memory and hippocampal synaptic transmission in beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice as early as 2-3 months of age. This is followed by increased numbers of microglia that are seen surrounding Abeta oligomers. CCL2 does not suppress Abeta degradation. Rather, CCL2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha directly facilitated Abeta uptake, intracellular Abeta oligomerization, and protein secretion.We posit that CCL2 facilitates Abeta oligomer formation in microglia and propose that such events accelerate memory dysfunction by affecting Abeta seeding in the brain.