Effects of anti-IL13RA mAbs on IL-4 or IL-13 signalling
ABSTRACT: IL-4 and IL-13 are cytokines involved in type 2 immune responses involved in atopic asthma and other diseases. They have a partially overlapping set of cognate receptors whose roles are incompletely understood. Here we explore the effects of blocking one or both subunits of the IL-13 alpha receptor on the action of these cytokines on IMR-90 lung fibroblast cells. IMR-90 lung fibroblast cells were cultured on matrigel and treated with various combinations of IL-4 (10 ng/ml), IL-13 (10ng/ml), 228 B/C (which blocks signaling from IL13RA1), and 11H4 (which blocks signaling from IL13RA1 and IL13RA2).
Project description:IL-4 and IL-13 are cytokines involved in type 2 immune responses involved in atopic asthma and other diseases. They have a partially overlapping set of cognate receptors whose roles are incompletely understood. Here we explore the effects of these cytokines on lung fibroblasts in order to assess the global similarities and contrasts in the genes whose expression their ligation modulates. IMR-90 lung fibroblast cells were cultured on matrigel or plastic and treated for 24 hours with IL-4 (10 ng/ml), IL-13 (10ng/ml), or TNFa (10 ng/ml) before harvest.
Project description:IL-4 and IL-13 are cytokines involved in type 2 immune responses involved in atopic asthma and other diseases. They have a partially overlapping set of cognate receptors whose roles are incompletely understood. Here we explore the effects of these cytokines on various cells related to human lung disease in order to assess the global similarities and contrasts in the genes whose expression their ligation modulates. Monocytes, monocyte-differentiated (6 days, then 24h rest) macrophages, or normal primary lung fibroblasts were cultured on matrigel and treated for 6 or 24 hours with IL-4 (10 ng/ml), IL-13 (10ng/ml), IL-10 (20 ng/ml), TGFb (10 ng/ml), or dexamethasone (0.5 uM) before harvest.
Project description:IL-4 and IL-13 are cytokines involved in type 2 immune responses involved in atopic asthma and other diseases. They have a partially overlapping set of cognate receptors whose roles are incompletely understood. Here we explore the effects of blocking one or both subunits of the IL-13 alpha receptor on the action of these cytokines on IMR-90 lung fibroblast cells. Overall design: IMR-90 lung fibroblast cells were cultured on matrigel and treated with various combinations of IL-4 (10 ng/ml), IL-13 (10ng/ml), 228 B/C (which blocks signaling from IL13RA1), and 11H4 (which blocks signaling from IL13RA1 and IL13RA2).
Project description:In this study, we sought to determine how IL-17 and TNF influence normal human melanocytes, either alone, or with both cytokines together. We reveal a dichotomous effect of IL-17 and TNF, which not only elicit essential mitogenic cytokines but also suppress melanogenesis by down-regulating genes of melanogenesis pathway Comparison of one batch of primary human melanocyte line cultured in serum free media, treated with TNF and/or IL-17, for either 24 or 48 hours.
Project description:Recently we reported that IL-4 and IL-13 signaling in murine early thymic progenitors (ETPs) expressing the heteroreceptor (HR) comprising IL-4 receptor ? (IL-4R?) and IL-13 receptor ? 1 (IL-13R?1) activate STAT6 and inhibit ETP maturation potential toward T cells. In this study, we asked whether IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through the HR mobilizes other STAT molecules to shape ETP fate decision. The findings indicate that HR+ ETPs undergoing cytokine signaling display increased STAT1, but not STAT3, phosphorylation in addition to STAT6 activation. In parallel, the ETPs had a STAT1-dependent heightened expression of IRF-8, a transcription factor essential for development of CD8?+ dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, STAT1 phosphorylation and IRF-8 upregulation, which are independent of STAT6 activation, guided ETP maturation toward myeloid cells with a CD8?+ DC phenotype. Furthermore, these CD8?+ DCs display a thymic resident phenotype, as they did not express SIRP?, a molecule presumed to be involved in cell migration. These findings suggest that IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine-induced HR signaling provides a double-edged sword that simultaneously blocks T cell lineage potential but advances myeloid maturation that could impact T cell selection and central tolerance.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:A unique anti-interleukin (IL)-13 monoclonal antibody, RPC4046, was generated on the basis of differential IL-13 receptor (R) blockade as assessed in a murine asthma model; the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of RPC4046 were evaluated in a first-in-human study. METHODS:Anti-IL-13 antibodies with varying receptor blocking specificity were evaluated in the ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation first-in-human study (NCT00986037) was conducted with RPC4046 in healthy adults and patients with mild to moderate controlled asthma. RESULTS:In the ovalbumin model, blocking IL-13 binding to both IL-13Rs (IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2) inhibited more asthma phenotypic features and more fully normalized the distinct IL-13 gene transcription associated with asthma compared with blocking IL-13Rα1 alone. In humans, RPC4046 exposure increased dose-dependently; pharmacokinetics were similar in healthy and asthmatic subjects, and blockade of both IL-13Rs uniquely affected IL-13 gene transcription. A minority of participants (28%) had antidrug antibodies, which were transient and appeared not to affect pharmacokinetics. Adverse event profiles were similar in healthy and asthmatic subjects, without dose-related or administration route differences, systemic infusion-related reactions, or asthma symptom worsening. Adverse events were mild to moderate, with none reported as probably related to RPC4046 or leading to discontinuations. Non-serious upper respiratory tract infections were more frequent with RPC4046 versus placebo. CONCLUSION:RPC4046 is a novel anti-IL-13 antibody that blocks IL-13 binding to both receptors and more fully blocks the asthma phenotype. These results support further investigation of RPC4046 for IL-13-related allergic/inflammatory diseases (e.g., asthma and eosinophilic esophagitis). FUNDING:AbbVie Inc. sponsored the studies and contributed to the design and conduct of the studies, data management, data analysis, interpretation of the data, and in the preparation and approval of the manuscript.
