Cholangiocarcinoma tissues VS. corresponding normal bile duct tissues
ABSTRACT: To identify miRNAs differentially expressed in cholangiocarcinoma,3 human cholangiocarcinoma and their corresponding normal bile duct tissues were obtained from 3 patients after operation with postoperative pathological diagnosed perihilar or distal biliary cholangiocarcinoma miRNAs expression in human cholangiocarcinoma/normal bile duct samples was measured after operation.Three independent experiments were performed using different patients for each experiment.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into a range of somatic cell types, but to date stem/progenitor cells have only been reprogrammed for the blood and neuronal lineages. We previously reported generation of induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells by transduction of Gata4, Hnf1α, and Foxa3 in p19 Arf null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Here, we show that Hnf1β and Foxa3, liver organogenesis transcription factors, are sufficient to reprogram MEFs into induced hepatic stem cells (iHepSCs). iHepSCs can be stably expanded in vitro and possess the potential of bi-directional differentiation into both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic lineages. In the injured liver of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)-deficient mice, repopulating iHepSCs become hepatocyte-like cells. They also engraft as cholangiocytes into bile ducts of mice with DDC-induced bile ductular injury. Lineage-conversion into bi-potential expandable iHepSCs provides a strategy to enable efficient derivation of both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes for use in disease modeling and tissue engineering. iHepSCs were converted form fibroblasts by transduction of Hnf1β and Foxa3. iHepSCs were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and cholangiocytes in vitro. Totally, 9 samples including four clones of iHepSCS, one clone of LEPCs, two samples of MEFs and two samples of iHepSCs-derived cholangocytes were analyzed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Distal cholangiocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for distal cholangiocarcinoma are lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed proteins between distal cholangiocarcinoma and normal bile duct samples. METHODS:A workflow utilizing discovery mass spectrometry and verification by parallel reaction monitoring was used to analyze surgically resected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from distal cholangiocarcinoma patients and normal bile duct samples. Bioinformatic analysis was used for functional annotation and pathway analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate the expression of thrombospondin-2 and investigate its association with survival. RESULTS:In the discovery study, a total of 3057 proteins were identified. Eighty-seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed (q?<?0.05 and fold change???2 or???0.5); 31 proteins were upregulated and 56 were downregulated in the distal cholangiocarcinoma samples compared to controls. Bioinformatic analysis revealed an abundance of differentially expressed proteins associated with the tumor reactive stroma. Parallel reaction monitoring verified 28 proteins as upregulated and 18 as downregulated in distal cholangiocarcinoma samples compared to controls. Immunohistochemical validation revealed thrombospondin-2 to be upregulated in distal cholangiocarcinoma epithelial and stromal compartments. In paired lymph node metastases samples, thrombospondin-2 expression was significantly lower; however, stromal thrombospondin-2 expression was still frequent (72%). Stromal thrombospondin-2 was an independent predictor of poor disease-free survival (HR 3.95, 95% CI 1.09-14.3; P?=?0.037). CONCLUSION:Several proteins without prior association with distal cholangiocarcinoma biology were identified and verified as differentially expressed between distal cholangiocarcinoma and normal bile duct samples. These proteins can be further evaluated to elucidate their biomarker potential and role in distal cholangiocarcinoma carcinogenesis. Stromal thrombospondin-2 is a potential prognostic marker in distal cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Disruption of circadian rhythm is associated with cancer development and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that trigger mRNA translation inhibition. We aimed to evaluate the role of Per1 and related miRNAs in cholangiocarcinoma growth. METHODS:The expression of clock genes was evaluated in human cholangiocarcinoma tissue arrays and cholangiocarcinoma lines. The rhythmic expression of clock genes was evaluated in cholangiocarcinoma cells and H69 (non-malignant cholangiocytes) by qPCR. We measured cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis in Mz-ChA-1 cells after Per1 overexpression. We examined tumor growth in vivo after injection of Per1 overexpressing cells. We verified