EWI-2 regulates melanoma growth and lung metastasis in a TGF-β1-dependent manner
ABSTRACT: EWI-2 (IgSF8) plays a novel, bifunctional role in melanoma cells. EWI-2 inhibits migration, metastasis, EMT-like changes, and CD271-dependent invasion in multiple melanoma cell lines. On the other hand, EWI-2 supports melanoma cell proliferation, survival, and xenograft growth. Consistent with these results, EWI-2 levels were elevated in human malignant melanoma, but not in metastatic melanoma samples. Altered melanoma cell functions, caused by EWI-2 ablation, are almost entirely dependent on enhanced TRF-β1 signaling, and also require contributions from tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81. In melanoma cells lacking EWI-2, tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 enhance TRF-β1 signaling by facilitating TβR-2−TβR-1 receptor complex formation. When EWI-2 is present, CD9 and CD81 are diverted into EWI-2 complexes, and thus TRF-β1 signaling is inhibited. 4 samples = 2 Control + 2 EWI-2 KD.
Project description:Clinical and genomic evidence support the view that the metastatic potential of a primary tumor may be dictated by transforming events acquired early in the tumorigenic process. It has been proposed that the presence of such pro-metastatic events in early-stage tumors reflects their additional capability to function as oncogenes. Here, to test this ‘deterministic’ hypothesis and identify potential pro-metastasis oncogenes, we adopted a comparative oncogenomics-guided functional genetic screening strategy involving (i) global transcriptomic data from two genetically engineered mouse models of melanoma with contrasting metastatic potential, (ii) genomic and transcriptomic profiles of human primary and metastatic melanoma and (iii) an invasion screen in TERT-immortalized human melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro as well as (iv) evidence of expression selection in human melanoma tissues. This integrated effort led to the identification of 6 genes that are both potently pro-invasive and oncogenic. Further, we show that one such pro-invasion oncogene, ACP5, can confer spontaneous metastasis in vivo, engages a key pathway governing metastasis and is prognostic in human primary melanomas. The tetracycline-inducible MET-driven mouse (iMet) model (Tyr-rtTA;Tet-Met;Ink4a/Arf-/-) was constructed similar to the previously described iHRAS* model (Tyr-rtTA;Tet-HRASV12G;Ink4a/Arf-/-). RNA from cutaneous melanomas derived from iMet (n=6) or iHRAS* (n=6) models were profiled on Affymetrix M430A_2 chips and resultant transcriptomes were compared to generate a phenotype-based (metastatic capable or not) differentially expressed gene list. Cross-species triangulation to human gene expression and copy number aberrations was based on ortholog mapping.
Project description:Activation of b-catenin has been causatively linked to the etiology of colon cancer. Conditional stabilization of this molecule in pro-T-cells promotes thymocyte development without the requirement for preTCR signaling. We show here that activated b-catenin stalls the developmental transition from the double-positive (DP) to the single-positive (SP) thymocyte stage and predisposes DP thymocytes to transformation. b-Catenin induced thymic lymphomas have a leukemic arrest at the early DP stage. Lymphomagenesis requires Rag activity, which peaks at this developmental stage, as well as additional secondary genetic events. A consistent secondary event is the transcriptional upregulation of c-Myc, whose activity is required for transformation since its conditional ablation abrogates lymphomagenesis. In contrast, the expression of Notch receptors as well as targets is reduced in DP thymocytes with stabilized b-catenin and remains low in the lymphomas indicating that Notch activation is not required or selected for in b-catenin induced lymphomas. Thus, b-catenin activation may provide a mechanism for the induction of T-ALL that does not depend on Notch activation. Experiment Overall Design: This study was used to compare gene expression patterns of LckCre mice, CD4Cre-Ctnnbex3 mice before and after T-cell transformation. 5 independent Lckcre (control), 5 independent CD4Cre-Ctnnbex3 mice and 8 independent mice with lymphomas were used. Thymocytes or tumor masses were collected from Lckcre, CD4Cre-Ctnnbex3 mice. Total RNA isolation and purification followed by synthesis of dscDNA, Biotinylated cRNA and purification of Biotinylated cRNA. Then the hybridization to Affymetrix “Mouse Expression Array 430 Genechips” was done. Data was analysed by dchip.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE16676: Rescue of murine Gata1s mutant M7 leukemic cells by full-length Gata1 GSE16677: Gene expression profiling of Down Syndrome (DS)-AMKL and non-DS AMKL samples GSE16679: Plag1 overexpression cooperates with Evi1 overexpression and Gata1s mutation in leading to M7 leukemia GSE16682: Murine M7 leukemia derived from retroviral insertional mutagenesis of Gata1s fetal progenitors GSE16684: Murine M7 leukemia derived from retroviral insertional mutagenesis of Gata1s fetal progenitors depends on IGF signaling Refer to individual Series
