Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition attenuates insterstitial injury in a murine model of chronic glomerulonephritis
ABSTRACT: Evolution of glomerulonephritis (GN) to tubulointerstitial disease is a universal antecedent to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is also evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may attenuate the development of CKD in some forms of glomerulonephritis. We tested the role of ACE inhibition in a model of GN in which complement-dependent tubulointerstitial disease develops. GN was induced in C57BL/6 mice with intraperitoneal injections of horse spleen apoferritin (HSA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an adjuvant. Four groups of six animals were studied: saline-injected control mice treated with captopril or water, and GN mice treated with captopril or water. GN developed in all HSA-treated animals. In those receiving captopril, however, proteinuria (albumin/creatinine ratio) was significantly reduced by captopril treatment. Array screening was used to examined the expression of collagen-related genes and determine if these effects could be mediated by regulation of collagen genes. Six genes were identified for further analysis by quantitative RT-PCR. This model demonstrates that tubulointerstitial disease can be attenuated by ACE inhibition, with clinical, histologic, and gene expression measures. All protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at SUNY Upstate Medical University. We employed four groups of six mice each: saline-injected control mice with and without captopril, and GN with and without captopril. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Glomerulonephritis (GN) was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10 mg of apoferritin from horse spleen (HSA, Sigma, St. Louis, MO) five days per week, with i.p. injection of 100 micrograms lipopolysaccharide (LPS, from Salmonella minnesota; EMD Biosciences, La Jolla, CA), as adjuvant, three times per week. Control animals received equal volumes of 0.15 M NaCl by i.p. injection. Injections were begun when the mice were approximately eight weeks of age and were continued for six weeks. Captopril, at 100 mg/kg/day was given in the drinking water. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized and kidneys were removed for RNA purification and analysis.
Project description:Extracellular senile plaques of amyloid beta (Abeta) are a pathological hallmark in brain of patients with Alzheimer`s Disease (AD). Abeta is generated by the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Concomitant to Abeta load, AD brain is characterized by an increase in protein level and activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors are a widely used class of drugs with established benefits for patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the role of ACE and ACE inhibition in the development of Abeta plaques and the process of AD-related neurodegeneration is not clear since ACE was reported to degrade Abeta. To investigate the effect of ACE inhibition on AD-related pathomechanisms, we used Tg2576 mice with neuron-specific expression of APPSwe as AD model. From 12 months of age, substantial Abeta plaque load accumulates in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice as a brain region, which is highly vulnerable to AD-related neurodegeneration. The effect of central ACE inhibition was studied by treatment of 12 month-old Tg2576 mice for six months with the brain penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril. At an age of 18 months, hippocampal gene expression profiling was performed of captopril-treated Tg2576 mice relative to untreated 18 month-old Tg2576 controls with high Abeta plaque load. As an additional control, we used 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load. Whole genome microarray gene expression profiling revealed gene expression changes induced by the brain-penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril, which could reflect the neuro-regenerative potential of central ACE inhibition. Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of hippocampi isolated from aged, 18 month-old Tg2576 (APPSwe-transgenic) AD mice with high Abeta plaque load relative to age-matched Tg2576 mice, which were treated for 6 months with the centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril. Another study group consisted of 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load. In total, three study groups were analyzed, i.e. (i) 18 month-old untreated Tg2576 mice with high Abeta plaque load, (ii) age-matched Tg2576 mice treated for 6 months with the brain-penetrating ACE inhibitor captopril (20 mg/kg body weight/day in drinking water), and (iii) untreated 12 month-old Tg2576 mice with low Abeta plaque load reflecting the time point when captopril treatment was initiated. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total hippocampal RNA of four mice was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:Microarray gene expression profiling of aorta genes of APOE-deficient mice receiving atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Hypercholesterolemic APOE-deficient mice were used as a standard model of atherosclerosis to study gene expression changes during atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Microarray analysis was performed of whole aortas isolated from captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice relative to untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, and nontransgenic control mice. Microarray gene expression profiling revealed that captopril-mediated atherosclerosis prevention involved inhibition of aorta-infiltrating immune cells such as pro-atherogenic T lymphocytes and macrophages. Experiment Overall Design: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of whole aortas isolated from APOE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis relative to captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice, and nontransgenic control mice. Three study groups were analyzed, i.e. 8-months-old untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, age-matched APOE-deficient mice treated for 7 months with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril (20 mg/kg in drinking water), and nontransgenic control C57BL/6J mice. