Identification of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 as a key instructive factor for human epidermal Langerhans cell differentiation and proliferation
ABSTRACT: Langerhans dendritic cells represent abundantly occuring and evolutionary highly conserved DCs specifically located in the stratified epithelial tissues. LCs are unique among DC family members in that they express epithelial-type adhesion molecules, allowing them to form a tight three-dimensional network in basal and suprabasal epidermal keratinocyte layers and developmentally dependent on the cytokine TGF-β1. In the present study, we identified BMP-7 as another key factor inducing LC differnetiation. Here we have performed comparative analysis of highly purified CD207+/CD1a+ in vitro generated Langerhans cells in the presence of BMP-7 and TGF-β1. We have identified that both BMP-7-LCs and TGF-β1-LCs are closely related to each other. CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from freshly obtained cord blood and cultured in the presence of GM-CSF, SCF, Flt3L, TNFa and either TGF-β1 or BMP-7 for 7 days to get immature LCs. RNA was isolated from these in vitro genetared LCs.
Project description:miRNA profiling of CD34+ derived, in vitro-generated Langerhans cells (LCs) and interstitial-type dendritic cells (intDCs). Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) form a network of dendritic cells (DCs) in basal/suprabasal layers of the skin and are characterized by a unique phenotype (CD207+ CD1abright CD324+ CD11b-). Due to their specific location at body surfaces, LCs are constantly exposed to environmental stimuli. Conversely, interstitial-type DCs (intDCs) are located in adjacent tissues and can be discriminated from LCs phenotypically (CD207- CD1adim CD324- CD11b+). These DCs constitute a second line of defense against pathogens that have crossed the epithelial barrier. During development both DC subsets originally arise from myeloid progenitor cells via monocyte-committed intermediates in response to specific microenvironmental signals. Additionally certain pools of DCs can be replenished by tissue resident cells or monocytes in response to specific microenvironmental signals (2, 4, 5). In vitro generated GM-CSF/IL-4-dependent DCs derived either from CD14+ monocytes or via CD14+CD11b+ monocyte intermediates from CD34+ progenitor cells share many characteristics with intDCs in vivo. On the other hand, LCs generated from CD34+ cells under serum-free TGF-beta1-dependent conditions phenotypically resemble epidermal-resident LCs. Since these two DC subsets are of considerable interest for clinical cell therapy studies, an improved understanding of their development and function is of substantial relevance. To identify differentially expressed miRNAs in DC subsets, we performed a miRNA screen. Therefore, we generated LCs or intDCs from human CD34+ cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells as described. For intDCs, CD34+ cells (1 x 104 to 2 x 104/ml per well) were cultured in 24-well tissue culture plates in serum free CellGro® DC medium (CellGenix, Freiburg, Germany) supplemented with GM-CSF (100 ng/ml), SCF (20 ng/ml), FL (50 ng/ml) and TNFalpha (2.5 ng/ml) for 3-5 days and subsequently with GM-CSF (100 ng/ml) and IL-4 (2.5 ng/ml) for 4-5 days. For LCs, CD34+ cells (1 x 104 to 2 x 104/ml per well) were cultured in 24-well tissue culture plates in serum free CellGro® DC medium (CellGenix, Freiburg, Germany) supplemented with GM-CSF (100 ng/ml), SCF (20 ng/ml), FL (50 ng/ml), TNFalpha (2.5 ng/ml) and TGF-beta1 (0.5 ng/ml). The well-established immunophenotype of LCs (CD1ahi CD11b- CD207+ CD324+) and intDCs (CD1a+ CD11b+ CD207- CD324-) was confirmed by FACS. These two DC subsets were purified and submitted to differential miRNA profiling. Two conditioned experiment LCs vs. intDCs. Biological replicates: 3 LCs, 3 intDCs, independently differentiated, harvested and purified. 3 replicates each were pooled and hybridized on one array. Supplementary files linked below.
Project description:The human hepatic stellate cell line LX2 was treated with 8 Gy X-ray irradiation and/or 2ng/ml recombinant human TGF-β1. The iTRAQ-based high throughput quantitative proteomic approach was used to obtain a comprehensive view of the protein ensembles affected by irradiation and/or TGF-β1 treatment on LX2. This study provides clues for further investigation of the mechanisms behind radiation-induced liver fibrosis.
Project description:Inflammation features in diverse central nervous system disorders such as stroke, trauma, neurodegeneration, infection and autoimmunity. To better understand how inflammatory mediators may alter astrocyte functions, we examined the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) on purified, murine, primary cortical astrocyte cultures. We used microarrays to conduct whole genome expression profiling, and measured calcium signaling, which is implicated in mediating dynamic astrocyte functions. Combinatorial exposure to TGF-β1, LPS and IFNγ significantly modulated astrocyte expression of over 6,800 genes and resulted in both additive and synergistic changes compared with individual stimuli alone. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that combinatorial treatment significantly and markedly up regulated molecular networks and pathways associated with immune signaling and with regulation of cell compromise, death, growth and proliferation. These findings provide databases of astrocyte transcriptome changes elicited by the inflammatory stimuli, TGF-β1, LPS and IFNγ alone and in combination, and show that these stimuli up regulate astrocyte molecular networks associated with immune- and injury-related functions and significantly alter astrocyte calcium signaling evoked by multiple GPCR. We used microarrays to examine the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) on purified, murine, primary cortical astrocyte cultures.
Project description:These data show that the genes that distinguish myofibroblasts from fibroblasts are myriad, and that some genes not traditionally associated with myofibroblast differentiation may serve as novel therapeutic targets for fibrosing disorders. Gene expression levels were assessed from total RNA on the Affymetrix U219 microarray. Here, we use transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which has recently been shown to reverse myofibroblast differentiation, to investigate the transcriptomic changes that occur during TGF-β1-induced differentiation and PGE2-induced de-differentiation of myofibroblasts.
