Listeria monocytogenes exposure to chlorine dioxide
ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes strain 10403S has been studied extensively for stress response activity toward multiple stressors (acid, osmotic, cold, high temperature, etc.) as well as multiple stress regulons (SigB, CtsR, HrcA, etc.). Here we aimed to determine the transcriptional response of Listeria monocytogenes in early log phase towards the strong oxidative stress imposed by ClO2. The elucidation of such a response allows for further a more completel understanding of the mechanism of inactivation by sanitizers, specifically ClO2. Independent RNA isolations were performed for strain 10403S with and without exposure to ClO2 from cells grown to early log phase. Four biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For each set of hybridizations, RNA from a control sample of Listeria monocytogenes was hybridized with RNA from a culture of L. monocytogenes following exposure to ClO2. Dye swapping was performed for the four replicates to mitigate any concerns of dye bias.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365 was the first strain representative of serotype 4b (lineage I) to be sequenced in 2004, suggesting it could become the model organism for this serotype, which is associated with most human outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide to date. F2365 itself is an outbreak strain involved in the Mexican-style soft cheese outbreak in California in 1985. In this study we show through phenotypic and transcriptomic analysis that L. monocytogenes strain F2365 has reduced ability to respond to stress due to the absence of a functional σB-dependent stress response system. F2365 shows no B-dependent ability to survive acid or oxidative stress nor B-dependent ability to infect Caco-2 epithelial cell in vitro or guinea pigs in vivo. Therefore, there is substantial evidence that F2365 is an atypical strain and is not a suitable representative of outbreak-associated serotype 4b strains. Independent RNA isolations were performed for F2365 and ΔsigB strains from cells grown to early stationary phase. Three biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For each set of hybridizations, RNA from a L. monocytogenes wildtype strain was hybridized with RNA from its isogenic ΔsigB null mutant.
Project description:The stationary phase stress response transcriptome of the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was defined using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with the Illumina Genome Analyzer. Specifically, bacterial transcriptomes were compared between stationary phase cells of L. monocytogenes 10403S and an otherwise isogenic DsigB mutant, which does not express the alternative sigma factor σB, a major regulator of genes contributing to stress response. Keywords: Transcriptome and differential expression analyses a laboratory strain, 10403S and its otherwise isogenic mutant lacking sigB were analyzed. Two replicates of each strain were analyzed for a total of 4 runs
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is well known to have the ability to survive and grow under a variety of stress conditions. The ability to survive and grow under osmotic stress conditions in particular appears to be important for both growth in certain foods and food associated environments as well as for host infection. To characterize the contributions of transcriptional regulators important for stress response and virulence (i.e., Sigma B - σB and PrfA), we initially analyzed three L. monocytogenes parent strains and isogenic mutants ( delta sigB, delta prfA, and delta sigB delta prfA), representing different serotypes and lineages, for their ability to grow in BHI with 11% NaCl (1.9M) at 25°C. No significant differences were observed in terms of growth between the parent strains and their respective mutants lacking prfA (i.e. delta prfA, and delta sigB delta prfA mutant strains). While for all strains, the delta sigB mutant showed a prolonged lag phase as compared to the parent strains, maximum growth rates were only reduced for the delta sigB mutant of lineage I and IV strains. Interestingly, for the serotype 1/2b strain, the delta sigB mutant reached a higher maximum cell density than the parent strain or the delta prfA mutant. Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells invasion assays and hemolytic activity assays showed a significant role for σB in the former and for PrfA in the latter. To initially explore the mechanism that may contribute to the extended lag phase in the delta sigB mutant, microarray was performed to compare transcript levels between the lineage I, serotype 1/2b, parent strain and its isogenic delta sigB mutant in lag phase at 25°C in the presence of 11% NaCl. Microarray data showed significant lower and higher transcript levels for 135 and 173 genes, respectively, in the parent strain as compared to the delta sigB strains. Overall, 51 of the 173 σB up-regulated genes had previously been found among the 249 σB-dependent genes identified in a microarray study conducted in stationary phase cells, indicating that up to 122 genes may be transcribed in a σB-dependent manner during lag phase under salt stress. Notable genes that showed higher transcript levels in the parent strain include inlD (encoding an internalin protein that may be involved in virulence), sigH (encoding an alternative σ factor), glpK (encoding a glycerol kinase) and resD (encoding a two-component response regulator ResD); while, genes that showed lower transcript levels in the parent strain include dnaK (encoding a dihydroxyacetone kinase), groES (encoding a class I heat-shock protein GroES), grpE (encoding a co-chaperone GrpE) and fri (encoding a non-heme iron-binding ferritin). These data showed that although PrfA does not contribute to growth under osmotic stress at 25°C, σB does contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes under high salt conditions. Moreover, the σB-dependent transcriptome of L. monocytogenes lag phase cells under salt stress was characterized and includes previously identified as well as novel σB-dependent genes, including a number of stress response and virulence-associated genes. Independent RNA isolations were performed for one wildtype (lineage I) and ΔsigB strains from cells grown to lag phase. Three biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For each set of hybridizations, RNA from a L. monocytogenes wildtype strain was hybridized with RNA from its isogenic ΔsigB null mutant.
Project description:Independent RNA isolations were performed for four wildtype and ΔsigB strains from cells grown to early stationary phase. Three biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For each set of hybridizations, RNA from a L. monocytogenes wildtype strain was hybridized with RNA from its isogenic ΔsigB null mutant. Four wildtype and ΔsigB isogenic pairs were compared independently.
Project description:These studies were designed to examine the acute Listeria monocytogenes transcriptional response to mammalian (porcine) bile. Triplicate WT Listeria monocytogenes (strain 10403S) were grown to mid-log in BHI at 37 °C. Samples were divided, and either treated or not treated by addition of porcine bile (Sigma, to 1% final) for 30 minutes.
Project description:In this study, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomes of Listeria monocytogenes 10403S::ΔBCHL Prha-sigH and ΔBCHL Prha. RNA-seq was performed on ΔBCHL Prha-sigH and ΔBCHL Prha RNA samples representing three independent biological replicates at log phase in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth under rhamnose induction. Indexed and purified cDNA libraries (6 libraries including 3 replicates for 2 strains) were loaded together onto an independent flow cell without any other samples; sequencing was carried out by running Hiseq 2500 (single-end, 150-bp per read). Reads alignment was carried out using the Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA). Differential expression of genes in different strains was statistically assessed using the BaySeq method. To identify sigH-dependent promoters, a new method of moving sliding windows of 50 nt along the whole genome was used to compare the normalized RNA-seq coverage (NRC) between the two strains. Using the standard whole gene differential expression analysis, significant upregulation of 5 genes in 4 operons was found in the sigH overexpressing strain. While with the sliding windiow analysis, 2 additional σH-dependent promoters were identified. Our results show that three σH-dependent transcritption units that encode competence proteins, including the comEABC , comGABCDEFG and coiA. Transcriptome profiles of L. monocytogenes 10403S::ΔBCHL Prha-sigH and ΔBCHL Prha were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina Hiseq 2500.
Project description:These studies were designed to examine the transcription of Listeria monocytogenes strains 10403S and LO28 during intracellular replication in mammalian macrophages. Duplicate WT Listeria monocytogenes (strains 10403S and LO28) were used to infect mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Bacterial RNA was harvested at 4 hours post-infection.