Project description:ILC2 cells are a newly described cell type whose biology and contribution to disease are poorly understood. ILC2 cells are activated by allergens, viral infection, and/or epithelial damage via IL-33 and IL-25. ILC2 cells require IL-2, IL-7, IL-25 and IL-33 for their survival and expansion. In mice, ILC2s produce multiple mediators primarily associated with type 2 inflammation (IL-13, IL-5, IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, GM-CSF, amphiregulin). ILC2 cells may contribute to the pathology of asthma through multiple mediators that include IL-13-independent pathways. Our goal is to compare transcriptional profiles of IL-33- or IL-25-activated ILC2 cells from blood to characterize these cells and to identify marker(s) that can be utilized to detect them in human tissue. ILC2 cells (Lineage negative, CRTH2+, CD161+, CD127+) were purified from human blood of 5 different donors by flow cytometry. The ILC2 yield ranged from 20,000 to 165,000 cells per donor (0.001-0.008% WBC). Purified ILC2s were expanded in vitro in the presence of IL-2, IL-7, IL-33 and IL-25 (each at 50 ng/ml) for 7-10 days. Expanded cells maintained the ILC2 phenotype (Lineage negative, CRTH2+, CD161+, CD127+). The cells were rested for 2 days in the presence of 1 ng/ml IL-2 and IL-7 and then treated in the presence of 1 ng/ml IL-2 and IL-7 with either media control, IL-25 (50 ng/ml), IL-33 (50 ng/ml), and/or TSLP (50 ng/ml) in combination, for 6 or 24 hours. Whole RNA was isolated via the RNeasy kit (Qiagen). Stratagene Universal Human Reference RNA was used as the reference.
Project description:Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is essential in host defense against extracellular bacteria and fungi, especially at mucosal sites, but it also contributes significantly to inflammatory and autoimmune disease pathologies. Binding of IL-17 to its receptor leads to recruitment of the adaptor protein CIKS/Act1 via heterotypic association of their respective SEFIR domains and to activation of the transcription factor NF-kB; it is not known whether CIKS and/or NF-kB are required for all gene induction events. Here we report that CIKS is essential for all IL-17 induced immediate-early genes in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts, while NF-kB is profoundly involved. We also identify a novel sub-domain in the N-terminus of CIKS that is essential for IL-17-mediated NF-kB activation. This domain is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction between CIKS and TRAF6, an adaptor required for NF-kB activation. The ability of decoy peptides to block this interaction may provide a new therapeutic strategy for intervention in IL-17-driven autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Keywords: strain comparisons strain comparisons
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-4 and -13 are related cytokines sharing functional receptors. IL-4 signals through the type I (IL-4Ralpha/common gamma-chain [gammac]) and the type II (IL-4Ralpha/-13Ralpha1) IL-4 receptors, whereas IL-13 utilizes only the type II receptor. In this study, we show that mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and human and mouse monocytes showed a much greater sensitivity to IL-4 than to IL-13. Lack of functional gammac made these cells poorly responsive to IL-4, while retaining full responsiveness to IL-13. In mouse peritoneal macrophages, IL-4 potency exceeds that of IL-13, but lack of gammac had only a modest effect on IL-4 signaling. In contrast, IL-13 stimulated greater responses than IL-4 in fibroblasts. Using levels of receptor chain expression and known binding affinities, we modeled the assemblage of functional type I and II receptor complexes. The differential expression of IL-4Ralpha, IL-13Ralpha1, and gammac accounted for the distinct IL-4-IL-13 sensitivities of the various cell types. These findings provide an explanation for IL-13's principal function as an "effector" cytokine and IL-4's principal role as an "immunoregulatory" cytokine.
Project description:IL-13 is a critical effector cytokine for allergic inflammation. It is produced by several cell types, including mast cells, basophils, and TH2 cells. In mast cells and basophils its induction can be stimulated by cross-linkage of immunoglobulin receptors or cytokines. The IL-1 family members IL-33 and IL-18 have been linked to induction of IL-13 production by mast cells and basophils. In CD4 TH2 cells IL-33-mediated production of IL-13 requires simultaneous signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 activation.Here we have addressed whether cytokine-induced IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils follows the same logic as in TH2 cells: requirement of 2 separate signals.By generating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic IL-13 reporter mouse, we measured IL-13 production in mast cells and basophils.In mast cells harvested from peritoneal cavities, 2 cytokine signals are required for IL-13 production: IL-33 and IL-3. In bone marrow mast cells IL-13 production requires IL-33, but the requirement for a STAT5 inducer is difficult to evaluate because these cells require the continuous presence of IL-3 (a STAT5 activator) for survival. Poorer STAT5 inducers in culture (IL-4 or stem cell factor) result in less IL-13 production on IL-33 challenge, but the addition of exogenous IL-3 enhances IL-13 production. This implies that bone marrow-derived mast cells, like peritoneal mast cells and TH2 cells, require stimulation both by an IL-1 family member and a STAT5 inducer to secrete IL-13. Basophils follow the same rule; splenic basophils produce IL-13 in response to IL-18 or IL-33 plus IL-3.Optimal IL-13 production from mast cells and basophils requires 2 cytokine signals.