Adipose-derived stem cells improved mouse ovary function after chemotherapy-induced ovary failure
ABSTRACT: ADSCs are a new type of MSC that is typically abundant in individuals. Numerous investigations reported that adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation could ameliorate the structure and function of injured tissues. However, their protective role in premature ovarian failure remains obscure. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation for chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage and microarray analyses were used to assess gene related to ovarian function. Total RNA of ovarians of four groups was extracted using the TRIZOL Reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions. Labeling and hybridization were performed at the CapitalBio Company, according to protocols described in the 32K mouse genome arrays user manual. The data were analyzed using LuxScan 3.0 Image analysis software (CapitalBio company).
Project description:Adipogenesis occurs through a specific gene program in undifferentiated fat progenitors. We hypothesized that the properties of the fat progenitors are regulated by hox genes, the developmental genes essential in different tissue stem cells. Their biased expression in white and brown fat implies roles in distinguishing the two fat types. Among 39 Hox genes, Hoxc8 is highly enriched in undifferentiated adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) and down-regulated in differentiated adipocytes. Forced expression of Hoxc8 suppressed adipocyte differentiation of ADSCs. Using microarrays, we investigated the effect of Hoxc8 overexpression on global transcripts in ADSCs. We compared among four groups: untreated ADSCs, adipogenic induction media (MDI)-treated ADSCs, MDI-treated ADSC-vector and MDI-treated ADSC-Hoxc8. A number of, but not all, adipogenesis-related genes are suppressed by Hoxc8. This dataset illustrates the global effect of Hoxc8, a developmental transcription factor, on the expression of adipogenesis-related genes. Gene expression was compared among untreated ADSCs (control), adipogenic induction media-treated ADSCs, adipogenic induction media-treated ADSC-vector (ADSCs transduced with control vector), and adipogenic induction media-treated ADSC-Hoxc8 (ADSCs transduced with human Hoxc8). Total RNA was isolated from ADSCs using the Qiagen RNeasy kit (Qiagen). At NimbleGen, quality and yield were verified before cDNA synthesis and Cy3-end labeling. The labeled cDNA samples were hybridized to Homo sapiens 4-Plex arrays (Roche NimbleGen, A4487001-00-01) that represent 24,000 human genes. Raw data files for each sample were normalized and background-corrected using a Robust Multi-Array Analysis as implemented by NimbleScan software. Students’ two-tail t-tests were conducted among the samples for each transcript and fold-change was determined. Transcripts whose abundance was significantly altered (P < 0.05) and an absolute fold change greater than 2 were defined as differentially regulated.
Project description:The assembly of the developmentally arrested primordial follicle and subsequent transition to the primary follicle are poorly understood processes critical to ovarian biology. Abnormal primordial follicle development can lead to pathologies such as premature ovarian failure. The current study used a genome-wide expression profile to investigate primordial follicle assembly and development. Rat ovaries with predominantly unassembled, primordial, or primary follicles were obtained. RNA from these ovaries was hybridized to rat microarray gene chips, and the gene expression (i.e., ovarian transcriptome) was compared between the developmental stages. Analysis of the ovarian transcriptome demonstrated 148 genes up-regulated and 50 genes down-regulated between the unassembled and primordial follicle stages. Observations demonstrate 80 genes up-regulated and 44 genes down-regulated between the primordial and primary follicle stages. The analysis demonstrated 2332 genes common among the three developmental stages, 146 genes specific for the unassembled follicles, 94 genes specific for the primordial follicles, and 151 genes specific for the primary follicles. Steroidogenic genes are up-regulated between unassembled and primordial follicles, and then many are again down-regulated between primordial and primary follicles. The hormones inhibin and Mullerian inhibitory substance (MIS) display a similar pattern of expression with the highest levels of mRNA in the primordial follicles. Several novel unknown genes that had dramatic changes in expression during primordial follicle development were also identified. Gene families/clusters identified that were up-regulated from unassembled to primordial follicles include growth factors and signal transduction gene clusters, whereas a down-regulated gene family was the synaptonemal complex genes associated with meiosis. Gene families/clusters that were up-regulated between primordial and primary follicles included immune response genes, metabolic enzymes, and proteases, whereas down-regulated gene families include the globulin genes and some steroidogenic genes. The expression of several growth factors changed during primordial follicle development, including vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor II. Elucidation of how these changes in gene expression coordinate primordial follicle assembly and the primordial to primary follicle transition provides a better understanding of these critical biological processes and allows selection of candidate regulatory factors for further investigation. Experiment Overall Design: RNA samples from two control groups (pooled untreated cultured ovaries) are compared to two treated groups (pooled cultured ovaries treated with progesterone)
