Dataset Information


Derivation and maintenance of murine trophoblast stem cells under defined conditions

ABSTRACT: Trophoblast stem (TS) cells are in vitro equivalents to the precursor cells of the placenta. In mice, TS cells can be derived either from polar trophectoderm (TE) of blastocyst outgrowths or from postimplantation extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE), originating from polar TE. Since their first successful derivation in 1998 TS cells have been cultured in serum-rich medium in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4), the cofactor heparin and embryonic fibroblast conditioned medium. Here, we developed and tested a simple medium consisting of ten chemically defined ingredients for routine culture of TS cells. The defined medium (TX medium) supports growth and self-renewal of TS cells grown on Matrigel-coated dishes over multiple (>20) passages. TS cells cultured under these conditions retain expression of key trophoblast stem cell-associated markers. Global gene expression profiling of cells cultured in standard and TX media conditions revealed that 99.6 % of genes are similarly expressed. DNA methylation profiling confirmed the faithful propagation of epigenomic characteristics of TS cells cultured in TX compared to standard media. Importantly, TX media also supported the derivation of new TS cell lines directly from post implantation embryos. In addition, TS cells cultured in TX retain their ability to differentiate into all derivatives of the trophectodermal lineage in vitro and give rise to haemorrhagic lesions in nude mice, indistinguishable from cells grown in standard conditions. Further, injection into blastocysts proofs chimerization potential after TX culture. The fact that TX media formulation no longer requires fetal bovine serum and conditioned medium facilitates and standardizes the culture of this extraembryonic lineage in vitro. Cell culture. TS cell lines TS-LacZ and TS-L5 have been derived from blastocysts and post implantation embryos us according to standard protocols. Cells were grown on tissue culture plastic (TPP) at 37°C in humidified incubators containing 5% CO2 (Heraeus). For conventional stem cell culture cells were cultured in serum containing medium supplemented with 70% CM, 25 ng/ml human recombinant FGF4 (Reliatech) and 1 µg/ml Heparin (Sigma-Aldrich), hereafter named TS medium. For differentiation experiments TS medium without CM, FGF4 and heparin (TS -CMF4H) was used. For stem cell culture in defined medium cells were cultured on Matrigel-coated dishes in TX medium. TX medium formulation: DMEM/F12 (Life Technologies), 64 mg/l l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate magnesium (Sigma), 14 microg/l sodium selenite (Sigma-Aldrich), 25 ng/ml human recombinant FGF4 (Reliatech), 19.4 mg/l insulin (Sigma-Aldrich), 543 mg/l NaHCO3 (Sigma-Aldrich), 10.7 mg/l holo-transferrin (Sigma-Aldrich), 2 ng/ml human recombinant TGF-beta1 (Peprotech), 1 microg/ml Heparin (Sigma-Aldrich), 2 mM L-glutamine (PAN-biotech), 1% penicillin and streptomycin (PAN-biotech). Medium was prepared without growth factors, stored at 4°C and used within two weeks. FGF4, heparin and TGFß were added to the medium prior to use. Medium was changed every other day. Cells were passaged when sub confluent, by incubation in trypsin-EDTA (PAN-biotech) for 4 min at 37°C. The enzyme was inactivated by addition of trypsin inhibitor (Life Technologies) in defined culture and by serum containing medium in case of conventional culture. Cells were dissociated and plated in fresh medium. Passage numbers are represented as x + y, where x represents the passage number at which cells were transferred to TX medium, and y being the passage number in TX. For cryopreservation, cells were harvested and pellets were re-suspended either in FBS/10%DMSO (standard conditions) or in KnockOut Serum Replacement/10%DMSO (Life Technologies). Plate coating. Tissue culture dishes for culture of TS cells in TX medium were coated with growth factor reduced Matrigel (BD Biosciences), which was diluted 1:30 in ice cold DMEM/F12 and incubated over night at 4°C. Coating solution was aspirated immediately before plating cells. For initial coating tests, plates were incubated either with Matrigel, poly-L-lysine, gelatine or fibronectin, respectively. Poly-L-lysine was used