Project description:The goal of this study is to develop a Plag1 signature and determine how its overexpression contributes to leukemogenesis. To study this, we transduced an immortalized (but not transformed) cell line (derived from Gata1s mutant fetal liver progenitor through insertional mutagenesis) by Plag1-expressing retrovirus. This turned a non-transformed cell line to a leukemogenic cell line. To study whether Plag1 overexpression led to deregulation of signaling pathways that may contribute to leukemic transformation, we generated microarray gene expression profiles of this cell line transduced with either Plag1 or the empty vector. We generated gene expression profiles by microarray from stable cell lines transduced with either the empty vector or the Plag1-expressing vector.
Project description:Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling appears to be an obligate event in the development of cancer. The highly related members of the mammalian FoxO transcription factor family, FoxO1, FoxO3, and FoxO4, represent one of several effector arms of PI3K-AKT signaling, prompting genetic analysis of the role of FoxOs in the neoplastic phenotypes linked to PI3K-AKT activation. While germline or somatic deletion of up to five FoxO alleles produced remarkably modest neoplastic phenotypes, broad somatic deletion of all FoxOs engendered a progressive cancer-prone condition characterized by thymic lymphomas and hemangiomas, demonstrating that the mammalian FoxOs are indeed bona fide tumor suppressors. Transcriptome and promoter analyses of differentially affected endothelium identified direct FoxO targets and revealed that FoxO regulation of these targets in vivo is highly context-specific, even in the same cell type. Functional studies validated Sprouty2 and PBX1, among others, as FoxO-regulated mediators of endothelial cell morphogenesis and vascular homeostasis. Mice were engineered with negative control (MxCre- Fk1 L/L Fk2 L/L Afx L/L) and experimental (MxCre+ Fk1 L/L Fk2 L/L Afx L/L) genotypes. RNAs were isolated from Lung endothelial cells (2 negative controls, 2 experimental), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (3 negative controls, 3 experimental) and thymus cells (2 negative controls, 2 experimental), and profiled on Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE37698: Reactivation of ERK signaling causes resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors (SNP array) GSE37699: Aberrant ERK signaling causes resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors Refer to individual Series
Project description:The clinical efficacy of EGFR kinase inhibitors is limited by the development of drug resistance. The irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitor WZ4002 is effective against the most common mechanism of drug resistance mediated by the EGFR T790M mutation. Here we show that in multiple complementary models harboring EGFR T790M, resistance to WZ4002 develops through aberrant activation of ERK signaling caused by either an amplification of MAPK1 or by downregulation of negative regulators of ERK signaling. Inhibition of MEK or ERK restores sensitivity to WZ4002, and the combination of WZ4002 and a MEK inhibitor prevents the emergence of drug resistance. The WZ4002 resistant MAPK1 amplified cells also demonstrate an increase both in EGFR internalization and a decrease in sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy compared to the parental counterparts. Our findings provide insights into mechanisms of drug resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors and highlight rational combination therapies that should be evaluated in clinical trials. Our study identifies ERK signaling as a mediator of resistance to irreversible pyrimidine EGFR inhibitors in EGFR T790M-bearing cancers. We further provide a therapeutic strategy to both treat and prevent the emergence of this resistance mechanism. To generate drug-resistant NCI-H1975 cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of WZ4002 similar to previously described methods. Individual clones from WZ4002-resistant (WZR) cells were isolated and confirmed to be drug resistant. Clone #6, designated as WZR6, was used in this study. For expression analysis, samples were prepared in triplicate from parental NCI-H1975 and NCI-H1975 WZR6 cells.