Project description:Pak1 as a serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in cytoskeletal remodelling, cell motility, apoptosis and transformation. Pak1 plays important roles in multiple signal pathways. Pak1 protects cells from apoptosis through at least three different pathways including forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and DLC1. Pak1 also regulates activity of Raf and Aurora kinases to affect cellular proliferation. Overexpression of Pak1 is involved in the regulation of actin assembly and disassembly through phosphorylations of LIM Kinase and cytoskeletal associated proteins such as Filamin A, Paxillin, Caldesmon, Cortactin and Arp2/3. Pak1 also regulates microtubule dynamics via activation of tubulin cofactor B (TCoB) and DLC1, and inhibition of stathmin. In spite of a large body of work about the mechanism of Pak1 action in cancer, it remains unknown whether Pak1 signaling could potentially regulate the biology of regulatory miRNAs. This is particularly relevant for gastric cancer because Pak1 can activate many regulators of miRNAs expression in gastric cancer cells including NF-kappaB and ERK, and Pak1 signaling has profound phenotypic effects on the biology of gastric cancer cells. We constructed Pak1 knockdown stable cell lines. The stable Pak1 knockdown gastric cancer BGC823 cells and control cells were performed miRNA chip analysis by CapitalBio company. Gastric cancer BGC823 cells with stable Pak1 knockdown and BGC-823 gastric cancer cells transfected with U6 were used in this experiment. Total RNA was extracted by trizol,Here we use a Capitalbio mammal microRNA V3.0(CapitalBio, Beijing, China) containing 509 well-characterized human, mouse and rat miRNAs and various controls to profile the expression levels of miRNA in 16 and conU6 group.three chip were test in each group, and the procedure was repeated twice.
Project description:A cDNA microarray composed of 9065 uniEST probes was constructed and applied to detect the gene expression profile of protoscoleces of E. granulosus treated with albendazole and artemisinin in vitro, respectively. Compared with the untreated parasite, 7 genes were up-regulated and 38 genes were down-regulated in protoscoleces treated with albendazole and 100 genes were up-regulated and 6 genes were down-regulated in protoscoleces treated with artemisinin. The differential expression genes in protoscoleces induced by albendazole were clustered into energy metabolism, cell cycle and assembly of cell structure. And the differential expression genes affected by artemisinin were clustered into genetic information, the transduction of environmental signals, metabolism. Under transmission electron microscope observation, albendazole intervention damaged the cell structure, and form the heterochromatin in protoscoleces cells was mainly increased in the artemisinin group. Isolated E. granulosus protoscoleces were treated with albendazole and artemisinin respectively and was extracted of total RNA using the TRIZOL Reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions. Gene-expression profiling was performed for each RNA sample separately on the GeneChip of Echinococcus granulosus Genome Array (Capitalbio) at CapitalBio Corporation (Beijing, China).
Project description:Cxcl14+/- mice were mated with Cxcl14+/- mice, the embryos of pregnant females were collected on E13.5. After genotyping, the maternal part and fetal part of Cxcl14-/- and Cxcl14+/+ placentas were dissect out to extract total RNA respectively (n = 3). Total RNA was extracted using PureYield™ RNA Midiprep System (Promega).The maternal part of placenta that contained mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) and decidua basalis (DB); the fetal part ofplacenta consisted of spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthin layer.Microarray hybridization was performed using a Mouse NimbleGen cDNA Microarray Kit (Roche), at CapitalBio Co., Ltd.(Beijing,China). Primary data were scaned using NimbleGen MS200 (Roche), and then extracted using NimbleScan system (Roche). Cxcl14+/- mice were mated with Cxcl14+/- mice, the embryos of pregnant females were collected on E13.5. After genotyping, the maternal part and fetal part of Cxcl14-/- and Cxcl14+/+ placentas were dissect out to extract total RNA respectively (n = 3). Total RNA was extracted using PureYield™ RNA Midiprep System (Promega).The maternal part of placenta that contained mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) and decidua basalis (DB); the fetal part ofplacenta consisted of spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthin layer.Microarray hybridization was performed using a Mouse NimbleGen cDNA Microarray Kit (Roche), at CapitalBio Co., Ltd.(Beijing,China). Primary data were scaned using NimbleGen MS200 (Roche), and then extracted using NimbleScan system (Roche).