miRNAs that targets Per1. The circadian rhythm of miR-34a was evaluated in cholangiocarcinoma and H69 cells. We evaluated cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion after inhibition of miR-34a in vitro, and the potential molecular mechanisms by mRNA profiling after overexpression of Per1. RESULTS:Expression of Per1 was decreased in cholangiocarcinoma. The circadian rhythm of Per1 expression was lost in cholangiocarcinoma cells. Decreased cell proliferation, lower G2/M arrest, and enhanced apoptosis were shown in Per1 overexpressing cells. An in vivo study revealed decreased tumor growth, decreased proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis after overexpressing Per1. Per1 was verified as a target of miR-34a. miR-34a was rhythmically expressed in cholangiocarcinoma cells and H69. The inhibition of miR-34a decreased proliferation, migration and invasion in cholangiocarcinoma cells. mRNA profiling has shown that overexpression of Per1 inhibits cell growth through regulation of multiple cancer-related pathways, such as cell cycle, cell growth and apoptosis pathways. CONCLUSIONS:Disruption of circadian rhythms of clock genes contribute to the malignant phenotypes of human cholangiocarcinoma. LAY SUMMARY:The current study is about how biological clock and its regulators affect the bile duct tumor growth. The disruption of biological clock has a negative impact in different cancers. Per1 is a gene that is involved in maintaining the biological clock and show 24h oscillation. Reduced levels of Per1 and disruption of 24h circadian rhythm was found in bile duct cancer cells. Therefore, a genetic modified bile duct cancer cells was created. It has a higher level of Per1 expression and partially recovered circadian rhythm. Those genetic modified cells also displayed slower cell growth or higher rate of cell death. We also used mice model that lack of immune system to show that our genetic modified bile duct cells form smaller tumor. In addition, we tried to see how Per1 is communicating with other genes in regarding of controlling the tumor growth. We found Per1 is regulated by microRNA-34a, a small non-coding RNA that directly binds to genes and inhibit gene expression. Decreased level of miR-34a has also significantly reduced tumor growth through controlling the cell growth and cell death balance. Therefore bile duct cancer patients may be treated with miR-34a inhibitor or Per1 stimulator in the future.
Project description:Characterization of preclinical models of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma progression that reliably recapitulate altered molecular features of the human disease. Here, we performed comprehensive gene expression profiling of cholangiocarcinoma tumors arising from bile duct inoculation of different grade malignant rat cholangiocytes. Tumors arising from bile duct inoculation of spontaneously-transformed low grade malignant rat BDE1 cholangiocytes (BDEsp cells) compared to tumors arising from the inoculation of high grade malignant erbB-2/neu- transformed BDE1 cholangiocytes (BDEneu cells) into the livers of syngeneic rats.
Project description:Mucinous cholangiocarcinoma is extremely rare and its clinicopathological features remain unclear. The present study aimed to analyze published data on mucinous cholangiocarcinoma. Medical databases were searched from 1980 to 2016, and clinicopathological data for 16 mucinous cholangiocarcinoma patients were obtained. Characteristic imaging findings, including hypovascular tumor with peripheral enhancement on computed tomography and angiography, extremely high intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, intratumoral calcification and luminal communication between the tumor and bile duct on cholangiography, were noted. Mucinous cholangiocarcinoma was correctly diagnosed in one patient only, with some patients diagnosed as low-malignant biliary cystic tumors preoperatively. Five cases were followed up after the first medical examination, and three of these were initially diagnosed as biliary cystadenoma or intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. All five tumors showed marked enlargement within 4 months of follow up. Macroscopically, the resected tumors were non-cystic/solid in seven cases, and cystic in seven. Tumor diameter ranged from 5 cm to 22 cm, and mucoid cut surface, lobulation, lack of capsule and papillary growth were observed. Microscopically, co-existing intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct was noted in three of five patients with available data. Nine of 10 cases in whom the pathological stage was reported had advanced disease with lymph node and/or distant metastasis, and 5-year survival was achieved in one microinvasive case only. Overall 1- and 3-year survival rates were 60.1% and 40.1%, respectively. The possibility of mucinous cholangiocarcinoma should be considered when biliary cystic tumors are detected on imaging modalities, despite the rarity of this tumor.