Project description:The formation of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms contributes to persistent contamination in food processing facilities. A microarray comparison of L. monocytogenes between the transcriptome of the strong biofilm forming strain (Bfms) Scott A and the weak biofilm forming (Bfmw) strain F2365 was conducted to identify genes potentially involved in biofilm formation. Among 951 genes with significant difference in expression between the two strains, a GntR-family response regulator encoding gene (LMOf2365_0414), designated lbrA, was found to be highly expressed in Scott A relative to F2365. A Scott A lbrA-deletion mutant, designated AW3, formed biofilm to a much lesser extent as compared to the parent strain by a rapid attachment assay and scanning electron microscopy. Complementation with lbrA from Scott A restored the Bfms phenotype in the AW3 derivative. A second microarray assessment using the lbrA deletion mutant AW3 and the wild type Scott A revealed a total of 304 genes with expression significantly different between the two strains, indicating the potential regulatory role of LbrA in L. monocytogenes. A cloned copy of Scott A lbrA was unable to confer enhanced biofilm forming potential in F2365, suggesting that additional factors contributed to weak biofilm formation by F2365. Findings from the study may lead to new strategies to modulate biofilm formation. Two comparisons were performed between 1) strong biofilm former Listeria monocytogenes strain ScottA versus weak biofilm former Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365; 2) Listeria monocytogenes ScottA LbrA deletion mutant strain versus Listeria monocytogenes ScottA. Four replicates were loaded for the first comparison and two replicates were loaded for the second comparison.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes SigB and PrfA are pleiotropic regulators of stress response and virulence gene expression, which have been shown to co-regulate genes in L. monocytogenes. We performed whole genome transcriptional profiling in the presence of PrfA* and active SigB, to identify the overlaps between the PrfA virulence regulon and the SigB stress response regulon. In L. monocytogenes, the PrfA* allele contributes to the activation of virulence genes to a level comparable to that of intracellular growing L. monocytogenes. Our results showed that the core PrfA regulon consists of 12 genes previously described as PrfA regulated. Furthermore, we found that the role of SigB during virulence gene regulation changes, dependent on the presence or absence of PrfA*. In the absence of PrfA*, SigB activated the transcription of virulence genes such as inlA and inlB. In the presence of PrfA*, SigB negatively influenced the transcription of genes in the PrfA core regulon. The observed effect of SigB on the transcript level of PrfA regulated genes was shown to reduce the cytotoxic effect of the PrfA* allele in HepG-2 cells. Our results indicate that the SigB-PrfA regulatory network is important for the adjustment of virulence gene transcription to ensure L. monocytogenes success as an intracellular pathogen. Keywords: comparison of gene expression of regulatory mutants The experimental design included 4 mutant strains of L. monocytogenes 10403S (PrfA*, delta prfA, delta prfA delta sigB, and PrfA* delta sigB), of which cDNA generated from 4 biological replicates were hybridized in all possible pairwise comparisons. Data were analyzed using a one way ANOVA in R/MAANOVA to determine significant differences in gene expression among the different strains. A two way ANOVA implemented in R/MAANOVA determined significant differences in gene expression due to the presence or absence of SigB and PrfA.
Project description:The extensively studied intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes, is an ideal model for identifying small-molecule agents for treating bacterial infections. By selecting specific biological targets in L. monocytogenes, which are common to Gram-positive pathogens, we could extrapolate drug discovery information derived from this well-studied bacterium. Attenuating the pathogen’s virulence and stress response attributes without killing it, eliminates selective pressure caused by disruption of essential gene functions (as done by current antibiotics) and reduces the likelihood of developing microbes that are impervious to the effects of antibiotics. To this end, we have assessed multiple libraries of small organic compounds to identify inhibitors of L. monocytogenes σB, the alternative sigma factor common to several clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis. The role of σB as a transcriptional regulator of stress response and virulence makes it an ideal, well conserved target for chemotherapeutic development. Independent RNA isolations were performed for each growth experiment (log phase cells exposed to BHI+0.3M NaCl and BHI+0.3M NaCl + CMPD). Four biological replicates were used in competitive whole-genome microarray experiments. For the hybridizations, RNA from the wildtype parent strain L. monocytogenes 10403S were hybridized to RNA from the wildtype parent strain 10403S treated with CMPD.