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total RNA of three aortas was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:In many kidney diseases, the original insult primarily involves the glomerulus and may then pass onto the tubulointerstitium. Several hypotheses link glomerular disease to tubular injury; perhaps the foremost hypothesis involves chronic tubular hypoxia. The reported effects of hypoxia and consecutive stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), however, are controversial. Hypoxia induces interstitial fibrosis but also has beneficial effects on renal disease progression when HIF is activated pharmacologically. To analyze the impact of HIF on tubulointerstitial disease development in primary glomerular disease, transgenic von Hippel Lindau (VHL)-knockout mice were generated and null expression was induced before the onset of autoimmune IgG-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (GN). Tubular VHL knockout and, thus, local HIF-? stabilization increased renal production of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor growth factor-?(1), and platelet-derived growth factor-B, resulting in augmented formation of capillaries and interstitial matrix, and conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Within the glomerular disease, VHL knockout reduced the glomerular damage and attenuated tubulointerstitial injury. Likewise, proteinuria, plasma urea concentration, and tubulointerstitial matrix were decreased in VHL knockout with GN. These findings shown that tubular HIF-? stabilization in glomerular disease is beneficial for disease outcome. In comparison with VHL knockout alone, GN is a much stronger activator of fibrosis such that stimuli other than hypoxia may be considered important for renal disease progression.
Project description:Microarray gene expression profiling of aorta genes of APOE-deficient mice receiving atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Hypercholesterolemic APOE-deficient mice were used as a standard model of atherosclerosis to study gene expression changes during atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Microarray analysis was performed of whole aortas isolated from captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice relative to untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, and nontransgenic control mice. Microarray gene expression profiling revealed that captopril-mediated atherosclerosis prevention involved inhibition of aorta-infiltrating immune cells such as pro-atherogenic T lymphocytes and macrophages. Overall design: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of whole aortas isolated from APOE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis relative to captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice, and nontransgenic control mice. Three study groups were analyzed, i.e. 8-months-old untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, age-matched APOE-deficient mice treated for 7 months with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril (20 mg/kg in drinking water), and nontransgenic control C57BL/6J mice. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total RNA of three aortas was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:In this study, we employed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the Smad3-dependent lncRNAs related to renal inflammation and fibrosis in Smad3 knockout (KO) mouse models of unilateral ureteral obstructive nephropathy (UUO) and immunologically-induced anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). 12 kidney tissue samples of Smad3 KO/WT mice from normal control, UUO at day 5 or anti-GBM GN at day 10 models (n=2 in each group) for whole transcriptome RNA-sequencing.
Project description:Inflammation is regulated by endogenous mechanisms, including anti-inflammatory cytokines, adenosine, and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit (α7nAChR). We investigated the role of α7nAChR in protection against the progression of tissue injury in a model of severe, macrophage-mediated, cytokine-dependent anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis (GN), in α7nAChR-deficient (α7(-/-)) mice . At d 7 after the injection of anti-GBM antibody, kidneys from α7(-/-) mice displayed severe glomeruli (P < 0.0001) and tubulointerstitial lesions (P < 0.001) compared to kidneys from WT mice. An important finding was the presence of severe glomerulosclerosis in α7(-/-) mice in this early phase of the disease. Kidneys of α7(-/-) mice showed greater accumulation of inflammatory cells and higher expression of chemokines and cytokines than did those of WT mice. In addition, in α7(-/-) fibrotic kidneys, the expression of fibrin, collagen, TGF-β, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 increased, and the expression of TIMP3 declined. The increase in counterregulatory responses to inflammation in α7(-/-) nephritic kidneys did not compensate for the lack of α7nAChR. These findings indicate that α7nAChR plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response in anti-GBM GN and that disruption of the endogenous protective α7nAChR amplifies inflammation to accelerate kidney damage and fibrosis.
