Perinatal-Estrogen-Induced Changes in Gene Expression Related to Brain Sexual Differentiation in Mice
ABSTRACT: Sexual dimorphism of the behaviors or physiological functions in mammals is mainly due to the sex difference of the brain. The goal of this study is to identify genes mediating sexaul dimorphism of the brain. The large-scale analysis with microarray in the present study is an attempt to obtain the candidate gene(s) mediating the perinatal estrogen effect causing the brain sexual differentiation. Thirty female mice were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle on the day of birth, and the hypothalamus was collected at either 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h after the EB injection.
Project description:The developmental transition to motherhood requires gene expression changes that alter the brain to prepare and drive the female to perform maternal behaviors. Furthermore, it is expected that the many physiological changes accompanying pregnancy and postpartum stages will impact brain gene expression patterns. To understand how extensive these gene expression changes are, we examined the global transcriptional response broadly, by examining four different brain regions: hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum. Further, to understand the time course of these changes we performed RNA-sequencing analyses on mRNA derived from virgin females, two pregnancy time points and three postpartum time points. We find that each brain region and time point shows a unique molecular signature, with only 49 genes differentially expressed in all four regions, across the time points. Additionally, several genes previously implicated in underlying postpartum depression change expression. This study serves as a comprehensive atlas of gene expression changes in the maternal brain in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and neocortex. At each of the time points analyzed, all four brain regions show extensive changes, suggesting that pregnancy, parturition, and postpartum maternal experience substantially impacts diverse brain regions. Libraries were prepared from three independent biological replicates, mRNA for each biological replicate was derived from a single mouse brain, with each mouse brain being used to collect all four brain regions.
2016-07-03 | E-GEOD-70732 | ArrayExpress
Project description:Sexual Dimorphism of Galloanserae
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of porcine expanded blastocysts comparing control (EB obtained from 4 sows treated with basal diet) with either inorganic Se + B6 (EB obtained from 4 sows treated with basal diet plus inorganic Se and B6) or organic Se + B6 (EB obtained from 3 sows treated with basal diet plus organic Se and B6). Three-condition experiment, EB without and with maternal diet supplemented B6 plus either inorganic Se or organic Se. Four biological replicates for inorganic Se and three biological replicates and one technical replicate for organic Se. Pooled of four biological replicates for control group.
Project description:Our previous studies have revealed that treatment of pregnant rats with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 1 μg/kg) at gestational day (GD) 15 reduces the pituitary synthesis of luteinizing hormone (LH) during late fetal and early postnatal period, leading to imprinting of defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. However, it remains obscure how the attenuation of pituitary LH links to sexual immaturity. To address this issue, we firstly performed a DNA microarray analysis to identify the gene(s) responsible for dioxin-induced sexual immaturity, using the pituitary and hypothalamus of male pups, at the age of postnatal day (PND)70, born from TCDD-treated dams. Among the reduced genes, we focused on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus, because of its role in sexual behaviors suggested so far. The present study strongly suggests that maternal exposure to TCDD fixes the status of the lowered expression of GnRH in the offspring by reducing steroidogenesis at perinatal stage, and this is the mechanism for the imprinting of defects in sexual behaviors at adulthood. Total RNA was isolated from the pituitary and hypothalamus of PND70 male pups born from the dams treated with TCDD (1 μg/kg) or vehicle at GD15, using an RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN). To identify the gene(s) the altered expression of which is fixed and linked to defects in sexual behaviors, the profile of gene expression was analyzed using the Illumina RatRef-12 Expression BeadChip. This series includes two dataset; hypothalamic and pituitary samples (each case; N=3x2). The normalization applied each dataset.
Project description:We constructed eight libraries of female and male E. pela at different developmental stages using RNA-seq technology. Many genes and pathways related to sexual dimorphism were identified.The female and male E. pela take different developmental patterns. The sexual dimorphism in E. pela may involve many different regulatory components. Female and male E. pela at different developmental stages using RNA-seq technology
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression profiles during masculinization of neonatal female mice brain by exogenous androgen treatment. The results of our expression analysis will shed light on the identification of the key molecules of sexual differentiation of mammalian brain. Expression microarray analysis was performed using the RNAs extracted from the brains of neonatal mice treated with intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate during sex determination period of mice brain.
Project description:Rational: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. While the incidence, symptoms and treatment of MDD all point toward major sex differences, the molecular mechanisms underlying this sexual dimorphism remain largely unknown. Methods: Here, combining differential expression and gene coexpression network analyses, we provide a comprehensive characterization of male and female transcriptional profiles associated with MDD across 6 brain regions. We overlap our human profiles with those from a mouse model of chronic variable stress and capitalize on converging pathways to define molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the expression of stress susceptibility in males and females. Results: Our results show a major rearrangement of transcriptional patterns in MDD, with limited overlap between males and females, an effect seen in depressed humans and in stressed mice. We identify key regulators of sex-specific gene networks underlying MDD and confirm their sex-specific impact as mediators of stress susceptibility. For example, downregulation of the female-specific hub gene DUSP6 in prefrontal cortex mimics stress susceptibility in females only by increasing ERK signaling and pyramidal neuron excitability. Such DUSP6 downregulation also recapitulates the transcriptional remodeling that occurs in PFC of depressed females. Conclusions: Together, our findings reveal dramatic sexual dimorphism at the transcriptional level in MDD and highlight the importance of studying sex-specific treatments for this disorder. Overall design: RNA sequencing data from (1) 6 human postmortem brain regions in males and females with and without major depression and (2) 2 epuivalent brain regions in males and female mice with and without 21 days of chronic varibale stress (CVS)
Project description:By comprehensive quantitative proteome analysis we characterize the three growth forms elementary body (EB), reticulate body (RB) and aberrant reticulate body (ARB) of Chlamydia trachomatis genital strain D/UW-3/CX
Project description:Sexual dimorphism is one of the important topic in mammal species because appearance of males and females is obvious different in all mammal species. In addition to this, molecular mechanisms also very different each other. Furthermore, it is important to employ a variety of tissues in RNA-seq experiment because recent studies imply gene expression pattern are highly tissue specific. Although previous related studies discovered numerous sexually dimorphic mechanism in mammal species, but still, many mechanisms are undiscovered in case of non-model organisms. One of the representative mammal organism is a cattle which is less researched about sexual dimorphism. For investigate bovine sexual dimorphism, we generated two-way factorial designed 40 samples RNA-seq data composed with two factors such as gender and tissues. Two statistical approaches are employed for identifying bovine sexually dimorphic genes using such two-way factorial designed RNA-seq data. As a result, we observed that detected sexually dimorphic genes exhibited strong tissue specific pattern, but fat tissue showed relatively small tissue specificity than the others. In addition, we observed that sex-related genes are shared in two mammal species such as cattle and rat through qRT-PCR experiments. Finally, we investigated pros and cons of two statistical approaches for complex structured RNA-seq analysis. Overall design: In this study, we aimed to identify genetic factors that contribute to sexual dimorphism in bovine metabolism. To achieve this goal, we have employed RNA-seq for elaborated estimation of gene expression in liver, muscle, visceral adipose tissue and pituitary gland.