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from somatic cells, providing an unlimited cell resource for regenerative medicine. However, genetic manipulation and difficult-to-manufacture strategies used in reprogramming limit their clinical applications. Here, we show pluripotency can be induced from mouse somatic cells by specific small-molecule compounds. The completely chemically-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs) can be stably maintained in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture medium and resemble ESCs in terms of their gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and potential for differentiation and germline transmission. These findings suggest that exogenous master genes are dispensable for cell fate reprogramming and pave the way for the clinical application of somatic reprogramming techniques. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from somatic cells, providing an unlimited cell resource for regenerative medicine. However, genetic manipulation and difficult-to-manufacture strategies used in reprogramming limit their clinical applications. Here, we show pluripotency can be induced from mouse somatic cells by specific small-molecule compounds. The completely chemically-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs) can be stably maintained in embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture medium and resemble ESCs in terms of their gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and potential for differentiation and germline transmission. These findings suggest that exogenous master genes are dispensable for cell fate reprogramming and pave the way for the clinical application of somatic reprogramming techniques. Chemicals' acronyms: V, VPA; C, CHIR; 6, 616452; T, tranylcypromine; F, FSK; Z, DZNep; P, PGE2; R, RG108; S, SRT1720; M, 2-Me-5HT; D, D4476; B, Sodium butyrate. To compare the global gene expression pofile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), mouse adult lung fibroblasts (MAFs), mouse neonatal fibroblasts (MNFs), adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), chemical induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPS), embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and OSKM-iPSCs. We profiled the mRNA expression of each sample by microarray (Mouse OneArray® v2, Phalanx). Different sample set was normalized for different purpose. Set1: MEFs1, CiPS34, MNF CIPS7, CiPS50 CiPS21, OSKM-iPS1 and ESCs1 were analyzed, each sample have three replicates; Set2: MNFs, MAFs, ADSCs, MNF CiPS1, MAF CiPS3, CiPS45, ADSC CiPS2, OSKM iPS2 and ESCs2 were analyzed, each sample have three replicates; Set3: WT MEFs, ESCs3, CiPS WT1 and CiPS WT2 were analyzed, each sample have two replicates; Set4: MEFs2, SKM-FSK1, SKM-FSK2 and ESCs4 were analyzed, each sample have three replicates; Set5: MEFs3, ESCs5, CiPSCs, D12, D20 and D32 were analyzed, each sample have two replicates.
Project description:Ovarian follicular granulosa cells surround and nurture oocytes, and produce sex steroid hormones. It is believed that during development the ovarian surface epithelial cells invaginate into the ovary and develop into granulosa cells when associating with oogonia to form follicles. Using bovine fetal ovaries (n = 53) we identified a novel cell type, termed GREL for Gonadal Ridge Epithelial-Like. Using 25 markers for GREL and other cells we conducted immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy and chronologically tracked all somatic cell types during development. Before 70 days of gestation the gonadal ridge/ovarian primordium is formed by proliferation of GREL cells at the surface epithelium of the mesonephros. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) migrate into the ovarian primordium. After 70 days, stroma from the underlying mesonephros begins to penetrate the primordium, partitioning the developing ovary into irregularly-shaped ovigerous cords composed of GREL cells and PGCs/oogonia. Importantly we identified that the cords are separated from the stroma by a basal lamina. Around 130 days of gestation as the stroma expands laterally below the GREL cells on the surface thus establishing a sub-epithelial basal lamina and an epithelial-stromal interface, and it is at this stage that a mature surface epithelium develops from the GREL cells. The stroma continues to partition the ovigerous cords into smaller groups of cells eventually forming follicles containing an oogonium/oocyte surrounded by GREL cells, which become granulosa cells. Thus in contrast to the prevailing theory, the ovarian surface epithelial cells do not invaginate into the ovary to form the granulosa cells of follicles. Microarray analysis of gene expression was conducted on different cell types cultured from fetal ovaries to identify possible markers of somatic cells during development. Two different cell types: Gonadal Ridge Epithelial-Like cells (n=2, 130 days gestation) and adult fibroblasts (n=1) were cultured from digested bovine fetal ovaries and gene expression compared with each other by Bovine Genome Affy array analysis in Partek Genomics Suite software, to identify possible markers of somatic cells during development.