Project description:Breast cancers with HER2 overexpression are sensitive to drugs targeting the receptor or its kinase activity. HER2-targeting drugs are initially effective against HER2- positive breast cancer, but resistance inevitably occurs. We previously found that nuclear factor kappa B is hyper-activated in the subset of HER-2 positive breast cancer cells and tissue specimens. In this study, we report that constitutively active NF-κB rendered HER2-positive cancer cells resistant to anti-HER2 drugs, and cells selected for Lapatinib resistance up-regulated NF-κB. In both circumstances, cells were anti-apoptotic and grew rapidly as xenografts. Lapatinib-resistant cells were refractory to HER2 and NF-κB inhibitors alone but were sensitive to their combination, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy. A subset of NF-κB-responsive genes was overexpressed in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancers, and patients with this NF-κB signature had poor clinical outcome. Anti-HER2 drug resistance may be a consequence of NF-κB activation, and selection for resistance results in NF-κB activation, suggesting this transcription factor is central to oncogenesis and drug resistance. Clinically, the combined targeting of HER2 and NF-κB suggests a potential treatment paradigm for patients who relapse after anti-HER2 therapy. Patients with these cancers may be treated by simultaneously suppressing HER2 signaling and NF-κB activation. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression differences underlying the characterictic survival differences between the SKR6, SKR6-Vector, SKR6CA, and SKR6LR cell lines, which are defined as follows: SKR6: A clonal derivative of SKBR3 cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich for elevated HER2 levels, SKR6CA: SKR6 cells retrovirally transduced with constitutively active NF-κB relA/p65 (CAp65) and selected with puromycin, SKR6 vector: SKR6 cells transduced with the pQCXIP empty retroviral vector and selected with puromycin, and SKR6LR: SKR6 cells treated with increasing lapatinib concentrations (0.2 to 5 μM) for several months. We sorted SKBR-3 cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enriched for cell population with elevated HER2 expression, which we termed SKR6. The following cell lines were then created from SKR6 cells: SKR6CA: SKR6 cells retrovirally transduced with constitutively active NF-κB relA/p65 (CAp65), SKR6 vector: SKR6 cells transduced with the pQCXIP empty retroviral vector and selected with puromycin, and SKR6LR: SKR6 cells treated with increasing lapatinib concentrations (0.2 to 5 μM) for several months.
Project description:More than two thirds of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor (ER) and depend on estrogen for growth and survival. Therapies targeting ER function including aromatase inhibitors that block the production of estrogens and ER antagonists that alter ER transcriptional activity play a central role in the treatment of ER+ breast cancers of all stages. In contrast to ER- breast cancers, which frequently harbor mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor, ER+ breast cancers are predominantly wild type for p53. Despite harboring wild type p53, ER+ breast cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in the presence of estrogen. Using genome-wide approaches we have addressed the mechanism by which ER antagonizes the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Interestingly both ER agonists such as estradiol and selective ER modulators (SERM) such as tamoxifen promote p53 antagonism. In contrast the full ER antagonist fulvestrant blocks the ability of ER to inhibit p53-mediated cell death. This suggests an improved strategy for the treatment of ER+ breast cancer utilizing antagonists that completely block ER action together with drugs that activate p53-mediated cell death. MCF7 cells were hormone-depleted for 3 days and then treated with 10 uM doxorubicin for 12 hours
Project description:Both diploid RPE-1 and BJ-1 cells were made tetraploid by transient treatment with the cytokinesis inhibitor DCD. Proliferating tetraploids from both BJ-1 and RPE-1 were selected and isolated. The gene expression profiles of the proliferating tetraploid cells were then compared to the diploids from which they originated. Triplicate biological samples were collected and analyed.