at 0.01 % (w/v) in PBS (PAN-biotech) for 30 min at 37°C and washed once with PBS prior to use. Gelatine coating was performed with 0.1% (w/v) gelatine solution in PBS for 30 min at 37°C. Dishes were incubated with fibronectin solution (16.7 µg/ml) for 30 min in the incubator, washed once with PBS and used thereafter. Isolation of TS cells from post-implantation (E6.5) embryos Embryos were dissected in PBS on day E6.5 and transferred in PBS/10% (v/v) FBS and kept on ice. Before dissociation, embryos were washed in PBS twice. Whole conceptuses were transferred into an U-bottom 96-well plate and incubated in 40 µl trypsin-EDTA (PAN-biotech) for 15 min in the incubator. The content of the well was pipetted up and down several times and transferred to a 24 well plate on pre-plated irradiated MEFS (gammaMEFs) in either TS medium with 1.5x FGF4 and heparin concentration (TS+1.5xF4H) or TX medium with 1.5x FGF4 and heparin (TX+1.5xF4H). TS cell colonies appeared after 2-4 days. Immunofluorescent staining, western blotting. Before staining, cells were washed with PBS once and fixed for 10 min with 4% paraformaldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich). Permeabilization of the cells was performed with 0.5 % (v/v) Triton X-100 (Sigma-Aldrich) in PBS for 10 min and subsequent incubation for 30 min in blocking buffer (2% bovine serum albumin [Sigma-Aldrich], 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 in PBS). Samples were incubated overnight at 4°C with the following primary antibodies: Cdx2 (1:200, Cdx2-88, BioGenex Inc), Eomes (1:500,ab23345, Abcam), Tfap2c (1:300, sc-8977, Santa Cruz). After three washing steps, detection was performed with appropriate Alexa Fluor-conjugated antibodies (Invitrogen) at a 1:500 dilution in blocking buffer for 1 h at room temperature in the dark. After secondary antibody incubation, nuclei were stained with Hoechst (Sigma-Aldrich). Cells stained without primary antibodies served as controls. Western blotting was performed with 23 µg of cell lysates from TS cells cultured in TS and TX media by SDS-polycrylamide gel electrophoresis and blotted onto PVDF membranes. Membranes were blocked with 5% (v/v) BSA or 5% (v/v) non-fat milk powder in TBST (TBS with 0.1% Tween). Membranes were incubated with primary antibodies at room temperature for 2 h, washed three times with TBST and labeled with HRP conjugated antibodies (Dako) for 1 h at room temperature. After three washing steps with TBST, membranes were incubated in ECL substrate (Thermo Scientific). RNA isolation and analysis. RNA was isolated from cells using the RNeasy Minikit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's protocol. 500 ng total RNA was used for cDNA synthesis by RevertAidPremium (Thermo Scientific). For gene expression microarray analysis, RNA quality was tested using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies). 100 ng total RNA were used for cDNA synthesis. Biotin labeling and fragmentation were performed according to the Affymetrix user manual. cRNA was hybridized for 16h to Mouse Genome 430 2.0 GeneChip expression arrays (Affymetrix). After hybridization, arrays were washed and stained automatically on a GeneChip Fluidics station 450 (Affymetrix) and scanned with a GeneChip scanner 3000 7G (Affymetrix). 6 samples were analyzed. TSGFPTS: Mouse trophoblast stem cell EGFP cell line cultered in standard trophoblast stem cell medium, 1 biological rep TSGFPTX: Mouse trophoblast stem cell EGFP cell line cultered in defined TX medium, 1 biological rep TSL5TS: Mouse trophoblast stem cell L5 cell line cultered in standard trophoblast stem cell medium, 1 biological rep TSL5TX: Mouse trophoblast stem cell L5 cell line cultered in defined TX medium, 1 biological rep TSLacZTS: Mouse trophoblast stem cell LacZ cell line cultered in standard trophoblast stem cell medium, 1 biological rep TSLacZTX: Mouse trophoblast stem cell LacZ cell line cultered in defined TX medium, 1 biological rep

ORGANISM(S): Mus musculus  

SUBMITTER: Neha Sharma   Michael Peitz  Myriam Hemberger  Claire Senner  Hubert Schorle  Caroline Kubaczka  Marcos J Araúzo-Bravo  Marcos J Arauzo-Bravo  Oliver Brüstle  Andreas Zimmer  Astrid Becker  Peter Kuckenberg 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-47719 | ArrayExpress | 2014-01-28



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