Transcriptomics

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Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects


ABSTRACT: Gene expression was measured using microarrays in 8 hour postfertilization embryos, comparing control versus ethanol-treated (2 to 8 hours postfertilization) embryos. This experiment was performed to determine the gene expression changes that occur in response to ethanol treatment as a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell), prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitive to early ethanol exposure. Here, experiments are presented to characterize mechanisms of ethanol toxicity on epiboly and gastrulation. Epiboly mechanisms include blastomere radial intercalation cell movements and yolk cell microtubule cytoskeleton pulling the embryo to the vegetal pole. Both of these processes were disrupted by ethanol exposure. Ethanol effects on cell migration also indicated that cell adhesion was affected, which was confirmed by cell aggregation assays. E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution, which control epiboly and gastrulation, were not affected. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to identify potential causative factors for early development defects, and expression of the cell adhesion molecule protocadherin-18a (pcdh18a), which controls epiboly, was significantly reduced in ethanol-exposed embryos. Injecting pcdh18a synthetic mRNA in ethanol-treated embryos partially rescued epiboly cell movements, including enveloping layer cell shape changes. Together, data show that epiboly and gastrulation defects induced by ethanol are multifactorial, and include yolk cell (extraembryonic tissue) microtubule cytoskeleton disruption and blastomere adhesion defects, in part caused by reduced pcdh18a expression. Control vs. ethanol-treated zebrafish embryos that were treated from 2 to 8 hours postfertilization. Total RNA from control and ethanol-treated embryos were harvested at 8 hours postfertilization.

ORGANISM(S): Danio rerio  

SUBMITTER: Swapnalee Sarmah   Evan S Groninger  James A Marrs  Osato Ogbeifun  Julia Arciero  Bryce B Buente  Howard J Edenberg  Sonya Gilbert  Jeanette N McClintick  Courtney L Curtis  Liliana Patino  David J Holdgrafer  Opeyemi C Olorungbounmi  Pooja Muralidharan  Ryan Lucas 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-48380 | ArrayExpress | 2014-07-09

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): GSE48380PRJNA209877

REPOSITORIES: GEO, ArrayExpress

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Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects.

Sarmah Swapnalee S   Muralidharan Pooja P   Curtis Courtney L CL   McClintick Jeanette N JN   Buente Bryce B BB   Holdgrafer David J DJ   Ogbeifun Osato O   Olorungbounmi Opeyemi C OC   Patino Liliana L   Lucas Ryan R   Gilbert Sonya S   Groninger Evan S ES   Arciero Julia J   Edenberg Howard J HJ   Marrs James A JA  

Biology open 20130814 10


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell), prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitiv  ...[more]

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