Project description:This study aimed to establish an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) model with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line, M-BE, and to identify an EMT signature gene set. The TGF-β1-induced M-BE cells got spindle-shaped fibroblast-like morphology and lost the cell-cell contact, with down-regulated expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulated expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and Vimentin. Examined by microarray, there were 2628 genes identified as significant EMT-related, including 1490 up-regulated genes (FC > 2, fdr < 0.01) and 1138 down-regulated genes (FC < 0.5, fdr < 0.01) in TGF-β1-induced M-BE cells. M-BE cells were treated with human recombinant TGF-β1 (5ng/ml) for six days. M-BE cells cultured without TGF-β1 were considered the controls. Three replicates of each were carried out for this investigation. Agilent 4x44K Human Whole Genome expression microarray (G4112F) analysis was applied to the RNA samples of the TGF-β1-treated M-BE cells and the controls.
Project description:CD4+ T cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17, are critical for host defense and autoimmunity1-4. Crucial for T helper17 (Th17) cells in vivo5,6, IL-23 has been thought to be incapable of driving initial differentiation. Rather, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been argued to be the factors responsible for initiating specification7-10. Herein, we show that Th17 differentiation occurs in the absence of TGF-β signaling. Neither IL-6 nor IL-23 alone efficiently generated Th17 cells; however, these cytokines in combination with IL-1β effectively induced IL-17 production in naïve precursors, independently of TGF-β. Epigenetic modification of the Il17a/Il17f and Rorc promoters proceeded without TGF-β1, allowing the generation of cells that co-expressed Rorγt and T-bet. T-bet+Rorγt+ Th17 cells are generated in vivo during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), and adoptively transferred Th17 cells generated with IL-23 in the absence of TGF-β1 were more pathogenic in this experimental disease. These data suggest a new model for Th17 differentiation. Consistent with genetic data linking the IL23R with autoimmunity, our findings re-emphasize the role of IL-23 and therefore have important implications for the development of new therapies. Mouse T helper 17 cell differentiation with or without TGFB
Project description:PHF8 exerts distinct functions in different types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying its specific functions in each case remain obscure. To establish whether overexpression of PHF8 regulates the TGF-β induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we treated MCF10A-Mock (control) and MCF10A-PHF8wt (overexpressing wild-type PHF8) cells with TGF-β1 for 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours and performed RNA-seq in biological duplicates. Our data indicated that EMT gene signatures were significantly enriched in MCF10A-PHF8 cells with TGF-β1 treatment at all time points, strongly indicating that PHF8 overexpression induces a sustained EMT signaling program. mRNA profiles of MCF10A-Mock (control) and MCF10A-PHF8 with TGF-β1 treatment for 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours were generated by RNA-seq, in duplicate, using HiSeq2500 instrument.
Project description:Members of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes, which catalyze the reduction of O2 to reactive oxygen species, have increased in number during eukaryotic evolution. Seven isoforms of the NOX gene family have been identified in mammals; however, specific roles of NOX enzymes in mammalian physiology and pathophysiology have not been fully elucidated. The best established physiological role of NOX enzymes is in host defense against pathogen invasion in diverse species, including plants. The prototypical member of this family, NOX-2 (gp91phox), is expressed in phagocytic cells and mediates microbicidal activities. Here we report a role for the NOX4 isoform in tissue repair functions of myofibroblasts and fibrogenesis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces NOX-4 expression in lung mesenchymal cells by a SMAD-3–dependent mechanism. NOX-4–dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is required for TGF-β1–induced myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) production and contractility. NOX-4 is upregulated in lungs of mice subjected to noninfectious injury and in cases of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Genetic or pharmacologic targeting of NOX-4 abrogates fibrogenesis in two murine models of lung injury. These studies support a function for NOX4 in tissue fibrogenesis and provide proof of concept for therapeutic targeting of NOX-4 in recalcitrant fibrotic disorders. Experiment Overall Design: mRNA expression of genes in human fetal lung mesenchymal cells (IMR-90) treated with or without TGF-β1, as analyzed by Affymetrix (U133A) microarrays. Control (C0, C2, C3) = cells without TGF-β1 treatment (n=3). Experimental (T0, T5, T7) = cells treated with TGF-β1 (2ng/ml) (n=3). mRNA was collected for all 6 samples for 48 hours post treatment.
Project description:Fibrotic diseases have significant health impact and have been associated with differentiation of the resident fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. In particular, stiffened extracellular matrix and TGF-β1 in fibrotic lesions have been shown to promote pathogenic myofibroblast activation and progression of fibrosis in various tissues. To better understand the roles of mechanical and chemical cues on myofibroblast differentiation and how they may crosstalk, we cultured primary valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from porcine aortic valves and studied how traditional TCPS culture, which presents a non-physiologically stiff environment, and TGF-β1 affect native VIC phenotypes. We carried out gene expression profiling using porcine genome microarrays from Affymetrix and found that traditional TCPS culture induces major changes in gene expression of native VICs, rendering these cells more activated and similar to cells treated with TGF-β1. We also monitored time-dependent effects induced by TGF-β1 by examining gene expression changes induced by TGF-β1 at 8 hours and 24 hours. Porcine aortic VICs were isolated and cultured with or without TGF-β1 treatment for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We included 3 biological replicates for each condition. P0 VICs were freshly isolated cells which had not been cultured. P2 VICs were cells that had been passaged 2 times and cultured on plastic plates in low serum media. Some of the P2 VICs were treated with TGF-β1 at 5ng/ml for 8 hours or 24 hours. All the control and TGF-β1-treated conditions were collected at the same time on day 3 of culture.