Project description:Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is associated with arrhythmias. We investigated the effects of RAS inhibition in cardiac-specific angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) overexpression (ACE 8/8) mice, which exhibit proclivity to ventricular tachycardia (VT) and sudden death because of reduced connexin43 (Cx43). ACE 8/8 mice were treated with an ACE inhibitor (captopril) or an angiotensin receptor type-1 blocker (losartan). Subsequently, electrophysiological studies were performed, and the hearts were extracted for Cx43 quantification using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescent dye spread method, and sodium current quantification using whole cell patch clamping. VT was induced in 12.5% of captopril-treated ACE 8/8 and in 28.6% of losartan-treated mice compared to 87.5% of untreated mice (P?<?0.01). Losartan and captopril treatment increased total Cx43 2.4-fold (P?=?0.01) and the Cx43 phosphorylation ratio 2.3-fold (P?=?0.005). Treatment was associated with a recovery of gap junctional conductance. Survival in treated mice improved to 0.78 at 10 weeks (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.92), compared to the expected survival of less than 0.50. In a model of RAS activation, arrhythmic risk was correlated with reduced Cx43 amount and phosphorylation. RAS inhibition resulted in increased total and phosphorylated Cx43, decreased VT inducibility, and improved survival.
Project description:We analyzed the impact of the genetic background during experimental passive non-accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) (an equivalent to nephrotoxic nephritis) in two different mouse genetic backgrounds (C57BL6/J vs 129S2svPAS/crl). Glomerular extracts have been made at an early time point (e.g day 4 of the induction of the glomerulonephritis). RNA have been extracted following standard procedures. Overall design: 3 mice per group have been compared. 3 Control mice from each background. And 3 anti-GBM-GN challenged mice from each Genetic background, corresponding to 12 samples in total.
Project description:Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a significant pathological feature in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental evidence indicates that inhibition of brain ROS could be beneficial in slowing the neurodegenerative process triggered by amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregates. The angiotensin II AT1 receptor is a significant source of brain ROS, and AD patients have an increased brain angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) level, which could account for an excessive angiotensin-dependent AT1-induced ROS generation. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of ACE inhibition on signs of neurodegeneration of aged Tg2576 mice as a transgenic animal model of AD. Whole genome microarray gene expression profiling and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the centrally active ACE inhibitor captopril normalized the excessive hippocampal ACE activity of AD mice. Concomitantly, the development of signs of neurodegeneration was retarded by six months of captopril treatment. The neuroprotective profile triggered by captopril was accompanied by reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and decreased hippocampal ROS, which is known to enhance Abeta generation by increased activation of beta- and gamma-secretases. Taken together, our data present strong evidence that ACE inhibition with a widely used cardiovascular drug could interfere with Abeta-dependent neurodegeneration.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multi-organ damage. Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) is one of the most common manifestations of human SLE, often causing depression. Interferon-? (IFN?) is a central mediator in disease pathogenesis. Administration of IFN? to patients with chronic viral infections or cancers causes depressive symptoms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is part of the kallikrein-kinin/renin-angiotensin (KKS/RAS) system that regulates many physiological processes, including inflammation, and brain functions. It is known that ACE degrades bradykinin (BK) into inactive peptides. We have previously shown in an in vitro model of mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that captopril (a centrally acting ACE inhibitor-ACEi) suppressed Type I IFN responsive gene (IRG) expression. In this report, we used the MRL/lpr lupus-prone mouse model, an established model to study NPSLE, to determine the in vivo effects of captopril on Type I IFN and associated immune responses in the periphery and brain and effects on behavior. Administering captopril to MRL/lpr mice decreased expression of IRGs in brain, spleen and kidney, decreased circulating and tissue IFN? levels, decreased microglial activation (IBA-1 expression) and reduced depressive-like behavior. Serotonin levels that are decreased in depression were increased by captopril treatment. Captopril also reduced autoantibody levels in plasma and immune complex deposition in kidney and brain. Thus, ACEi's may have potential for therapeutic use for systemic and NPSLE.