Project description:we characterized the rice alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a putative chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkali stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. We found that the predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus. qRT-PCR analysis showed that ALT1 was predominantly expressed in leaf blades and sheaths, and that ALT1 transcription was rapidly suppressed after alkaline treatment. These results support the notion that ALT1 is a negative regulator of alkaline tolerance. Roots of two-leaf stage alt1 and WT seedlings grown under normal conditions were sampled for microarray analysis. The transcriptomic profiles were investigated using an Agilent-015241 Rice Gene Expression 4×44 K Microarray (Agilent Technology) containing 32,325 probes corresponding to cDNA, 6,934 probes corresponding to expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and 2,612 probes corresponding to gene predicted loci, respectively, with three independent biological replicates. Roots of two-leaf stage alt1 and WT seedlings grown under normal conditions were sampled for microarray analysis
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant form of gastrointestinal cancer with an unfavorable prognosis. The novel oncogene chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like (CHD1L) has been confirmed to serve a vital role in numerous types of cancer, including liver cancer. Mismatch repair (MMR) is a common DNA repair process that contributes to the preservation of the integrity and stability of genetic substances. Human mutL homolog 1 gene (hMLH1) is an important MMR protein family member. The present study aimed to evaluate the pathological and clinical features of cholangiocarcinoma, and to investigate the clinical significance of CHD1L and hMLH1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 108 samples from cholangiocarcinoma tumor tissues and 60 samples from normal bile duct tissue were obtained from patients admitted to The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University between May 2005 and May 2014. All cholangiocarcinoma cases were pathologically confirmed. The expression of CHD1L and hMLH1 was examined by immunohistochemistry analysis. The expression of CHD1L in cholangiocarcinoma (94.44%) was significantly higher than in normal bile duct tissues (40.00%). CHD1L expression was associated with gallstone history, serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level and Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage (P<0.05). hMLH1 expression in cholangiocarcinoma (77.78%) was significantly lower than in normal bile duct tissues (96.67%), and was associated with gender, age, serum CA19-9 level, the presence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, TNM stage and tumor diameter (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the 3-year accumulative survival rates for CHD1L-positive and -negative patients differed significantly (P<0.05; 17.90 and 83.33%, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the 3-year accumulate survival rates for hMLH1-positive and -negative patients (38.90 and 33.30%, respectively). High CHD1L expression and low hMLH1 expression levels were observed in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, and their abnormal expression patterns were associated with the progression of malignancy and an unfavorable disease prognosis. Therefore, CHD1L and hMLH1 may be potential prognostic biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:Differentially expressed genes in the skin tissue of newborn Hu sheep were screened using an Agilent gene chip and RT-PCR. Differential expression analysis revealed 3 groups of large waves and small waves; 1067, 2071, and 3879 differentially expressed genes; and 137 genes common to all 3 groups. Differentially expressed genes were classified using gene ontology. They were found to be mainly involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, growth, immune response, and ion transport. RT-PCR results of 4 differentially expressed genes were consistent with gene chip results. Combined with related literature, our results suggest that BMP7, MMP2, SNAI1, SFXN1, CDKNIC, MT3, and POU1F1 may have important effects on the formation of large-wave and small-wave hair follicles. The samples collected with three full-sib individual and they borned at two days, what's more they were from the same paternal, each pair of big wave and small wave individuals from the same female parent.
Project description:To explore the molecular mechanisms and signal pathways induced by restoring tumor suppressor gene HIC-1 on breast cancer cells. We have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify the differential genes induced by HIC-1 gene activation. Small activating RNA (saRNA) that targeted promoter region was used, and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was selected as cell model. After 96h for saRNA transfection, the cells were collected and the whole genome expression profiles were analyzed. Three independent experiments were repeated for different groups. With the treshold of p<0.01 and fold change >=2 or <-2, there were 1375 differential expression genes, which are related to cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasion and cell proliferation. SaRNA induced gene expression in human breast cancer cell MCF-7 was measured at 96 hours after transfection by 50 nM saRNA. Three independent experiments were performed for experimental group and control group.
Project description:Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effect of several anti-leukemia drugs in combination with decitabine (DAC) on the proliferation of myeloid leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo, to select the most efficient combination group and explore associated mechanisms of these combination therapies. Experimental Design: After comparing with five anti-leukemia drugs in several different kinds of cell lines, the combination effect of idarubicin (IDA) with DAC was best. In vivo, by using microPET, TUNEL, and transmission electron microscopy, the inhibitory effects obtained by sequentially combining DAC with IDA, evidenced by evaluating tumor cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Molecular studies were conducted using gene chip, which was used to explore associated pathways, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC), used to assess regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Results: The sequential combination of DAC and IDA showed synergistic induction of cell death in U937, HEL, SKM-1 and cells isolated from AML patients. Importantly, the inhibition of tumor growth in the sequential combination group was found to be significantly higher than that of single drug group or control group in vivo. Moreover, sequential treatment with DAC and IDA induced apoptosis and depression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in both culture and animal studies. Conclusions: Our findings showed that sequentially combining decitabine with idarubicin had a synergistic anti-leukemia effect. These findings were attributed to demethylation of Wnt pathway inhibitors and downregulation of Wnt pathway nuclear targets observed in vitro and in vivo. After comparing with five anti-leukemia drugs in several different kinds of cell lines, the combination effect of idarubicin (IDA) with DAC was best. In vivo, by using microPET, TUNEL, and transmission electron microscopy, the inhibitory effects obtained by sequentially combining DAC with IDA, evidenced by evaluating tumor cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Molecular studies were conducted using gene chip, which was used to explore associated pathways, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC), used to assess regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.