Project description:Follicle assembly is the process by which groups or ‘nests’ of oocytes break down to form primordial follicles. The size of the primordial follicle pool is the major determinant of the reproductive lifespan of a female. Previously, progesterone (P4) has been shown to inhibit follicle assembly, while tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to promote the apoptosis that is necessary for follicle assembly. The current study examines how TNF-alpha and progesterone interact to regulate primordial follicle assembly. Ovaries were collected from newborn rats and placed in organ culture to examine the actions of P4 and TNF-alpha. P4 was found to decrease primordial follicle assembly and increase the percentage of un-assembled oocytes both in vitro and in vivo. TNF-alpha treatment did not change the proportion of assembled follicles in cultured ovaries, but did block the ability of P4 to inhibit follicle assembly. Microarray analysis of the ovarian transcriptome revealed that progesterone treatment of the ovaries altered the expression of 513 genes with 132 only expressed after P4 treatment and 16 only expressed in control ovaries. The majority of genes were up-regulated greater than 2-fold over control, with a small subset of 16 genes down-regulated. Categories of genes affected by P4 are described including a group of extra-cellular signaling factors. The progesterone receptors expressed at the time of follicle assembly included the surface membrane progesterone receptors PGRMC1, PGRMC2 and RDA288. The nuclear genomic P4 receptor was not expressed at appreciable levels. Progesterone increased the expression of several genes (TANK, NFkappaB, Bcl2l1 and Bcl2l2) involved in a signaling pathway that promotes cell survival and inhibits apoptosis. Observations indicate that P4 acts through the surface membrane progesterone receptors to regulate primordial follicle assembly, and that TNF-alpha can over-ride the inhibitory actions of P4 on follicle assembly. A major mechanism involved in the actions of P4 is an increase in cell survival genes and inhibition of the apoptosis pathway. Observations provide insight into the hormonal regulation of primordial follicle assembly and lead to novel approaches to potentially manipulate follicle assembly and reproductive capacity. Experiment Overall Design: RNA samples from two control groups (pooled untreated cultured ovaries) are compared to two treated groups (pooled cultured ovaries treated with progesterone)
Project description:The objective of the study was to determine the cause of anovulation in transgenic mice with conditional over-activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway in the ovary. In Amhr2(cre/+)-SmoM2 transgenic mice, a constitutively active version of the hedgehog signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), known as SMOM2, is expressed in the ovary following cre-mediated recombination. The hypothesis tested is that changes in the neonatal ovary caused by over-activation of hedgehog signaling leads to the life-long anovulation phenotype in transgenic mice. Microarrays were used to examine differences in gene expression in ovaries of two day old wild-type mice (Amhr2(+/+)-SmoM2) and transgenic mice (Amhr2(cre/+)-SmoM2) in which the hedgehog signaling pathway was conditionally over-activated in the ovary. Two microarrays were performed. RNA samples were prepared from ovaries of 8 Amhr2(+/+)-SmoM2 control mice and 8 Amhr2(cre/+)-SmoM2 mutant mice on day two of age. RNA quality was assessed by measurement of ribosomal RNA on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer.
Project description:TGF-β is a crucial cytokine participate in the interplay between the intermediate host and helminthes. TGF-β receptors were discovered in many cestode, and could bind the human TGF-β. However, the function of host TGF-β on the Echinococcus is still not elucidated, and this paper aim to explore the question at transcription level. Microarray analysis was used to investigate differential expression genes in protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus cultured in the presence or absence of human TGF-β at different time points (4h, 8h and 24h) in vitro. A total of 523 genes were up- or down-regulated in response to TGF-β, compared with control group, 390 genes were up-regulated and 47 genes were down-regulated at 8h, and 376 genes were up-regulated and 19 genes were down-regulated at 12h, including 310 differential genes were regulated at both time point. Only 1 gene down-regulated at 4 h. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the biological process of the up-regulated genes in protoscolex were predominantly involved in DNA packaging, nucleosome assembly, chromatin assembly, etc. And the cellular component gene were located in cell nucleus. TGF-β appeared to promote growth or development of the protoscolex by up-regulated the gene related with mitosis. In addition, the study also indicated that TGF-β has a multiple influence on the protoscolex, as reflected in the increased stimulation of gene expression of the ErbB signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway and VEGF signaling pathway. Isolated E. granulosus protoscoleces were treated with human TGF-β at different time points (4h, 8h and 24h) in vitro, and replicated 3 times. Each samples independently grown and harvested. And was extracted of total RNA using the TRIZOL Reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions. Gene-expression profiling was performed for each RNA sample separately on the GeneChip of Echinococcus granulosus Genome Array (Capitalbio) at CapitalBio Corporation (Beijing, China). The reference samples are protoscoleces treated by human TGF-β(0 h)